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U.S. Casualties in Operation Iraqi Freedom June 2007 - History

U.S. Casualties in Operation Iraqi Freedom June 2007 - History


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U.S. Casualties in Operation Iraqi Freedom June 2007

111Total Casualties
#Service MemberAgeDate
01Sgt. Bruce E. Horner4301 June 2007
02Staff Sgt. Travis W. Atkins3101 June 2007
03Staff Sgt. Juan F. Campos2701 June 2007
04Spc. William J. Crouch2102 June 2007
05Spc. Romel Catalan2102 June 2007
06U/I pending notification of next-of-kin02 June 2007
07Spc. Jeremiah D. Costello2202 June 2007
08Spc. Keith V. Nepsa2102 June 2007
09U/I pending notification of next-of-kin02 June 2007
10Sgt. Shawn E. Dressler2202 June 2007
11Pfc. Joshua D. Brown2602 June 2007
12Sgt. Dariek E. Dehn3202 June 2007
13Sgt. Caleb P. Christopher2503 June 2007
14Staff Sgt. Greg P. Gagarin3803 June 2007
15Sgt. James C. Akin2303 June 2007
16Sgt. Tyler J. Kritz2103 June 2007
17Sgt. Robert A. Surber2403 June 2007
18Sgt. Kimel L. Watt2103 June 2007
19Pfc. Justin A. Verdeja2005 June 2007
20Tech. Sgt. Ryan A. Balmer3305 June 2007
21Staff Sgt. Matthew J. Kuglics2505 June 2007
22Sgt. Andrews J. Higgins2805 June 2007
23U/I pending notification of next-of-kin06 June 2007
24Sgt. Matthew Soper2506 June 2007
25Pfc. Shawn D. Gajdos2506 June 2007
26Sgt. 1st Class Greg L. Sutton3806 June 2007
27Staff Sgt. Timothy B. Cole Jr.2806 June 2007
28Senior Airman William N. Newman2807 June 2007
29U/I pending notification of next-of-kin09 June 2007
30Pvt. Scott A. Miller2009 June 2007
31Sgt. Cory M. Endlich2309 June 2007
32Staff Sgt. Brian M. Long3210 June 2007
33Cpl. Llythaniele Fender2110 June 2007
34Cpl. Meresebang Ngiraked2110 June 2007
35Spc. Adam G. Herold2310 June 2007
36Airman 1st Class Eric M. Barnes10 June 2007
37Pfc. Cameron K. Payne2211 June 2007
38Lt. Col. Glade L. Felix5211 June 2007
39Pvt. William C. Johnson2212 June 2007
40Lance Cpl. Johnny R. Strong2112 June 2007
41Spc. Damon G. Legrand2712 June 2007
42Pfc. Casey S. Carriker2013 June 2007
43Spc. Josiah W. Hollopeter2714 June 2007
44Sgt. Derek T. Roberts2414 June 2007
45Spc. Val J. Borm2114 June 2007
46Spc. Farid Elazzouzi14 June 2007
47Staff Sgt. Michael A. Bechert2414 June 2007
48Cpl. Dustin R. Brisky2614 June 2007
48Sgt. Richard K. Parker2614 June 2007
50Maj. Kevin H. Sonnenberg4215 June 2007
51Pfc. Michael P. Pittman3415 June 2007
521st Lt. Frank B. Walkup, IV2316 June 2007
53U/I pending notification of next-of-kin16 June 2007
54U/I pending notification of next-of-kin16 June 2007
55Sgt. Danny R. Soto2416 June 2007
56Spc. Zachary A. Grass3416 June 2007
57Sgt. Eric L. Snell3518 June 2007
58Pfc. David A. Wilkey Jr.2218 June 2007
59Pfc. Larry Parks Jr.2418 June 2007
60Pfc. Jacob T. Tracy2018 June 2007
61Sgt. Frank M. Sandoval2718 June 2007
62Spc. Darryl W. Linder2319 June 2007
63Sgt. 1st Class William A. Zapfe3519 June 2007
64Pfc. Joshua S. Modgling2219 June 2007
65U/I pending notification of next-of-kin20 June 2007
66U/I pending notification of next-of-kin20 June 2007
67Sgt. Shawn P. Martin3020 June 2007
68Staff Sgt. Stephen J. Wilson2820 June 2007
69Maj. Sid W. Brookshire3620 June 2007
70Staff Sgt. Darren P. Hubbell3820 June 2007
71Spc. Joe G. Charfauros Jr.3320 June 2007
72Pfc. David J. Bentz III2020 June 2007
73Sgt. Alphonso J. Montenegro II2221 June 2007
74Sgt. Ryan M. Wood2221 June 2007
75Pfc. Daniel J. Agami2521 June 2007
76Pfc. Anthony D. Hebert1921 June 2007
77Pfc. Thomas R. Leemhuis2321 June 2007
78Spc. Karen N. Clifton2221 June 2007
79Pfc. Raymond N. Spencer Jr.2321 June 2007
80Pfc. Jerimiah J. Veitch2121 June 2007
81Spc. Dominic N. Rodriguez2322 June 2007
82Sgt. Michael J. Montpetit3122 June 2007
83U/I pending notification of next-of-kin23 June 2007
841st Lt. Daniel P. Riordan2423 June 2007
85Sgt. Joel A. House2223 June 2007
86Sgt. Jimy M. Malone2323 June 2007
87Spc. Derek A. Calhoun2323 June 2007
88U/I pending notification of next-of-kin23 June 2007
89U/I pending notification of next-of-kin23 June 2007
90Airman 1st Class Jason D. Nathan2223 June 2007
91Sgt. Dahl2123 June 2007
92Spc. Joseph P. Kenny2023 June 2007
93Sgt. William E. Brown2523 June 2007
94U/I pending notification of next-of-kin23 June 2007
95Spc. Carter A. Gamble Jr.2424 June 2007
96Pfc. Henry G. Byrd III2024 June 2007
97Spc. Eric C. Palmer2124 June 2007
98U/I pending notification of next-of-kin25 June 2007
99Pfc. Andre Craig Jr.2425 June 2007
100Sgt. Trista L. Moretti2725 June 2007
101Cpl. Derek C. Dixon2026 June 2007
102Sgt. 1st Class Nathan L. Winder3226 June 2007
103Staff Sgt. Daniel A. Newsome2727 June 2007
104Sgt. William W. Crow Jr.2828 June 2007
105Sgt. Shin W. Kim2328 June 2007
106Sgt. Martinez2428 June 2007
107Sgt. Giann C. Joya Mendoza2728 June 2007
108Spc. Dustin L. Workman II1928 June 2007
109Pfc. Cory F. Hiltz2028 June 2007
110Spc. James L. Adair2629 June 2007
111Staff Sgt. Robb L. Rolfing2929 June 2007

Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa

Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA) is the name of the military operation defined by the United States for combating terrorism and piracy in the Horn of Africa. ⎖] It is one component of the broader Afghan war category of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), which includes eight African nations stretching from the far northeast of the continent to the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea in the west. ⎗] The other OEF mission in Africa is known as Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara (OEF-TS), which, until the creation of the new Africa Command, has been run out of European Command. ⎖]

The Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) is the primary (but not sole) military component assigned to accomplish the objectives of the mission. The naval component is the multinational Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150) which operates under the direction of the United States Fifth Fleet. Both of these organizations have been historically part of United States Central Command. In February 2007, United States President George W. Bush announced the establishment of the United States Africa Command which took over all of the area of operations of CJTF-HOA in October 2008. ⎘] ⎙]

CJTF-HOA consists of about 2,000 service men and women from the United States military and allied countries. The official areas of responsibility comprises Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Seychelles and Kenya. Outside this Combined Joint Operating Area, the CJTF-HOA has operations in Mauritius, Comoros, Liberia, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania. ⎚]


10 Operation Uphold DemocracyHaiti, 1994&ndash95

The democratically elected president of Haiti, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, was exiled following a 1991 military coup. President William Clinton eventually decided to invade Haiti to restore Aristide to power.

Operation Uphold Democracy involved dropping a massive force, including the entire 82nd Airborne Division, into Haiti. Realizing that they did not stand a chance, the coup government immediately surrendered. Aristide triumphantly reentered the country under US protection.

Both the US public and a bipartisan Congressional majority were initially opposed to the intervention. President Clinton nevertheless argued that a UN Security Council resolution, authorizing the removal of the coup government, gave him the right to act without consent from Congress.

Although the operation seemed like a resounding success at the time, democracy was not upheld for long. Aristide proved to be a flawed leader and was accused of using electoral fraud to stay in power. Ultimately, he was overthrown again in a 2004 coup, which he ironically blamed on the United States. [1]


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A fenced area sits inconspicuously at Ahmad Al-Jaber Air Base in Kuwait. Its contents are a few wooden boxes, some shipping containers, and not much else. It can be an extremely easy thing to simply walk by and take no notice, however one of these boxes contains a piece of Marine Corps History.

A wooden sign that once stood at the entrance of Camp Manion at Al-Taqaddum Air Base is starting its journey to return back to the United States where it will eventually find its final resting place at the Marine Corps Museum. Located in Central Iraq, the Camp has housed many aviation units throughout Operation Iraqi Freedom.

The Camp got its name from 1stLt Travis Manion, a Marine who was killed in action April 29, 2007. Manion deployed from 1st Recon Battalion as part of a Military Transition Team to Iraq. While searching a house, Manion and his team were ambushed and a Marine and corpsman were severely wounded. Manion successfully pulled the two to safety, exposing himself to enemy fire multiple times. While leading a counterattack, Manion repeatedly exposed himself in order to draw the fire away from the wounded Marine and sailor. While taking fire from three sides, he was mortally wounded by an enemy sniper. For his actions, Manion was posthumously awarded the Silver Star.

Though a logistics officer by trade, 1stLt. Travis Manion showed courage, decisiveness, and the tactical aptitude that encompasses the very definition of a warfighter. He embodied the Marine Corps mantra that “Every Marine is a Rifleman” when he applied the knowledge of combat leadership that Marines are indoctrinated with from day one of Recruit Training or Officer Candidate School.


U.S. Casualties in Operation Iraqi Freedom June 2007 - History

This Act may be cited as the Refugee Protection Act of 2019 .

The table of contents for this Act is as follows:

Sec. 1. Short title table of contents. Sec. 2. Findings. Sec. 3. Definitions. TITLE I—Admission and protection of refugees, asylum seekers, and other vulnerable individuals Subtitle A—Refugees and asylum seekers Sec. 101. Modification of definition of refugee. Sec. 102. Multiple forms of relief available to refugees and asylum seekers. Sec. 103. Elimination of time limits on asylum applications. Sec. 104. Consideration of asylum claims. Sec. 105. Transparency in refugee determinations. Sec. 106. Employment authorization for asylum seekers and other individuals. Sec. 107. Admission of refugees and asylees as lawful permanent residents. Subtitle B—Protections for children and families Sec. 111. Keeping families together. Sec. 112. Protections for minors seeking asylum. Sec. 113. Fair day in court for kids. Subtitle C—Protections for other vulnerable individuals Sec. 121. Modification of physical presence requirements for aliens admitted in special immigrant status for persons who have served as translators for the Armed Forces. Sec. 122. Protection of stateless persons in the United States. Sec. 123. Protecting victims of terrorism from being defined as terrorists. Sec. 124. Protection for aliens interdicted at sea. Sec. 125. Enhanced protection for individuals seeking U visas, T visas, and protection under VAWA. Subtitle D—Protections relating to removal, detention, and prosecution Sec. 131. Prevention of erroneous in absentia orders of removal. Sec. 132. Scope and standard for review of removal orders. Sec. 133. Presumption of liberty for asylum seekers. Sec. 134. Procedures for ensuring accuracy and verifiability of sworn statements taken pursuant to expedited removal authority. Sec. 135. Inspections by immigration officers. Sec. 136. Study on effect on asylum claims of expedited removal provisions, practices, and procedures. Sec. 137. Alignment with Refugee Convention obligations by prohibiting criminal prosecution of refugees. Subtitle E—Refugee resettlement Sec. 141. Prioritization of family reunification in refugee resettlement process. Sec. 142. Numerical goals for annual refugee admissions. Sec. 143. Reform of refugee admissions consultation process. Sec. 144. Designation of certain groups of refugees for resettlement and admission of refugees in emergency situations. Sec. 145. Refugee resettlement radius requirements. Sec. 146. Study and report on contributions by refugees to the United States. Sec. 147. Update of reception and placement grants. Sec. 148. Resettlement data. Sec. 149. Refugee assistance. Sec. 150. Extension of eligibility period for Social Security benefits for certain refugees. Sec. 151. United States Emergency Refugee Resettlement Contingency Fund. Subtitle F—Miscellaneous provision Sec. 161. Authorization of appropriations. TITLE II—Refugee and asylum seeker processing in Western Hemisphere Sec. 201. Expansion of refugee and asylum seeker processing. Sec. 202. Strengthening regional humanitarian responses. Sec. 203. Information campaign on dangers of irregular migration. Sec. 204. Reporting requirement. Sec. 205. Identification, screening, and processing of refugees and other individuals eligible for lawful admission to the United States. Sec. 206. Central American Refugee Program. Sec. 207. Central American Minors Program. Sec. 208. Central American Family Reunification Parole Program. Sec. 209. Informational campaign case status hotline. TITLE III—Special immigrant visa programs Sec. 301. Improvement of the direct access program for U.S.-affiliated Iraqis. Sec. 302. Conversion of certain petitions. Sec. 303. Special immigrant visa program reporting requirement. Sec. 304. Improvements to application process for Afghan special immigrant visas. Sec. 305. Special immigrant status for certain surviving spouses and children. Sec. 306. Inclusion of certain special immigrants in the annual refugee survey. Sec. 307. United States refugee program priorities. Sec. 308. Special immigrant status for certain Syrian who worked for the United States Government in Syria. Sec. 309. Special immigrant status reporting requirement. Sec. 310. Processing mechanisms. TITLE IV—General provisions Sec. 401. Authorization of appropriations. Sec. 402. Determination of budgetary effects. 2. Findings

Congress makes the following findings:

In 2019, the world is in the midst of the worst global displacement crisis in history, with more than 70,800,000 forcibly displaced persons, including 25,900,000 refugees worldwide, over half of whom are children, according to estimates from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

In 2018, less than 5 percent of global resettlement needs were met despite there being 1,400,000 refugees in need of third-country resettlement.

The United States refugee admissions program is a life-saving solution that—

is critical to global humanitarian efforts

strengthens global security

leverages United States foreign policy interests, including diplomatic and strategic interests of supporting allies who often host a significant and disproportionate share of refugees per capita

stabilizes sensitive regions impacted by forced migration by ensuring that the United States shares responsibility for global refugee protection

leverages refugee resettlement in the United States to encourage other countries to uphold the human rights of refugees, including by ensuring that refugees—

have the right to work, the right to an education, and freedom of movement and

are not returned to a place in which their life or freedom is at risk

serves individuals and families in need of resettlement

provides economic and cultural benefits to cities, States, and the United States as a whole and

aligns with the international obligations of the United States, including under—

the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, done at Geneva July 28, 1951 (as made applicable by the Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, done at New York January 31, 1967 (19 UST 6223)), of which the United States is a party

the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, done at New York December 10, 1984, of which the United States is a party

the Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, done at New York September 28, 1954 and

the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, done at New York August 30, 1961.

The United States has historically been, and should continue to be, a global leader in—

responding to displacement crises around the world, including through the provision of robust humanitarian support

promoting the safety, health, and well-being of refugees and displaced persons

welcoming asylum seekers who seek safety and protecting other at-risk migrants, including survivors of torture, victims of trafficking, and stateless people and

working alongside other countries to strengthen protection systems and support.

The United States has steadily reduced—

access to asylum protection through administrative policy and programmatic changes, including policies and operational decisions aimed at reducing or stopping the ability of asylum seekers to access the United States border and

the resettlement of refugees, by way of two consecutive historically low annual refugee admissions goals after nearly 45 years during which the average annual United States refugee admissions goal was over 95,000 individuals.

the most vetted travelers to enter the United States and

subject to extensive screening checks, including in-person interviews, biometric data checks, and multiple interagency checks.

For the sake of refugees, asylum seekers, other migrants, United States national diplomatic and strategic interests, and local communities that benefit from the presence of refugees, asylees, and other migrants, it is crucial for the United States to better protect refugees and asylum seekers through reforms, including—

asylum reforms that ensure due process

reforms to border migration enforcement, management, and adjudication systems that integrate stronger protection of, and ensure due process for, asylum seekers, children, victims of trafficking, stateless people, and other migrants, including—

community-based alternatives to detention for asylum seekers and other vulnerable migrants

improved detention conditions

an emphasis on fairness in the arrest and adjudication process

increased access to legal information and representation and

a stronger commitment to child welfare in staffing and processes and

ensure at least the historical average annual refugee admissions goal

prevent refugee policy that discriminates based on race or religion

improve opportunities for refugees to achieve family unity and

update and strengthen support for refugees and the communities that welcome refugees.

The people of the United States, and communities across the United States, overwhelmingly support refugees and asylum seekers, including people of faith, members of the Armed Forces, veterans, elected officials, and retired high-ranking officials.

(1) Asylum seeker (A) In general

The term asylum seeker means—

any applicant for asylum under section 208 of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1158 )

an intention to apply for asylum under that section or

a fear of persecution and

an intention to apply for withholding of removal pursuant to—

section 241 of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1231 ) or

the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, done at New York December 10, 1984 or

a fear that the alien’s life or freedom would be threatened.

The term asylum seeker includes any individual described in subparagraph (A) whose application for asylum or withholding of removal is pending judicial review.

The term asylum seeker does not include an individual with respect to whom a final order denying asylum and withholding of removal has been entered if such order is not pending judicial review.

(2) Best interest determination

The term best interest determination means a formal process with procedural safeguards designed to give primary consideration to a child’s best interests in decision making.

The term Department means the Department of Homeland Security.

(4) Internally displaced persons

The term internally displaced persons means persons or a group of persons who have been forced to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular due to armed conflict, generalized violence, violations of human rights, or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized state border.

(5) International protection

The term international protection means asylum status, refugee status, protection under the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, done at New York December 10, 1984, and other regional protection status available in the Western Hemisphere.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of Homeland Security.

I Admission and protection of refugees, asylum seekers, and other vulnerable individuals A Refugees and asylum seekers 101. Modification of definition of refugee (a) In general

Section 101(a)(42) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(42) ) is amended to read as follows:

The term refugee means any person who—

is outside any country of such person’s nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, is outside any country in which such person last habitually resided and

is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution, or a well-founded fear of persecution, on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion or

in such circumstances as the President may specify, after appropriate consultation (as defined in section 207(e))—

is within the country of such person’s nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, within the country in which such person is habitually residing and

is persecuted, or who has a well-founded fear of persecution, on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.

The term refugee does not include any person who ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in the persecution of any person on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. A person who establishes that his or her actions were committed under duress or while the person was younger than 18 years of age shall not be considered to have ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in persecution under this subparagraph.

For purposes of determinations under this Act—

a person who has been forced to abort a pregnancy or to undergo involuntary sterilization, or who has been persecuted for failure or refusal to undergo such a procedure or for other resistance to a coercive population control program, shall be deemed to have been persecuted on account of political opinion

a person who has a well-founded fear that he or she will be forced to undergo such a procedure or be subject to persecution for such failure, refusal, or resistance shall be deemed to have a well-founded fear of persecution on account of political opinion and

the term particular social group means, without any additional requirement not listed below, any group whose members—

a characteristic that is immutable or fundamental to identity, conscience, or the exercise of human rights or

a past experience or voluntary association that, due to its historical nature, cannot be changed or

are perceived as a group by society.

The burden of proof shall be on the applicant to establish that the applicant is a refugee.

To establish that the applicant is a refugee, persecution—

shall be on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion and

may be established by demonstrating that—

a protected ground is at least one reason for the applicant’s persecution or fear of persecution

the persecution or feared persecution would not have occurred or would not occur in the future but for a protected ground or

the persecution or feared persecution had or will have the effect of harming the person because of a protected ground.

Where past or feared persecution by a nonstate actor is unrelated to a protected asylum ground, the causal nexus link is established if the state’s failure to protect the asylum applicant from the nonstate actor is on account of a protected asylum ground.

Section 208(b)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1158(b)(1) ) is amended by striking section 101(a)(42)(A) each place it appears and inserting section 101(a)(42)(A)(i) .

102. Multiple forms of relief available to refugees and asylum seekers (a) In general

An applicant for admission as a refugee may simultaneously pursue admission under any visa category for which the applicant may be eligible.

(b) Asylum applicants eligible for diversity visas

Section 204(a)(1)(I) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1154(a)(1)(I) ) is amended by adding at the end the following:

An asylum seeker in the United States who is notified that he or she is eligible for an immigrant visa pursuant to section 203(c) may file a petition with the district director that has jurisdiction over the district in which the asylum seeker resides (or, in the case of an asylum seeker who is or was in removal proceedings, the immigration court in which the removal proceeding is pending or was adjudicated) to adjust status to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.

A petition under subclause (I) shall—

be filed not later than 30 days before the end of the fiscal year for which the petitioner receives notice of eligibility for the visa and

contain such information and be supported by such documentary evidence as the Secretary of State may require.

The district director or immigration court shall attempt to adjudicate each petition under this clause before the last day of the fiscal year for which the petitioner was selected. Notwithstanding clause (ii)(II), if the district director or immigration court is unable to complete such adjudication during such fiscal year, the adjudication and adjustment of status of the petitioner may take place after the end of such fiscal year.

Section 208(a)(2) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1158(a)(2) ) is amended—

in subparagraph (A), by inserting or the Secretary of Homeland Security after Attorney General each place such term appears

by striking subparagraphs (B) and (D)

by redesignating subparagraph (C) as subparagraph (B)

in subparagraph (B), as redesignated, by striking subparagraph (D) and inserting subparagraphs (C) and (D) and

by inserting after subparagraph (B), as redesignated, the following:

Notwithstanding subparagraph (B), an application for asylum of an alien may be considered if the alien demonstrates, to the satisfaction of the Attorney General or the Secretary of Homeland Security, the existence of changed circumstances that materially affect the applicant’s eligibility for asylum.

(D) Motion to reopen certain meritorious claims

Notwithstanding subparagraph (B) or section 240(c)(7), an alien may file a motion to reopen an asylum claim during the 2-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of the Refugee Protection Act of 2019 if the alien—

was denied asylum based solely on a failure to meet the 1-year application filing deadline in effect on the date on which the application was filed

was granted withholding of removal to the alien’s country of nationality (or, in the case of a person having no nationality, to the country of last habitual residence) under section 241(b)(3)

has not obtained lawful permanent residence in the United States pursuant to any other provision of law and

is not subject to the safe third country exception under subparagraph (A) or to a bar to asylum under subsection (b)(2) and

was not denied asylum as a matter of discretion or

was denied asylum based solely on the implementation of—

the policy memorandum of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services entitled Guidance for Processing Reasonable Fear, Credible Fear, Asylum, and Refugee Claims in Accordance with Matter of A–B– (PM–602–0162), dated July 11, 2018

the memorandum of the Office of the Principal Legal Advisor of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement entitled Litigating Domestic Violence-Based Persecution Claims Following Matter of A–B– , dated July 11, 2018

the interim final rule of the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice entitled Aliens Subject to a Bar on Entry Under Certain Presidential Proclamations Procedures for Protection Claims (83 Fed. Reg. 55934 (November 9, 2019))

Presidential Proclamation 9822, issued on November 9, 2018 (83 Fed. Reg. 57661)

the migrant protection protocols announced by the Secretary of Homeland Security on December 20, 2018 (or any successor protocols)

the policy memorandum of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services entitled Guidance for Implementing Section 235(b)(2)(C) of the Immigration and Nationality Act and the Migrant Protection Protocols (PM–602–0169), dated January 28, 2019 or

any other policy memorandum of the Department of Homeland Security to implement the protocols described in subclause (V).

104. Consideration of asylum claims (a) Conditions for granting asylum

Section 208(b)(1)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1158(b)(1)(B) ) is amended—

in clause (ii), by striking the last sentence and inserting the following: If the trier of fact determines that the applicant should provide evidence that corroborates otherwise credible testimony, the trier of fact shall provide notice and allow the applicant a reasonable opportunity to file such evidence. The trier of fact may not require such evidence if the applicant does not have the evidence and demonstrates that he or she cannot reasonably obtain the evidence. Evidence shall not be considered reasonably obtainable if procurement of such evidence would reasonably endanger the life or safety of any person.

by striking clause (iii) and

by inserting after clause (ii) the following:

(iii) Supporting evidence accepted

Direct or circumstantial evidence, including evidence that the government of the applicable country is unable or unwilling to protect individuals of the applicant’s race, religion, nationality, particular social group, or political opinion, or that the legal or social norms of the country tolerate persecution against individuals of the applicant’s race, religion, nationality, particular social group, or political opinion, may establish that persecution is on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.

(iv) Credibility determination (I) In general

Subject to subclause (II), a trier of fact may conduct a credibility assessment in the context of evaluating an applicant’s claim for asylum.

(II) Procedural and substantive requirements (aa) Objectivity

Decisions regarding credibility shall be made objectively, impartially, and individually.

A credibility assessment under this clause may only be conducted on the material facts of the applicant’s claim. The perception of the trier of fact with respect to the applicant’s general truthfulness or trustworthiness shall not be relevant to assessing credibility of material facts.

(cc) Detail and specificity

In assessing credibility, a trier of fact may consider the detail and specificity of information provided by the applicant, the internal consistency of the applicant’s statements, and the consistency of the applicant’s statements with available external information. In considering such information and statements, the trier of fact shall consider the applicant’s contextual circumstances, including—