We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Located on Lake Champlain in northeastern New York, Fort Ticonderoga served as a key point of access to both Canada and the Hudson River Valley during the French and Indian War. On May 10, 1775, Benedict Arnold joined Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys of Vermont in a dawn attack on the fort, surprising and capturing the sleeping British garrison. Although it was a small-scale conflict, the Battle of Fort Ticonderoga was the first American victory of the Revolutionary War, and would give the Continental Army much-needed artillery to be used in future battles.
Background of Fort Ticonderoga
In 1755, French settlers in North America began building a military fortification, Fort Carillon, on the western shore of Lake Champlain. Because of its location, which offered access to both Canada and the Hudson River Valley, the fort saw more fighting during the French and Indian War than any other post. In July 1758, British forces unsuccessfully attacked the fort, suffering heavy casualties. Under the command of General Jeffrey Amherst, the British returned the following year and were able to defeat the French, who destroyed much of Fort Carillon and withdrew to Canada.
With the fort now under their control, the British renamed it Fort Ticonderoga. By April 1775, when hostilities broke out between colonial militiamen and British soldiers at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts, the British garrison at Fort Ticonderoga numbered barely 50 men.
READ MORE: American Revolution: Causes and Timeline
A Surprise Attack
Fort Ticonderoga was located directly across Lake Champlain from Vermont, where the Green Mountain Boys–a militia organized in 1770 to defend the property rights of local landowners–joined the revolutionary effort without hesitation. On the morning of May 10, 1775, fewer than a hundred of these militiamen, under the joint command of their leader, Ethan Allen, and Benedict Arnold, crossed Lake Champlain at dawn, surprising and capturing the still-sleeping British garrison at Fort Ticonderoga.
As the first rebel victory of the Revolutionary War, the Battle of Fort Ticonderoga served as a morale booster and provided key artillery for the Continental Army in that first year of war. Cannons captured at Fort Ticonderoga would be used during the successful Siege of Boston the following spring. Because of its location, the fort would also serve as a staging ground for Continental troops before their planned invasion of British-held territory in Canada.
The Revolution & Beyond
Also in 1776, a fleet of small warships under the command of Benedict Arnold fought the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain. In July 1777, Fort Ticonderoga changed hands again, after British General John Burgoyne managed to place a cannon on Mount Defiance and force Ticonderoga’s garrison under General Arthur St. Clair to evacuate. The Redcoats finally abandoned the fort permanently that November, following Burgoyne’s surrender at Saratoga.
In the years following the Revolutionary War, no military regiment would occupy Fort Ticonderoga, though at times the fort provided shelter for scouting parties or raiding detachments. In 1816, a New York merchant named William F. Pell began leasing the grounds of the fort. He bought the property in 1820, building a summer home there known as The Pavilion, which in 1840 was converted into a hotel to house a growing numbers of tourists in the area. In 1908, Stephen Pell began a restoration of Fort Ticonderoga; the fort opened to the public as a tourist attraction the following year.
Why did Ethan Allen capture Fort Ticonderoga?
Ethan Allen fought in the French and Indian War and the American Revolution. With Benedict Arnold, he led the Green Mountain Boys to capture Fort Ticonderoga from the British in 1775. After the war, he petitioned to have Vermont become a state. When that failed, he tried to have Vermont become part of Canada.
Additionally, where was the capture of Fort Ticonderoga? Fort Ticonderoga Ticonderoga
In this way, what impact did the capture of Fort Ticonderoga have on the American soldiers?
The capture of fort of Ticonderoga had a major and positive impact on the American soldiers. It was the first victory of rebels in American Revolution which served as a moral booster for them. It provided them the control of cannons which were used in the subsequent rebel attacks and sieges.
Who won the Battle of Ticonderoga in 1777?
Lieutenant General John Burgoyne's 8,000-man army occupied high ground above the fort, and nearly surrounded the defenses. These movements precipitated the occupying Continental Army, an under-strength force of 3,000 under the command of General Arthur St.
Key Facts & Information
- Ticonderoga comes from an Iroquois word meaning “where waters meet” or “between two waters”.
- Fort Ticonderoga can be found on the Western Shore of Lake Champlain. It offered access to Canada and the Hudson River. The fort’s location was an important route between the Colonies and the northern provinces.
- Fort Ticonderoga was first built in 1756 by French settlers after their defeat at the 1755 Battle of Lake George. They named it Fort Carillon.
- It was built under the instruction of Marquis de Vaudreuil, Governor-General of New France. The fort was a 7-foot high, 14-foot thick wall based on an old-star-shaped design by the famed French engineer Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban.
DURING THE SEVEN YEARS WAR
- Despite the advantage of the fort’s geometrical shape, its weakness was its location and size. Several hills had a direct view of the fort, and it could only hold 400 garrison troops.
- On July 8, 1758, British forces led by Maj. Gen. James Abercrombie tried to attack the fort with over 15,000 men. He mistakenly ordered a frontal assault against the French entrenchment and suffered a heavy loss.
- The following year on July 26 and 27, British Brig. Gen. Jeffrey Amherst returned with 11,000 men and defeated the French garrison with only 400 men. The British victory continued as Fort Carillon’s capture enabled them to conquer Canada and end the Seven Years War.
- The British forces named the newly captured fort Fort Ticonderoga and it became a minor garrison because of its size. Eventually, it fell into disrepair.
DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
- When the growing tension between the colonial militiamen and British Soldiers broke out in Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts, in 1775, Fort Ticonderoga ended up having less than 50 men.
- Benedict Arnold, a budding military man at the time, had heard that Fort Ticonderoga, which was not heavily guarded, stored many British cannons and artilleries.
- He convinced the Massachusetts Committee of Safety in Cambridge to lead a campaign to seize Fort Ticonderoga. They allowed him, but he could bring only 400 men from Massachusetts.
- Ethan Allen, part of the Litchfield County militia during the Seven Years’ War, acquired land in the New Hampshire Grants. As the need to defend the New Hampshire Grants arose, he founded the Green Mountain Boys and was assigned to lead them, calling their leader colonel commandant.
- The group aimed to protect their land against the colonial New Yorkers trying to claim it in the Green Mountains. The group physically intimidated the New Yorkers into leaving the area.
- Before the American Revolution, Allen and his group proposed political independence for their district. It later changed to independence from Britain.
- The Green Mountain Boys were organized directly across Lake Champlain from Vermont.
- Allen received a message from an irregular Connecticut militia in late April requesting his help to capture Fort Ticonderoga. Knowing the significance of the fort’s location, he gathered 60 men in Massachusetts and Connecticut.
- Benedict Arnold traveled to Vermont on his way to Fort Ticonderoga with his 400 men on May 1775. When they reached Hand’s Cove, two miles below Fort Ticonderoga, they met Allen’s group, who were also ready for the siege.
- Arnold, assuming that he would lead the siege with the Green Mountain Boys, handed a copy of his commission from the Massachusetts Committee of Safety to their leader. Allen’s boys refused to accept Arnold as their leader, forcing the latter to step down and be second in command.
- On May 10, 1775, Allan and Arnold, with their 80 men, silently rowed across Lake Champlain. They managed to enter the fort without firing, and even caught the sleeping guards by surprise. The group made their way inside, seeing more British militia sleeping who surrendered without much of a fight, including the fort’s commandant, Captain William Delaplace.
- Without having to fire anyone and no amount of blood spilled, the siege was the first significant victory for the Thirteen Colonies.
- With Fort Ticonderoga’s capture, the Americans secured the gateway to Canada and used it as a base to take the nearby British fort of Crown Point.
- The Colonists also took the British artilleries, which helped solve one of the challenges in their preparation for the revolutionary war.
- The Red Coats relinquished 78 cannons, six mortars, three howitzers, and a massive amount of ammunition to the Americans. ordered American Colonel Henry Knox to transport many of the captured guns to Boston. They used them to siege the town and forced the British’s evacuation from Boston in March 1776.
THE RETURN OF THE BRITISH
- On July 1777, British General John Burgoyne planned an attack on Fort Ticonderoga. Knowing the fort’s weakness, the general captured Mt. Defiance and placed artillery aiming at the fortification.
- American General Arthur St. Clair prepared for the attack and ordering them to defend the fort as long as possible.
- Knowing that the British would attack from the hills surrounding their garrison, he ordered his men to abandon the fort on July 6, 1777, risking his reputation.
- However, in November, the Redcoats permanently abandoned the Fort after Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga on October 17. They destroyed much of their artillery and the fortification, making it worthless to the Americans.
- After the Revolutionary War, no military regiment occupied Fort Ticonderoga. The fort served as a temporary shelter for scouting parties or raiding detachments. It was so inactive that George Washington visited the ruins in 1783 while waiting for the official declaration of peace and the end of the Revolutionary War.
- In 1908, a history enthusiast named Stephen Pell restored Fort Ticonderoga, turning it into a tourist attraction.
Fort Ticonderoga Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Fort Ticonderoga across 24 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Fort Ticonderoga worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Fort Ticonderoga which was one of the most significant locations during the French-Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. It was once dubbed the “Key to a Continent”. It also became an essential part of American history when Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold led its capture from the British forces and took their ammunition and artillery, which immensely helped Americans during the Revolutionary War.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Fort Ticonderoga Facts
- Two Leaders
- Dates to Remember
- Ticonderoga’s Personalities
- Ticonderoga Fast Facts
- Three Words
- Strengths and Weaknesses
- Multiple Attacks
- Ticonderoga Inquiry
- Star Fortifications
- A Modern Fort
Link/cite this page
If you reference any of the content on this page on your own website, please use the code below to cite this page as the original source.
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.
Ⓘ Colonial forts in Vermont ..
Discover the Beauty & Experience the History of America at Fort Ticonderoga in with a sweeping vista of Lake Champlain and Vermonts Green Mountains. Why a free Vermont was the first to distrust Benedict Arnold We Are. Find all Colonial style homes for sale in Southern Vermont, including of the line chefs kitchen with a Fortress Crawford wood burning stove converted to gas,. 100 Colonial forts ideas fort, seven years war, colonial Pinterest. Ethan Allen is best known for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga as the leader of the efforts to make Vermont independent from the British Empire, other colonies,.
Vermont History and Culture iExplore.
Its stories tell of early colonial settlement, industrial development, the coming of the Fort Dummer, near the present Brattleboro, was established in 1724 by. BookMarks: The American Revolution and the creation of Vermont. Breathtaking display of the magnificent fort. and interpretation of the ruins of two fortifications from the colonial wars between the British and French. Historic Forts and Sites Visit Maine. Fort Ticonderoga was a small, dilapidated British fort maintained by the British route between the colonies and Englands Northern provinces today Canada. the fort that was led by Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys from Vermont.
Fort Ticonderoga Reading Comprehension Mr. Nussbaum.
Walter Harrington, Fort Dummer: An Archaeological Investigation of the First Permanent English Settlement in Vermont. New England These coins were unpopular in Ireland, so most of them were sent to the American colonies. This is a. Fort Dummer State Park Vermont State Parks. Visitors from New Hampshire and Vermont are currently exempt. Experience Maines colonial history at the Fort Western Living History Museum in Augusta. The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga Leaders, Facts & Significance. NW Termini: Crown Point Fort and Ft. Ticonderoga, both on the N.Y. side of Lake. Champlain Point Road was of great importance in the early history of Vermont. in the 17 60 campaign, passed colonial troops with supplies, muni.
History of the Fort at No. 4.
At the confluence of Lake Champlain and Lake George, Fort Ticonderoga from present day Vermont and captured the fort in a swift, late night surprise attack. History Southern Vermont Deerfield Valley Chamber of Commerce. They hoped to capture Fort Duquesne now Pittsburgh, but when it proved too The costs of the British army protecting the colonies grew, as did colonialists. Vernon History Vernon, Vermont Gateway to the Green Mountains. List of colonial forts, frontier forts, trading posts, named camps, redoubts, reservations, general hospitals, national cemeteries, etc., established or erected in the. Vermont State History for Kids Ducksters. Pierre Lamotte de Saint Paul was the first to erect a fort in Vermont, on the island The most outrageous exposition of the French colonial origin of the word.
Battle of Bennington Summary Britannica.
Poultney men accompanied Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold in taking the Fort. It is reported that as Allen entered the room of the commander, Poultney resident. Ethan Allen Legacy, Facts & Timeline Biography. Vermonts unique holiday on August 16th is in honor of the Revolutionary War Battle of With the British recapture of Fort Ticonderoga and the resulting American This tactical victory gave the Colonial forces a chance to regroup and forged. Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont – Legends of America. Fully aware of Fort Ticonderogas strategic importance, the leaders of the colony of Connecticut, whose territory included the future state of Vermont, called upon. Guidebook The Crown Point Road Association. Of the areas three earliest cultures the Native American, French Colonial, and The French took a stand here in 1731, building a fort to keep the English off. Frontier and Colonial Forts of the United States Access Genealogy. He petitioned for Vermont to join the new United States. led the Green Mountain Boys to capture Fort Ticonderoga from the British in 1775. the American Revolution, fighting for the American colonies against Great Britain.
Timeline of Putney History Town of Putney.
Of the Massachusetts Bay Colony built Fort Dummer as protection against the and was charted on the day after Christmas 1753 – the first town in Vermont. Lower Otter Creek Vermont Fish and Wildlife. Old Bennington Commons Much of the early history of Vermont took place the Vermont legislature in 1935 designated the church as Vermonts Colonial Shrine. the British, had garnered inside information about the fort and its contents.
Vermont Historic Homes and Sites – Where to Visit on Vacation.
Battlefields and military forts in Upstate NY: 12 historical sites to visit tall pines of the Adirondacks just across the water from Vermont in Ticonderoga, docents who spin tales of Colonial America to anyone who will listen. Park Perspectives: On The Fort Ticonderoga Ferry - The. By American militiamen defending colonial military stores in Bennington, Vermont, The Bennington Battle Monument, Bennington, Vermont. After capturing Fort Ticonderoga see Siege of Fort Ticonderoga in July 1777,.
History Mount Independence Coalition.
Vermont is home to many historic houses & sites to visit & see while traveling on Exhibits and events tell the stories of Native American, French colonial, and early On the shore of Lake Champlain, the site features the remains of the fort,. Chimney Point State Historic Site – Vermont Tourism Network. History of Mount Independence in Orwell, Vermont. A rocky promontory jutting north into Lake Champlain directly opposite Fort Ticonderoga, Militia were brought in from the northeastern colonies to help clear the land and start building.
History Vermont Historical Society.
By and had thirteen stars to represent each of the colonies they fought for. Most of the Green Mountain Boys came from Vermont. Their first major battle of the war was on May 10, 1775 when they invaded Fort Ticonderoga in New York and. List of forts in Vermont pedia. Officers Row at Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont by Detroit Publishing, 1907 The first structures seen from Route 15, these beautiful Colonial Revival style homes. Vermont New World Encyclopedia. Less than a month after hostilities began in earnest in Massachusetts, Allen was hired by the Connecticut colony to capture Fort Ticonderoga,. History Space: The legacy of Fort Ticonderoga Burlington Free Press. On Vermonts Native American, French colonial, and early American history, St. Frederic French 1734 1759 and His Majestys Fort of Crown Point British,.
Enshrining the Past: The Early Archaeology of Fort St. Anne, Isle La.
Fort Tours, Inc. Northern Early American Colonial Forts Picture of Fort Dummer Dummer, Fort VT. Picture of Fort Duquesne Fort Pitt Duquesne, Fort PA. The Green Mountain Boys. Discover the legacy of Native American, French Colonial and early American the lake camped at this site as early as 7.000 B.C. In 1731, a French fort was built. Southern Vermont Homes Colonial Homes TPW Real Estate. An engraving of Ethan Allen of Vermont capturing of the British held Fort Ticonderoga. Despite its contributions to the revolution, Vermont.
The History of the Green Mountain Boys – Patriot Wood.
Forty three English soldiers and 12 Mohawk. Indians manned the fort in 1724 and 1725. Later, the fort protected what was then a Massachusetts colony from. Historic Old Bennington, Vermont A Site on a Revolutionary War. Occupation of Vermont and represents one of the most Map of Isle La Motte, Vermont, depicting the of these forts was crucial to the future of the colony. Vermont State Facts & History Infoplease. After passing a flagpole that flies a colonial flag, turn left following the Blue Trail a floating bridge once connected Mount Independence with Fort Ticonderoga. Lake Champlain Bridge Heritage Area Lake Champlain Region. Camp Baxter also known as Baxter Barracks.
Mount independence The Official Vermont Tourism Website.
The Green Mountain Boys was a militia made up of Vermont settlers land Taking control of the fort protected the colonies from an attack from the North,. HISTORY OF COLONIAL AMERICA 31 Fort Dummer Vermont 1724. Aerial photo of Fort Ticonderoga with Lake Champlain and Vermont in The Kings Garden, a walled formal colonial revival garden, inspired.
Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!
The battle marked shifting tides in the Revolutionary War. The spoils gained from the British defeat propelled the eventual American victory, in terms of both morale and seized materials. The most important impact, however, was the capture of 59 pieces and over 60 tons of military supplies received from the fort. This equipment was put to good use by Henry Knox, who was able to position it advantageously in Dorchester Heights, overlooking Boston, giving him an impressive range in the rebel victory during the Siege of Boston. It is important to note that Fort Ticonderoga was eventually lost again to the British in 1777. In a Continental retreat and uncontested surrender to the British, superiors court-martialed several commanding officers as a result. In the incident, the American Continental troops at Fort Ticonderoga, under the leadership of General Burgoyne and General St. Clair in 1777, relinquished the position in a much-criticized retreat. Fort Ticonderoga had become an icon in the Revolutionary War and this loss was greatly felt. Burgoyne and St. Clair were among those later court-martialed, though they we eventually exonerated. Neither held a position of military leadership again. Though not part of the original 13 colonies, the Vermont militiamen would play important roles aside from that in Fort Ticonderoga. Outfits such as Allen’s Green Mountain Boys and Knowlton’s Rangers also played a role in using guerrilla tactics and espionage. Today, Fort Ticonderoga is maintained as a US National Historic Landmark, and lists among the US National Register of Historic Places. Numerous individual US Navy vessels and entire classes of warships have borne the Ticonderoga name as well.
The withdrawal from Ticonderoga was hurried, but was a part of the American defensive strategy adopted by Schuyler in response to the British Saratoga Campaign. Fraser's pursuit resulted in the Battle of Hubbardton as they caught up with the rear guard. St. Clair, meanwhile, brought most of his men to join forces with Schuyler at Fort Edward, and prepare for the Battle of Saratoga. Ticonderoga did not substantially delay Burgoyne's advance, but he did leave several regiments and much of his Canadian force as a garrison.
Fort Ticonderoga was an important symbol for the Americans, who expected that the fort would keep the redcoats out of the northern colonies, particularly in view of the winter spent improving the fortifications. St Clair’s abrupt retreat caused alarm and outrage.
A militant Protestant chaplain in the garrison, the Reverend Thomas Allen, wrote “Our men are eager for the battle, our magazines filled, our camp crowded with provisions, flags flying. The shameful abandonment of Ticonderoga has not been equaled in the history of the world.” This sentiment was repeated with fury across the colonies.
The political impact of the surrender was much stronger. Congress was appalled, and they censured both Schuyler and St. Clair for the loss. Schuyler was removed as commander of the Northern Department and replaced with Gates.
St Clair justified his actions, claiming to have saved valuable troops for the American cause. In the light of the heavy criticism to which he was subjected, he demanded a court martial, at which he was acquitted. He may have been right.
It may be that Burgoyne would have captured a defended Ticonderoga and that many valuable American troops would have become casualties. There is no doubt that Burgoyne’s further march south overstrained the British supply system and contributed directly to his surrender at Saratoga.
In the absence of a direct order from Schuyler or the Congress to abandon Ticonderoga, perhaps St Clair should have fought it out. Probably, whatever the outcome, St Clair would have emerged from the war a national hero instead of spending the rest of his life attempting to justify his actions and fending off allegations of cowardice.
Eventually, after Burgoyne's surrender at the Battle of Saratoga, the British Forces in withdrew to St. John's, and the Americans re-occupied Fort Ticonderoga with no major incidents.
The Battle of Fort Ticonderoga
As the American force continued to gather around the Siege of Boston, they realized that they did not have the munitions or cannon to carry out successful siege or military operations.
Fort Ticonderoga was a valuable asset for several reasons. Within its walls was heavy artillery and armaments that the Americans had in short supply. The fort was situated on the shores of Lake Champlain, a strategically important route between the Colonies and the British-controlled northern provinces. British forces placed there would expose the American forces in Boston to attack from the rear.
After the war began, British General Thomas Gage realized the fort would require fortification, and several Americans had the idea of capturing the fort. As a result, expeditions began to be planned to capture the fort.
Benedict Arnold proposing the capture of Fort Ticonderoga and Crown Point. When Arnold arrived outside Boston, he told the Massachusetts Committee of Safety about the cannons and other military equipment at the lightly defended fort.
On May 3, the Committee gave Arnold a colonel's commission and authorized him to command a "secret mission", which was to capture the fort. Also sent seperately was a small force of Green Mountain Boys, led by Colonel Ethan Allen.
Fort Ticonderoga: Revolutionary War and the Battles of Ticonderoga
Originally known as Fort Carillion, Fort Ticonderoga was built between 1755 and 1759 on the shore of Lake Champlain, near the border of Vermont and New York bordering Canada. Constructed by the French, they believed that control over Lake Champlain would prove to be a beneficial factor for their forces over the years.
Before Ticonderoga, the French had built another fort, named Crown Point or Fort St. Frederick, on Lake Champlain. Once the French occupied both forts, they had complete control over the lake and its channels of water, which provided access to supplies from the Atlantic.
Lake George drains northwards into Lake Champlain by means of the La Chute River. La Chute River is full of rapids and many falls, some of which pass near Fort Ticonderoga.
From the La Chute River, Lake Champlain was connected to the Hudson River by a 60-mile long canal called the Champlain Canal in 1823. The Hudson River is a major river running to the Atlantic Ocean.
The British Take Ft. Ticonderoga from the French During the 7 Years War
By July 8th, 1758, the fort was defended by a group of Frenchman under the command of Louis-Joseph le Marquis de Montcalm, who had served the British King during the Seven Years War. When British soldiers came to attack, the French easily defeated them.
This is said to be the greatest French victory over the British during the Seven Years’ War (or French Indian War).
The following year brought the British back to Fort Ticonderoga in another attempt to reclaim the land. This time they were successful.
The British actually laid siege of the fort for three months. French troops finally retreated north, but not before blowing up magazines, powder, and warehouses. (The warehouses they blew up have since been rebuilt so that all Americans can see and remember.)
The Patriots Take Ft. Ticonderoga During the American Revolution
When the American Revolutionary War began, Fort Ticonderoga was still in British hands.
On May 10th of , Benedict Arnold, Ethan Allen, and the Green Mountain Boys brought it under American power for the first time.
Benedict Arnold painting as a colonel during 7 Years War
The First “Battle” of Ticonderoga was a lucky one that involved no gunfire. It has been referred to as both the siege and the battle of Ticonderoga, but it is more often called a siege because no blood was spilled that night.
Allen is said to have told the British commander and his small amount of guards around Ticonderoga to come out “By the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress.”
William DeLaPlace, the British commander in charge, quickly surrendered to the Americans.
Once the Americans laid hold of the fort, they guessed that things could only go uphill from there. Not only was Fort Ticonderoga a great source of waterway transportation, but it also held much ammunition and many cannons that the Americans would need to be rid of the British for good.
Unfortunately, the Americans did not hold Ticonderoga for long.
The Colonists Lose, then Regain, Ft. Ticonderoga
In October of 1776, British General Guy Carleton sought to gain access to Ticonderoga by means of Lake Champlain. The British drove hastily built American ships from the lake in the battle of the Valcour Island, which is generally noted as the first naval battle of the American Revolutionary War.
The attack on the Valcour Islands was won convincingly by the British forces, but commander Benedict Arnold managed to drag the battle out until snow began to fall, marking the beginning of winter and delaying the British attack on Ticonderoga.
It was the following summer before General John Burgoyne arrived to take Fort Ticonderoga back from the Americans.
Burgoyne was successful however, his campaign failed at Saratoga, and the Americans returned in September to retake Fort Ticonderoga for the last time.
The small force of 500 men sent by the Americans were unable to take the fort, but when Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga on October 20, the British simply abandoned it in early November.
The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga - Leaders, Facts and Significance - HISTORY
Location: N.Y. 8 and 9N, Ticonderoga, Essex County.
Ownership and Administration (1961). Fort Ticonderoga Association, Ticonderoga.
Significance. Strategically located at the junction of Lake Champlain and Lake George, Fort Ticonderoga was the key to both Canada and the Hudson Valley in the 18th century. It saw more of the English-French struggle for North America than any other post, and its story is one of the most dramatic and colorful in American military annals.
The first military post on the site was Fort Vaudreuil, later Fort Carillon, built by the French in 1755-57. On July 8, 1758, an army of 15,000 British regular and colonial troops attacked the fort and was repulsed with heavy loss by the French under Montcalm. On July 27, 1759, however, Gen. Jeffrey Amherst captured the fort and renamed it Ticonderoga. This loss by the French, coupled with British pressure elsewhere on the frontier between New France and the American Colonies, was a severe blow to French plans. The capture of Ticonderoga gave the British undisputed possession of the strategically important Hudson River Valley. The French blew up part of the fort before they withdrew, and Amherst had repairs made in accordance with the original design. In the years between the defeat of France in North America and the outbreak of the Revolution, a small garrison manned the work. On May 10, 1775, Ethan Allen with 83 "Green Mountain Boys" surprised and defeated the few British defenders, and the post became a base for the projected advance on Canada. The following winter Col. Henry Knox hauled the fort's cannon overland to serve in the siege of Boston. Ticonderoga changed hands again when it fell to Burgoyne's British Army in the summer of 1777, but upon Burgoyne's defeat at Saratoga it again passed into American possession. Although reoccupied from time to time by scouting parties and raiding detachments, the post was never again garrisoned by a military force.
In 1816 William F. Pell, a merchant of New York, leased the grounds and 4 years later bought them. In 1908 the late Stephen Pell began restoration. By the following year the west barracks had been opened to the public, and the work has gone forward since that time. At this writing only the east barracks have not been rebuilt. The task of reconstruction was a major undertaking. Over the years the stones had been carted away by settlers for use as building materials. The upper part of the walls and most of the stone barracks disappeared, and the earth behind the walls washed over the remnants of the original walls. These remains were uncovered in the restoration that began in 1908. The present work was erected on the original foundations and utilized parts of walls that had survived.
Present Appearance (1961). The fort is four-sided with bastions extending from its four corners. Outlooks or demilunes on the north and west, and an outer wall on the south, cover the approaches. Facing the central parade ground are the reconstructed west and south barracks, the ruins of the still-to-be-restored east barracks, and the long rampart joining the northwest and northeast bastions. The west barracks houses the administrative office, a library, and, in the basement, the armory, featuring the most important part of the Fort Ticonderoga gun collection. In the south barracks are displayed many artifacts excavated in the course of the restoration furnished quarters of the officer of the day exhibits of furniture, household goods, and other items used by early settlers in the region Indian relics and a model of the fort as it existed in 1758. Below the walls are the remains of a French village that probably served the fort. Research on the village is underway. 
The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga - Leaders, Facts and Significance - HISTORY
T he British military outpost of Fort Ticonderoga occupied a commanding strategic location in upstate New York that overlooked a portion of the potential invasion route the British would take from Canada down Lake Champlain to the Hudson Valley and ultimately to New York City. If successful, this British line of conquest would separate the New England colonies from their southern brethren. Having accomplished this division, the British could concentrate on first defeating one isolated segment of the rebellious colonies and then the other.
Fully aware of Fort Ticonderoga's strategic importance, the leaders of the colony of Connecticut, whose territory included the future state of Vermont, called upon Ethan Allen, leader of a militia unit know as the Green Mountain Boys, to capture the fortress following the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
In the darkness of the night of May 9, 1775, Ethan Allen, along with Benedict Arnold, led a portion of his militia across the half-mile width of Lake Champlain to the base of the fort. As the sun rose the next morning Allen and his men rushed into the fort demanding its surrender. Taken totally by surprise, the Commander of the garrison meekly surrendered and the strategic fortress was captured without bloodshed.
". . . the Captain came immediately to the door, with his breeches in his hand, when I ordered him to deliver me the fort instantly."
Allen published an account of his exploits in 1779. In his description of the capture of Fort Ticonderoga, he describes giving a pep-talk to his troops before the assault, although there are no other accounts of this speech. We join his story as a decision is made to capture the fort:
"Ever since I arrived at the state of manhood, and acquainted myself with the general history of mankind, I have felt a sincere passion for liberty. . . so that the first systematical and bloody attempt, at Lexington, to enslave America, thoroughly electrified my mind, and fully determined me to take part with my country. And, while I was wishing for an opportunity to signalize myself in its behalf, directions were privately sent to me from the then colony (now State) of Connecticut, to raise the Green Mountain Boys, and, if possible, with them to surprise and take the fortress of Ticonderoga.
|Fort Ticonderoga |
This enterprise I cheerfully undertook and, after first guarding all the several passes that led thither, to cut all intelligence between the garrison and the country, made a forced march from Bennington, and arrived at the lake opposite to Ticonderoga, on the evening of the 9th day of May, 1775, with two hundred and thirty valiant Green Mountain Boys and it was with the utmost difficulty that I procured boats to cross the lake. However, I landed eighty-three men near the garrison, and sent the boats back for the rear guard, commanded by Colonel Seth Warner but the day began to dawn, and I found myself under the necessity to attack the fort, before the rear could cross the lake and, as it was viewed hazardous, I harangued the officers and soldiers in the manner following:
'Friends and fellow soldiers, you have, for a number of years past, been a scourge and terror to arbitrary power. Your valor has been famed abroad, and acknowledged, as appears by the advice and orders to me, from the General Assembly of Connecticut, to surprise and take the garrison now before us. I now propose to advance before you, and, in person, conduct you through the wicket gate for we must this morning either quit our pretensions to valor, or possess ourselves of this fortress in a few minutes and, inasmuch as it is a desperate attempt, which none but the bravest of men dare undertake, I do not urge it on any contrary to his will. You that will undertake voluntarily, poise your firelocks.'
The men being, at this time, drawn up in three ranks, each poised his firelock. I ordered them to face to the right, and, at the head of the center file, marched them immediately to the wicket gate aforesaid, where I found a sentry posted, who instantly snapped his fusee [trigger] at me I ran immediately toward him, and he retreated through the covered way into the parade within the garrison, gave a halloo, and ran under a bombproof. My party, who followed me into the fort, I formed on the parade in such a manner as to face the two barracks which faced each other.
The garrison being asleep, except the sentries, we gave three huzzas, which greatly surprised them. One of the sentries made a pass at one of my officers with a charged bayonet, and slightly wounded him. My first thought was to kill him with my sword but, in an instant, I altered the design and fury of the blow to a slight cut on the side of the head, upon which he dropped his gun, and asked quarter, which I readily granted him, and demanded of him the place where the commanding officer kept he showed me a pair of stairs in the front of a barrack, on the west part of the garrison, which led up to a second story in said barrack, to which I immediately repaired, and ordered the commander, Captain de la Place, to come forth instantly, or I would sacrifice the whole garrison at which the Captain came immediately to the door, with his breeches in his hand, when I ordered him to deliver me the fort instantly he asked me by what authority I demanded it: I answered him, 'In the name of the great Jehovah and the Continental Congress.'
|Ethan Allen confronts the fort's Commander |
The authority of the Congress being very little known at that time, he began to speak again but I interrupted him, and with my drawn sword over his head, again demanded an immediate surrender of the garrison with which he then complied, and ordered his men to be forthwith paraded without arms, as he had given up the garrison. In the meantime some of my officers had given orders, and in consequence thereof, sundry of the barrack doors were beat down, and about one-third of the garrison imprisoned, which consisted of the said commander, a Lieutenant Feltham, a conductor of artillery, a gunner, two sergeants, and forty-four rank and file about one hundred pieces of cannon, one thirteen-inch mortar, and a number of swivels.
This surprise was carried into execution in the gray of the morning of the 10th of May, 1775. The sun seemed to rise that morning with a superior luster, and Ticonderoga and its dependencies smiled to its conquerors, who tossed about the flowing bowl, and wished success to Congress, and the liberty and freedom of America."
This eyewitness account appears in: Allen, Ethan, A narrative of Col. Ethan Allen's captivity (1807) Bellesiles, Michael A. Revolutionary Outlaws: Ethan Allen and the Struggle for Independence on the Early American Frontier (1993) Hoyt, Edwin Palmer, The damndest Yankees, Ethan Allen & his clan (1976).