History Podcasts

18 June 1945

18 June 1945

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

18 June 1945




End of organised resistance on Mindanao


Okinawa: Commander of the US 10th Army is killed

Bornea: Australian troops reach Tutong

“New Turn” of the Communists

From Labor Action, Vol.ى Nos.㺙 & 27󈞊, 18 June 1945 & 2󈞃 July 1945.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’ Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).

The Foster-Browder Debate and the “New Turn” in the CPA, Labor Action, Vol.ى No.㺙, 18 June 1945, pp.ف &ل.

The new eruption now making its way through the top of the Communist Political Association (Communist Party) over the Duclos “disclosures” has come before the public in a“programmatic” statement contained in a resolution by the National Board. All of the board except Browder voted for the resolution. The majority includes such political contortionists as William Z. Foster, Robert Minor and Roy Hudson.

Public “discussion” on the questions under dispute inbeing carried on in the Daily Worker and the Sunday Worker. So far the leading protagonists of the two points of view are Browder and Foster. It seems, from surface indications, that Foster is the leader of the “opposition” while Browder remains the sole defender of the wartime line of the American Stalinists. Both have expressed their points of view in writing. Both groups are resorting to “self-criticism.”

The Foster group accuses Browder of “errors” and“revisionism.” Foster says that Browder has taken the position that “capitalism is now progressive . Comrade Browder’s theories violated many basic principles of Marxism-Leninism. They were a complete departure from Lenin’s analysis of the present imperialist stage of capitalism.”

What were some of the “errors” and “revisionist ideas” of Browder? Support of the Second Imperialist World War?No, that was not an error. That was not a “complete departure from Lenin’s analysis of the present imperialist stage of capitalism, ” according to the Foster group.

Did Browder’s “revisionism” reside in the fact that, he advocated the support of Roosevelt? No, because “our general wartime policy of supporting the Roosevelt Administration was correct.”

Then what was the “error”? According to the new streamlined Marxism-Leninism of the Foster group it was “under Browder’s influence, of failing to criticize many errors and shortcomings of the Roosevelt government.” And what was one of these “errors” of the Roosevelt Administration? Nothing less than “our recent defense of the appointment of Stettinius, a reactionary, as Secretary of State.” Roosevelt, you see, should have appointed a “progressive” as Secretary of State, say Mayor Hague of Jersey city (who was supported by the CP)or Dan Tobin of the Teamsters Union, who last year was taken to the bosom of the Stalinists, Foster, Minor, Hudson and the others.

Was one of Browder’s “errors” the fact that he did not call upon labor to break with the Republican and Democratic Parties and with the Roosevelt Administration? Was Browder, according to Foster, a revisionist because he failed to call upon labor to resort to independent political action under its own banner and form an independent Labor Party? No, this was not Browder’s error. He erred in that he did not “demand that organized labor be admitted into the Roosevelt government on a coalition basis”Browder did not demand that labor “be given adequate representation in the Roosevelt cabinet.”

The Foster group saw this coalition work so beautifully in the War Labor Board, in which labor had representation. They conclude that the Roosevelt cabinet was the next place to try this noble experiment.

Was Browder a “revisionist” because he did not call for the expropriation of the “Sixty Families, ” the conscription of the war industries, the nationalization of the banks, the big industrial monopolies and transportation systems? These were the demands put forward by the “Trotskyist” Workers Party during the Second Imperialist World War. But this failure was not Browder’s “error, ” according to the Foster faction in Stalin’s American party.


Browder’s “revision of Marxism-Leninism” was that he failed to “attack the trusts as such.” He was very cool to demands inside the leadership that the party should stand firm for the regulation of the big monopolies not to “give the monopolists a free hand” and not “to leave the people at their mercy.”

Browder was only for those “regulations of monopoly practices” to which “the monopolists themselves should agree.” Foster could not agree to this. He stood firmly on the foundations of “Marxism-Leninism, ” the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal. Power Commission and the Interstate Commerce Commission. The Foster group stands solidly with the trust-busters of all the ages. None of the Browder kind of“revisionism” for them. They have their own kind.

The Foster New Order “Marxism-Leninism” discovered that Browder showed a “desire not to offend the big capitalists.” “Frankness compels the admission, ”says Foster, “that Roosevelt, Wallace, Murray and others did a better job at exposing the reactionary content of this big business slogan than Comrade Browder did.” This is the “content”of the Foster-Minor-Hudson line. Roosevelt was more “progressive”than Browder. Roosevelt exposed the reactionaries of big business. Roosevelt was for capitalism and the war and so was Browder (and Foster), but Roosevelt was there progressive in his defense of the war and capitalism. Roosevelt was for incentive pay and so was Browder (and Foster), but Roosevelt was progressive while Browder was in error. Roosevelt demanded a no-strike pledge and so did Browder(and Foster), but Browder was wrong and Roosevelt right.

Foster writes that Browder made an “attempt to exorcise imperialism out of existence.” This is the “Marxist-Leninist”Foster of the present factional dispute in the Stalinist ranks. But Foster wrote a pamphlet in 1942 entitled: Labor and the War.In this pamphlet, Foster wrote:

“This is a just war one which the peoples of the world must support with every ounce of their strength. It is a fundamentally different type of war than that of 1914󈝾, when the struggle was between two rival groups of imperialist power.” (Emphasis mine. – D.C.)

And Foster talks about Browder’s attempt to “exorcise imperialism.”

This is not an imperialist war, said Foster in January 1942, it is a “great war for national liberation.”


What was Browder saying about the war and imperialism in this same year of 1942? In July 1942, Browder said in a. speech, “Victory Must Be Won”: “With full faith in the justness of the United Nations cause, as a people’s war of national liberationwith full faith that our own true national interests coincide with those of other peoples, ” etc., etc.

Browder and Foster were saying the identical things in the very same words. And Minor, who now agrees with Foster, was the chairman of the meeting at which Browder made this speech. Minor said in part:

“. It is fitting to present a great American who clearly foresaw the crisis in which our beloved country is now fighting for its life . we welcome back to his place of active leadership a true leader of the great American people, a great American patriot.”

Also it should be remarked that up to the time of the “new turn” Minor was one of the staunchest defenders of the war as a“sacred war” and wrote theoretical articles explaining and defending “Browder’s line.”

To be sure, Foster did not always think and write as he did in1942. He held a different view in 1941. In that year he wrote in his pamphlet Socialism that “The Roosevelt Administration, despite its peace promises, has steadily pushed the United States deeper into the war.” He called the lend-lease bill the“war-dictatorship bill.” (This is the precise description of the bill used in a streamer headline by the Chicago Tribune.)Foster in 1941 goes on to say that the purpose of the bill “is to set up a military dictatorship in this country and to plunge us fully into the war.” Furthermore, “American imperialism – the great capitalist interests and the Roosevelt government, supported by renegade liberals, pro-war Social-Democrat sand reactionary trade union leaders – has no less mercenary objective than Britain and Germany in this war.”

Was Foster in disagreement with Browder in 1941? He was not. Foster’s pamphlet quoted above was written in March 1941. But in January 1941, Browder wrote a pamphlet entitled The Way Out of the Imperialist War. In this pamphlet Browder said: “President Roosevelt has submitted to Congress what is called a ‘defense budget.’ . It is for defense only in a very special sense that it is a ‘defense’ of the ambitions of Wall street, of the Sixty Families.”

In this pamphlet Browder called Roosevelt a demagogue and added that “. America is in the imperialist war for imperialist aims despite all the chatter and prattle about ‘liberty’and ‘democracy.’” “Monopoly capital”was the “real ‘fifth column.’” And in this pamphlet Browder talks about “Roosevelt’s war dictatorship” just as Foster was to repeat two months later inSocialism.

“New Turn” of the Communists – II, Labor Action, Vol. IX No.㺛, 2 July 1945, p.ل

In discussing the new ferment in the Stalinist Communist Party in the United States, which William Z. Foster calls the return to“Marxism-Leninism, ” we compared the record and writings of Foster for the past few years with those of Earl Browder. The printed record reveals no fundamental difference. On the contrary, it reveals that Foster and his friends were in full accord with Browder(and Stalin) on every important and significant question.

Foster, Minor and Hudson agreed with Browder on the Stalin-Hitler pact. They agreed with Molotov that “Hitlerism . is a matter of taste.”

They were completely satisfied with the position of Browder in1939 that there was little difference between the government of Great Britain and the United States on one side and the government of Germany on the other.

In 1941 they agreed with Browder that the war was an “imperialist war.”

In 1942, when Browder (and Stalin) decided that it was no longer an imperialist war, but that the U.S. was fighting for national liberation, Foster rushed to the side of Browder and Minor and added that “this is a sacred war.”

But now Foster, Minor, Hudson and the rest of the “majority”discover that they were “misled” by Browder.

They reach back into 1939 and come up with a stinking Stalinist concoction which Foster has the brazenness to label“Marxism-Leninism.” Although Browder had no such intentions, in his reply to the Fosterites he objectively exposes the quality of the Foster-Minor-Hudson Marxism. Foster accuses Browder of flirting with capitalism and leading the CP into reformism. Browder quotes from an article by Foster in the June 1945 number of Political Affairs (the CP substitute for the Communist International, monthly magazine published up to. the time the GPU took the“dissolved” Third International underground), as follows:

“By far not all American capitalists favor a policy of aggressive imperialist expansion. Large numbers of them follow the general Roosevelt line. These more far-sighted elements among the capitalists, the Kaisers, Krugs, Nelsons, etc., realizing that their class interests dovetail with the nation’s interests . are accepting the general policies laid down at Teheran and Yalta.”

Browder comments as follows on the Foster position that there are good and bad capitalists:

“The true understanding of American imperialism and American imperialist policy is that it is represented not only in Vandenberg and du Pont, but is equally represented in the Kaisers, Krugs and Nelsons.”

Browder adds that the Kaisers, Krugs and Nelsons are the true representatives of the interests of their class, ”whereas the Vandenbergs and du Ponts “fail to see the true interests of their own class.”

We are certain that every worker will be profoundly touched by this question: which group of capitalists truly represents the interests of the capitalist class? This is one of the. things Browder and his “opponent” Foster are quarreling about.

Far more important, however, is the fact that Foster, who accuses Browder of “revisionism and a departure from Marxism, ”attempts to discover good and bad capitalists.

Kaiser, according to Foster, is better for the working class than du Pont, Nelson is better than Ford, Krug is better than Vandenberg. This is Foster’s “Marxism-Leninism.”Every worker who has toiled in the mines, mills and factories knows that this is pure rubbish.

“Not all American capitalists favor a policy of aggressive imperialist expansion.” What other kind of imperialism is there except aggressive imperialism? Imperialism means to seize, to suppress and exploit colonial and small nations and their peoples for the benefit of an imperialist capitalist ruling class. The oppression and exploitation is accompanied by armies and navies with all the weapons at their command. Has Foster ever seen a pacifist, or meek, or modest imperialism? British, perhaps? Or American? Or Russian?

Where Was Disagreement?

At what other point does Foster disagree with Browder? He and Browder disagree on the possibilities of “socialism in our country.” Foster charges Browder with the “curt dismissal of the whole question of socialism in our country, not only as an immediate political issue (in which he was correct) but also in the sense of mass education (in which he was wrong).” When did Foster find himself in disagreement on this important question? When was Foster advocating mass education in socialism?

In his pamphlet Socialism, issued in March, 1941, Foster talked about socialism.

“There is no system of society except socialism that can free humanity . In a socialist America the people will enjoy freedom in its fullest sense and also the material well-being which must serve as its base . To grease the chute for our final plunge into the war, the war-mongers are asserting that this is a war to save democracy . What a familiar stench that ‘argument’has. It was a lie in 1917 . and it is a lie now .

“John L. Lewis was correct in charging that there are 52, 000, 000 shrunken bellies in this country . TheRoosevelt government, the spearhead of American imperialism, is leading this work of reaction behind a mask of progressive phrases.

Capitalist exploitation of the workers and farmers is . the basic cause of war .

“The New Deal Administration, obeying the dictate of Wall Street, has abandoned its makeshift’pump-priming and is going the way of all capitalism, into wholesale munitions production and war .

“The dictatorship of the proletariat . is therul2 of the workers and peasants .

“Only by militant struggle can the workers and their farmer and other allies protect themselves from the ever-increasing evils of hunger, fascism and war . They should support the right to strike by fighting against all anti-strike legislation, by repudiating in action the no-strike policies of their leaders.”

Thus wrote Foster in March 1941, Was he to the “left”of Browder? Was his pamphlet Socialism a polemic against Browder or against Browder “errors” and “revisionism”?The record is against Foster, for in January 1941 Browder wrote in his pamphlet, The Way Out of the Imperialist War, as follows:

“Today in the midst of the second imperialist war, we commemorate Lenin by applying his teachings . The Roosevelt Administration is about to enter into military action which cannot but be directed against Ireland . The war administration of Roosevelt arrogates to itself the right to enclose the whole hemisphere in its control . This is not democracy. This is imperialism.”

Communist “New Turn” – III, Labor Action, Vol. IX No.㺜, 9 July 1945, p.ك

As we demonstrated last week, Foster & Co. were marching arm in arm with Browder and without protest up to the time of the appearance of the Duclos article. They knew better than to protest even if they actually disagreed because they were fully aware where the position taken by Browder came from. Stalin’s GPU representative was always present to see to it that Browder and all the rest carried out the decisions of the Kremlin. This of course is what makes the feeble protestations of Foster appear so ridiculous and puerile today. Foster did not decide his “line” in1941 or 1942 and he is not deciding it day.

Russian Line Dominated

Right here it is necessary to inject one observation lest threader get the impression, from the above quotations, that either Foster or Browder was a revolutionist or a communist in the period between the signing of the Stalin-Hitler pact and the German invasion of Russia in June 1941. Despite the fact that the CP leadership could write so radically during that period, it was only a spurious radicalism. Its function was to harass the American capitalists and government, in the interest of the pact which Stalin had made with Hitler.

After the attack on Russia, the CP leadership threw off even this spurious radicalism and openly embraced a program of full, complete and uncritical support of capitalism, the Roosevelt government and imperialist war.

The Foster line today is in all essentials a return to the spurious radicalism of the period of the Stalin-Hitler pact. And for the identical reason: the protection of the bureaucratic and reactionary interests of the Kremlin. This will be brought out clearly when we examine the recent resolution of the Foster majority:The Present Situation and the Next Tasks.

For the moment this point can be illustrated by Foster’s comment on Browder’s stand on “socialism in our country.”Foster wrote that Browder was “correct” to take the position that socialism was not an immediate political issue. This is Foster’s position in 1945. But it was not his position in March1941, as the quotations above proved. In his pamphlet Socialism, socialism WAS an “immediate political issue.” He even went so far as to discuss the “dictatorship of the proletariat.” Socialism was the only way out for the American working class. And Browder, in his writings, was in full agreement with Foster.

Roosevelt drew the country into war “by the Hitlerian tactic of concentrating upon a single step at a time . We Communists conspire only in the open, as the sun conspires against darkness and night . The present imperialist war will be brought to an end by . revolution in one or more of the major countries of Europe . The destruction of these democratic rights is an inseparable part of the Roosevelt ‘power’ bill.” (The word “power”here is really a quotation from the Chicago Tribune.)

After June 1941 (when Hitler invaded Russia) Foster changed his line. (Or better, Stalin changed HIS line.) Not only was socialism not an “immediate political issue” but even the suggestion that the working class should resort to independent political action (as proposed by the Workers Party) and form a Labor Party was viciously opposed by Browder and Foster together.

Foster writes today that Browder was wrong in his opposition to the use of mass education to teach workers the principles of socialism. But when were Foster and Browder in disagreement on this point? There is no record of such disagreement. Did Poster write his pamphlet Labor and the War in 1942 to give the working class some socialist education? “This is a just war . ” said Foster in that pamphlet. “Attempts of . pseudo-socialists . to condemn this war also as an imperialist war constitute help to Hitler.”

Misleading the Workers

How could the worker members of the CP understand this man or their party when just the year before he had compared the Roosevelt Administration with that of Woodrow Wilson. In March 1941 he wrote:“What a deadly parallel it makes with World War today.”Roosevelt, wrote Foster, was leading us along the same “fatal path” as Wilson “with even more ghastly results in prospect.”

The record is clear and we remember it. It is in print for every worker to read, over and over. It exists in every union and in every organization where the Stalinists were permitted entry and tolerated. In their craven and debauched support of the imperialist war, in their depraved and brazen fight for the continuation of the infamous no-strike pledge, in their advocacy of piecework wages(incentive pay!), in their organized orgy for the complete subordination of the unions to the capitalist employers and the Roosevelt government, the Fosters, Browders, Minors and Hudsons and all the rest of the Stalinist leadership do not appear before the working class with clean hands. They are dripping, not with the blood of capitalism and imperialism, but with the blood of the working class!

Communist New Turn – IV, Labor Action, Vol. IX No.㺝, 16 July 1945, p.ل.

In previous articles we have dealt with the question of the various positions which Foster and his group assumed in line with the demands of the Kremlin bureaucrats and murderers.

We have demonstrated, right out of the writings of Foster, that he had no fundamental differences with Browder that he did not have any political line different from Browder that Browder and the whole crew received the line for their politics and their trade union activities from Stalin.

All of them together cried “Me, too” when Stalin signed a pact with fascism when Stalin said “this is an imperialist war” or when he changed the line and said “this's a sacred war” when he ordered the American Stalinists one year to organize strikes and the following year to support the no-strike pledge.

All of them fell into line without a murmur of dissent when Stalin was against Roosevelt. They were just as fervent in support of Roosevelt when Stalin, for his own reasons, decided to go all-out for Roosevelt.

The Workers Party has explained again and again in Labor Actionwhy this is so that the antics of the Stalinist parties is decided by Stalin in line with the foreign policy of the Russian bureaucracy. This foreign policy is always decided by the needs of these bureaucrats in their frantic efforts to hold on to power in Russia and to keep the Russian workers suppressed and enslaved. Stalin is never concerned with the welfare of the working class or the trade union movement anywhere.

Now Foster and Browder have a falling out. The sparks are flying in the Daily Worker. They are having a “discussion, ”a period of “self-criticism.” Browder is a “revisionist”and Minor is filled with “prattle.” What we must not forget is that what we have here is the hand of Foster but the voice of Stalin. It is an Edgar Bergen-Charlie McCarthy act.

The Foster “majority” has published a new program The Present Situation and the Next Tasks. We are going to examine this “new program” in detail. We are going to find out what, if anything, is new. We are going to discuss this new trap the Stalinists have prepared for the working class in the United States.

The “New” Line

The draft resolution which contains the program starts off with a lie and goes on to another and still others. “The military defeat of Nazi Germany . has already brought forth a new anti-fascist unity of the peoples in Europe marked by the formation in a number of countries of democratic governments representative of the will of the people.”

Where has this taken place? In Italy? Poland? Greece? Rumania? Czecho-Slovakia? Hungary? France? In no country in Europe, France included, is there a government “representative of the will of the people.” Greece is under the domination of Churchill’s tanks dripping with the blood of the Greek workers in order to guarantee the payment of the interest on the 100 million pounds owed by Greece to the British imperialist Hambro Bank. Where is there any government in Italy “representative of the will” of the Italian people? Do the British and American imperialist armies represent the will of the Italian people?

The bloody sword of Stalin hangs over the Polish, Rumanian and Yugo-Slav peoples. These puppet regimes are undoubtedly what the CPA resolution has in mind when it speaks of “democratic governments.” Was the reactionary monarchist, De Gaulle, doing the will of the French people when the resistance movements were disarmed, scattered and pushed into the background as though it was they who had collaborated with the French and German fascists? Do the broken down kings, queens and other royalty who have returned or will return to Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway and Denmark, represent the “will of the people” of these countries?These are scoundrels and cowards, who deserted “my people”ran off to London and New York, and left the people to be trampled under by the fascist barbarians.

There are no governments in Europe “representative of the will of the people.” The government of Europe are regimes imposed on the people by the Anglo-American-Russian imperialist conquerors. These regimes are supported and maintained by the armed might and the espionage systems of these conquerors. The statement of the Foster (Stalin) resolution is a lie. It is a lie told to delude, mislead and drug the working class in the United States so that the workers may continue to support American imperialism.

The resolution states that a “sustained struggle” must be carried on toward the “complete destruction of fascism in Europe and throughout the world . ” Why? “. because the extremely powerful reactionary forces in the United States and England, which are centered in the trusts and cartels, are striving to reconstruct Europe on a reactionary basis . the most aggressive circles of American imperialism are endeavoring to secure for themselves political and economic domination in the world.”

This is the new Foster-Stalin program. The reactionary forces in the United States are not centered in capitalism and imperialism as such, but only in the biggest capitalists. It is only the “most aggressive circles of American imperialism” which want to dominate the world. What is capitalism today but the trusts and cartels? What are the aggressive circles of imperialism? Is there such a thing as a non-aggressive imperialism? Passive imperialists?Good imperialists?

Foster’s “Old” Line

Does any worker think that it is the little grocer or the five-acre farmer who is out to “dominate the world?” Did Foster believe in September 1941 that the “most aggressive circles of American imperialism” were not after “domination in the world” when he wrote: “What before was an imperialist war has now become a war for the freedom and independence of all nations and peoples.” Then the imperialists, even“the most aggressive circles” were fighting not for world dominion but for national independence. That is, the U.S. did not have its national independence in 1941 and had to fight for it.

The Foster line in 1942 was for saving the cartels and trusts. If Hitler should win “the capitalists would have their power clipped, their profits slashed . It was thus that Foster moaned for the poor cartels and trusts. But as for the workers, they too must protect themselves “by the avoidance of strikes.” Foster urged the workers “to do their share . not to strike while the war emergency lasts . this decision should be adhered to strictly throughout the ranks of labor.”

Communist New Turn – V, Labor Action, Vol. IX No.㺞, 23 July 1945, p.ل.

Among the horrible things contemplated by “American Big Business, ’’ according to the “new turn”resolution of the Foster (Stalin) faction in the Communist Political Association, is the prevention of “a truly democratic and anti-fascist Europe in which the people will have the right to freely choose their own forms of government and social system . Washington together with London is pursuing the dangerous policy of preventing a strong, united and democratic China while they bolster up the reactionary, incompetent Chiang Kai-shek regime . ”

The Foster resolution says that Washington and London act in the manner they do because they are under the influence of “American Big Business.” That’s true. That’s why the war is being fought: to establish the domination of “American Big Business, ” the ruling class in the United States, over Europe and the rest of the world. Throughout the course of this Second Imperialist World War, the Workers Party pointed this out to workers, week in and week out in the columns of Labor Action.The Workers Party said that this is not a war for democracy, it is not a war against fascism – it is an imperialist war. An imperialist war between two groups of imperialist nations:Anglo-American capitalist imperialism on one side and German-Japanese fascist imperialism on the other. The Workers Party said that Russia was engaging in the war in one of the imperialist camps: the Anglo-American camp.

What was the Workers Party basing itself on when it made this analysis? The WP was basing itself on the principles of revolutionary socialism: primarily on the teachings of Marx, Engels and Lenin. The WP was basing itself on the teachings and writings of Leon Trotsky, co-organizer with Lenin of the October Bolshevik revolution, organizer of the real Red Army. (Not the present-day Stalinist Russian Army.) It was this Red Army under Trotsky which defeated all the Russian reactionaries as well as their supporters from the outside, led by Great Britain and the United States.

CP Attacks Trotskyites

What did the Browder-Foster Communist Party say about the position of the Workers Party on the war? It is all summed up in a pamphlet by George Morris entitled: The Trotskyite 5th Column in the Labor Movement. This pamphlet was issued January 1945. What was a 𔄝th Columnist” according to the Browder-Foster(Stalin) line of six months ago? The Trotskyites “Oppose the war . Oppose national unity . Oppose labor’s wartime no-strike pledge . Concentrate fire chiefly upon President Roosevelt and the other Big Three United Nations leaders . ”The Workers Party called for “nationalization of all industry”under “workers control.” The WP said that Roosevelt was“a spokesman for ‘Wall Street’ and ‘American imperialism.’”

The Foster-Browder Stalinists disagreed with all of this. They supported the war. (After June 1941.) They acted like a vast spy agency, like secret police in support of the no-strike pledge. They supported and fought for the speed-up with their“incentive pay” program. They supported the WLB, scabbed on the Montgomery Ward strike, called for the guarantee to England that she would not lose her foreign trade, demanded that venin the post-war period labor should agree not to strike.

These are the people who are talking today about what“American Big Business” is doing and planning to do. The Foster group, just as Browder, supported big business and imperialism throughout the war. They were concerned about big business profits and England’s foreign trade. They wanted labor to guarantee this by submitting completely to Roosevelt and the big business which he represented. They have been doing everything in their power during the war to guarantee that the peoples Europe will be under the domination of “American Big Business” and the GPU of Stalin.

The Foster program pretends great concern over the fate of China. “Washington” and “London” are preventing a “united and democratic China, ” they “bolster up the reactionary . Chiang Kai-Shek.” Is this anything new?Haven’t Washington and London always been enemies of a united and democratic China? Did not Foster know this when he was going into one tail-spin after the other about support of the war? Of course he did.

Hypocrisy in China

Furthermore Foster evidently believes that we have very short memories or that all the written records of history have been destroyed. Who is chiefly responsible for Chiang Kai-Shek being in power in China today?

Stalin and his yes men in the Communist parties of the world. During the Chinese revolution of 1927&ndash28 it was Stalin who ordered the Chinese Communist Party, right on the eve of the victory of the Chinese workers over their oppressors, to liquidate itself into the Kuomintang of Chiang Kai-Shek.

In the months following, Chiang Kai-Shek butchered and murdered hundreds of Chinese communists and revolutionary workers. And now Foster steps forth dripping with the blood of the Chinese working class to tell us that “London” and“Washington” support a reactionary Chiang Kai-Shek. We say that their blood is on the head of Foster because he did not oppose this monstrous policy of Stalin. He went along with it, just as did Browder and Minor and all the crowd that today is yelling for the scalp of the weasel-worded Browder.

Stalin sold out and betrayed the Chinese workers just as he sold out and betrayed the Spanish workers during the Spanish Civil War and the working class in the United States during the present war.

The Foster resolution tells us that “Reactionary forces – especially the NAM and their representatives in Congress – are planning a new open-shop drive to weaken or smash the trade unions . ” Since we are at the end of our space we will take this up next week. It is necessary to remark, however, that no mention is made of the United States Chamber of Commerce. We suppose that the C of C and its president, Mr. Eric Johnston, represent what Foster calls “the good capitalists.”

Today in World War II History—June 18, 1940 & 1945

Lt. Gen. Simon B. Buckner, Commanding General, US Tenth Army (right, with camera) and Maj. Gen. Lemuel C. Shepperd, Jr., Commanding General, 6th Marine Division, Okinawa (with walking stick), June 1945 (US Army Center of Military History)

80 Years Ago—June 18, 1940: In speech to Parliament, Churchill declares: “The Battle of France is over…the Battle of Britain is about to begin,” and “This was their finest hour.”

From London, Gen. Charles de Gaulle makes radio appeal for French to fight under him and not surrender, but few in France hear this broadcast.

75 Years Ago—June 18, 1945: On Okinawa, Lt. Gen. Simon B. Buckner, commander of the US Tenth Army, is killed by shrapnel replaced temporarily by Marine Maj. Gen. Roy Geiger, the first Marine and first (and only) aviator to head a US army.

Today in World War II History—June 18, 1940 & 1945

Lt. Gen. Simon B. Buckner, Commanding General, US Tenth Army (right, with camera) and Maj. Gen. Lemuel C. Shepperd, Jr., Commanding General, 6th Marine Division, Okinawa (with walking stick), June 1945 (US Army Center of Military History)

80 Years Ago—June 18, 1940: In speech to Parliament, Churchill declares: “The Battle of France is over…the Battle of Britain is about to begin,” and “This was their finest hour.”

From London, Gen. Charles de Gaulle makes radio appeal for French to fight under him and not surrender, but few in France hear this broadcast.

75 Years Ago—June 18, 1945: On Okinawa, Lt. Gen. Simon B. Buckner, commander of the US Tenth Army, is killed by shrapnel replaced temporarily by Marine Maj. Gen. Roy Geiger, the first Marine and first (and only) aviator to head a US army.

The Bonham Herald (Bonham, Tex.), Vol. 18, No. 91, Ed. 1 Monday, June 18, 1945

Semi-weekly newspaper from Bonham, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

Physical Description

four pages : ill. page 22 x 15 in. Scanned from physical pages.

Creation Information


This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Fannin County Area Newspaper Collection and was provided by the Bonham Public Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 41 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.



Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

Provided By

Bonham Public Library

The evolution of the Bonham Public Library began in 1901, when a public library was established as an outgrowth of a circulating library sponsored by the Current Literature Club. One hundred and fifteen years later the Library strives to meet the informational, educational, cultural and recreational needs of the Bonham community.

The Bonham Herald (Bonham, Tex.), Vol. 18, No. 90, Ed. 1 Thursday, June 14, 1945

Semi-weekly newspaper from Bonham, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

Physical Description

six pages : ill. page 22 x 15 in. Scanned from physical pages.

Creation Information


This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Fannin County Area Newspaper Collection and was provided by the Bonham Public Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 34 times, with 5 in the last month. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.



Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

Provided By

Bonham Public Library

The evolution of the Bonham Public Library began in 1901, when a public library was established as an outgrowth of a circulating library sponsored by the Current Literature Club. One hundred and fifteen years later the Library strives to meet the informational, educational, cultural and recreational needs of the Bonham community.

Fair Employment Practices Committee

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), committee established by U.S. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1941 to help prevent discrimination against African Americans in defense and government jobs.

On June 25, 1941, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802, which banned “discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin.” At the same time, the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) was established to help enforce the order.

Roosevelt took this action in response to concerns raised by African American leaders such as labour organizer A. Philip Randolph, Mary McLeod Bethune (director of minority affairs in the National Youth Administration), and others, who were outraged that black soldiers were fighting for the United States in segregated units in the military and returning home to a society that still violated their basic rights.

After the executive order was signed, many African Americans applied for defense jobs, but the industry as a whole refused to cooperate, leading Roosevelt to strengthen the FEPC in 1943 by increasing its budget and replacing a Washington-based part-time staff with a full-time staff located around the country.

Enforcement of the order led to some positive changes for African Americans. By the end of World War II, in 1945, African Americans held 8 percent of the jobs in the defense industry, up from 3 percent before the war. In addition, about 200,000 African Americans held government jobs, three times more than before the war had begun. Most of the jobs were relatively low-paying, unskilled positions.

After World War II the U.S. Congress debated making the FEPC permanent, but two bills designed to do that were defeated. In 1945 Congress, whose most important committees were headed by Southerners, cut off funding to the FEPC, which then formally dissolved in 1946. It took another 20 years before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was established to deal with many of the same issues.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Noah Tesch, Associate Editor.

Abraham Lincoln Reminds America of Its Founding Principles (Nov. 19, 1863)

When Abraham Lincoln dedicated a national cemetery for the soldiers who had died at Gettysburg, four months after that central battle of the American Civil War, he was not the principal speaker. But no other speech that day has been remembered the way Lincoln&rsquos words are. He spoke of the past, of the &ldquoproposition that all men are created equal&rdquo on which the Republic was founded he spoke of the present, of the sacrifices ordinary men in blue had made to vindicate that proposition and he spoke of a future in which living Americans must continue to dedicate themselves to the &ldquogreat task&rdquo of preserving that ideal forever. Nothing else anchors the challenges of our present to the intentions of our past more clearly than the Gettysburg Address. Whatever else changes in American life, that proposition does not change and holding it close is the best guarantee that democracy will endure.

Allen C. Guelzo is Henry R. Luce Professor of the Civil War Era and Director of Civil War Era Studies at Gettysburg College, James Madison Program Garwood Visiting Professor at the James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions at Princeton University, and a 2018 Bradley Prize winner. He is the author of Reconstruction: A Concise History.

Social Security

Data for 1945-1989 from Table II.F19 of the 2000 Trustees Report . Data for 1990-1994 from 2004 Trustees Report, Table IV.B2. Data for 1995-2009 from 2010 Trustees Report, Table IV.B2. Data for 2010 from 2011 Trustees Report.

The following footnotes apply to these data:

1. The numbers of beneficiaries do not include certain uninsured persons, most of whom both attained age 72 before 1968 and have fewer than 3 quarters of coverage, in which cases the costs are reimbursed by the general fund of the Treasury. The number of such uninsured persons was 179 as of June 30, 1999. Totals do not necessarily equal the sums of rounded components.

2. Historical covered worker data are subject to revision.

3. Covered Workers is defined as those who are paid at some time during the year for employment on which Social Security taxes are due.

4. Beneficiaries as defined as those with monthly benefits in current-payment status as of June 30.

Monthly Social Security benefits were first paid starting in January 1940. Data for 1940 computed from Tables 4.B.1 and 5.A.4 from the 1998 Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin . The following footnotes apply to the 1940 data only:

June History

June is.
Accordian Awareness Month
Adopt A Cat Month
African-American Music Appreciation Month
Aquarium Month
Candy Month
Caribbean American Heritage Month
Dairy Month
Fight The Filthy Fly Month
Fresh Fruit and Vegetables Month
Gay and Lesbian Pride Month
Great Outdoors Month
Iced Tea Month
Papaya Month

June 1
495 - John Cor made a note referring to the first known batch of Scotch whisky.

1792 - Kentucky joined the United States.

1796 - Tennessee joined the United States.

1813 - James Lawrence, the mortally-wounded commander of the USS Chesapeake, gave the now famous line: "Don't give up the ship!"

1831 - James Clark Ross discovered the Magnetic North Pole.

1986 - Thomas Edison received his first patent (#90646). It was for an "electrographic vote recorder."

1946 - The BBC started to grant television licenses, for legal access to broadcast TV, costing £2 annually.

1947 - The Doomsday Cock first appeared, on the cover of Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. It was initiallys et at 7 minutes until midnight.

1961 - Regular FM stereo radio broadcasting with a multiplexed signal began in Schenectady, NY, on WGFM.

1965 (Explosion) A coal mine explosion in Fukuoka, Japan at the Yamano mine killed 236 people.

1967 - Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band by the Beatles was released.

1968 - Blind and Deaf popular icon Helen Keller died. (born June 27, 1880)

1974 - The Heimlich maneuver, named after Dr. Henry Heimlich, was published in the journal Emergency Medicine.

1980 - The Cable News Network (CNN) began broadcasting

1991- The Comedy Network became Comedy Central

1994 - FX Network made its debut. It was the first cable TV network owned by FOX.

1996 - Major League Baseball debuted for the first time on FOX

2009 - The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien premiered on NBC

2009 - General Motors filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

June 2
455 - The Sack of Rome: Vandals entered Rome, and plundered the city for several weeks.

1098 - First Crusade: The first Siege of Antioch ended as Crusader forces take the city. The crusades were a result of Muslim conquests of the Christian holy lands.

1835 - P. T. Barnum and his circus began touring the United States.

1858 - The Donati Comet was first seen and named after its discoverer, Giovanni Battista Donati, in Florence.

1865 - Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith, a commander of Confederate forces, signed the surrender terms offered by Union negotiators, ending the US civil war.

1928 - Kraft's Velveeta Cheese was made avaiable.

1953 - The coronation of the United Kingdom's Queen Elizabeth II.

1962 - Ray Charles hit Billboards Top 5 in both Pop and R&B with a country tune - I Can't Stop Loving You.

1966 - Surveyor 1 landed in Oceanus Procellarum on the Moon.

1991 - Liquid Television debuted on MTV

2004 - Ken Jennings began his 74-game winning streak on the syndicated game show Jeopardy.

June 3
1621 - The Dutch West India Company receives a charter for New Netherland (now eastern US) and the Caribbean.

1888 - The poem Casey at the Bat by Ernest Lawrence Thayer, was published in the San Francisco Examiner.

1889 - The first long-distance electric power transmission line in the United States was completed, 14 miles between a generator at Willamette Falls and downtown Portland, Oregon.

1948 - The 200-inch reflecting Hale telescope at the Palomar Mountain Observatory in California was dedicated.

1956 - Santa Cruz, CA authorities announced a total ban on rock and roll at public gatherings, calling the music "Detrimental to both the health and morals of our youth and community."

1965 - Major Edward White II, a Gemini 4 crew member, performed the first American spacewalk.

1968 - Valerie Solanas attempted to assassinate Andy Warhol by shooting him three times.

1992 - Presidential candidate Bill Clinton appeared on the Arsenio Hall Show and played the saxophone

1996 - Zenith introduced the first HDTV-compatible front projection TV in the U.S.

1989 - The government of China sent troops to force protesters out of Tiananmen Square after seven weeks of occupation.

2010 - Long suspected of his involvement in the 2005 disappearance of Natalee Holloway, Joran van der Sloot was arrested for the murder of Stephany Flores in Lima, Peru.

June 4
1784 - Elisabeth Thible was the first woman to fly in an untethered hot air balloon, flying for about 45 minutes.

1812 - Following Louisiana's admittance as a US state, the Louisiana Territory was renamed the Missouri Territory.

1876 - The Transcontinental Express arrived in San Francisco, California, in only 83 hours and 39 minutes after leaving New York City.

1895 - Joseph Lee was issued a patent (#540,553) for a "bread crumbing machine"

1912 - Massachusetts became the first state of the United States to call for a minimum wage, although it was non-specific, and for children under 18 and women.

1919 - The US Congress approved the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed voting for women, and sent it to the individual states for ratification.

1937 - The first shopping carts were introduced at the Humpty Dumpty Supermarket in Oklahoma City, created by the store's owner, Sylvan Goldman.

1957 - The first US commercial long-distance coal slurry pipeline, 108 miles long, began delivery from a coal mine, from the Georgetown Preparation Plant of the Hanna Coal Company in Cadiz, Ohio, to the Cleveland Illuminating Company power station, in Eastlake, Ohio.

1974 - During a 'Ten Cent Beer Night' inebriated Cleveland Indians fans started misbehaving, causing the game to be forfeited to the Texas Rangers.

1976 - 'The gig that changed the world.' A few dozen people saw the debut of the Sex Pistols at the Lesser Free Trade Hall in Manchester, England

1986 - Jonathan Pollard pled guilty to espionage for selling top secret United States military intelligence to Israel.

1989 - The 'Tank Man' halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour after the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

June 5
1851 - Harriet Beecher Stowe's anti-slavery serial, Uncle Tom's Cabin (or Life Among the Lowly) began a ten-month run in the National Era, an abolitionist newspaper.

1883 - The first regularly scheduled Orient Express left Paris.

1933 - US President Franklin D. Roosevelt took the United States off of the "Gold Standard", a result of the Great Depression. President Nixon, in 1971, completed the transition when he announced that the United States would no longer convert dollars to gold at a fixed value, $35 an ounce at that time.

1956 - Elvis Presley introduced his new single, Hound Dog, on The Milton Berle Show

1966 - The Beatles had a taped appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, debuting music videos for Rain and Paperback Writer.

1968 - Robert F. Kennedy was shot and killed at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, by Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian.

1977 - The Apple II went in sale.

1981 - The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that five people in Los Angeles, California, had a rare form of pneumonia seen only in patients with weakened immune systems, in what turns out to be the first recognized cases of AIDS.

1989 - The Tiananmen Square protests ended violently in Beijing by the People's Liberation Army, with at least 241 dead. Many western journalists had errantly speculated that the army would not fight against the people.

1995 - Singled Out with host Chris Hardwick premiered on MTV

2011 - Teen Wolf premiered on MTV

June 6
1844 - The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) was founded in London.

1882 (Cyclone) More than 100,000 people in Bombay, India were killed.

1889 - The Great Seattle Fire destroyed 25 blocks of downtown Seattle.

1912 (Volcano Eruption) Novarupta

1933 - America's first drive-in opened near Camden, New Jersey, opened today. The first feature was a 1932 film, Wives Beware, and admission was 25 cents per car and an additional 25 cents per person.

1942 - The first parachute jump in the US using a nylon parachute was made by Adeline Gray, in Hartford, Connecticut.

1944 - D-Day: the day the Allied powers crossed the English Channel and landed on the beaches of Normandy, France, turning the tide of the war against Germany.

1948 - BBC Television began broadcasting again for the first time since 1939.

1964 - The Rolling Stones made their American TV debut on The Hollywood Palace.

1971 - The Ed Sullivan Show aired for the final time on CBS.

1983 - Reading Rainbow premiered on PBS

1997 - Farrah Fawcett made a bizarre appearance on the Late Show With David Letterman. She went on long tirades and story-telling sprees that made little to no sense and was distracted by blinking lights in the studio.

1998 - Sex and The City premiered on HBO

2002 - A near-Earth asteroid, estimated at 30 feet in diameter, exploded over the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Libya.

2005 - In Gonzales v. Raich, the US Supreme Court upheld a federal law banning cannabis, including medical marijuana.

June 7
1692 (Earthquake) Port Royal, Jamaica, over 1,000 people were killed.

1753 - The British Museum was founded, starting the the collections of Sir Hans Sloane.

1755 (Earthquake) Tabriz, Iran

1893 - Mohandas Gandhi committed his first act of civil disobedience.

1914 - The Alliance was the first vessel to pass through the Panama Canal.

1954 - Rutgers Institute of Microbiology opened, it was the second dedicated microbiology laboratory in the world.

1955 - The $64,000 Question debuted on CBS.

1962 - Credit Suisse (then known as Schweizerische Kreditanstalt) opened the first drive-through bank, in Switzerland at St. Peter-Strasse 17, near Paradeplatz in downtown Zurich.

1976 - The Tribal Rites of the New Saturday Night by journalist Nik Cohn was published in New York Magazine. It was the inspiration for the film Saturday Night Fever.

1981 - The Israeli Air Force destroyed Iraq's Osiraq nuclear reactor during Operation Opera.

1990 - Universal Studios Florida opened in Orlando, FL.

2002 - Kim Possible premiered on The Disney Channel.

June 8
632 - Muhammad, the Islamic prophet, died in Medina.

1637 - René Descartes published Discourse on Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences.

1783 (Volcano Eruption) Laki, Iceland, killed over 9,000 over a period of months, and caused a 7 year famine.

1869 - Ives W. McGaffney of Chicago obtained the patent (#91,145) for a "sweeping machine"

1872 - The first US post card was authorized by Act of Congress.

1906 - Theodore Roosevelt signed the Antiquities Act into law, authorizing the President to restrict the use of certain parcels of public land with historical or conservation value.

1940 - The element 93, neptunium (Np) was announced by Edwin M. McMillan and Philip H. Abelson working at the University of California at Berkeley.

1948 - Texaco Star Theater (later The Milton Berle Show) was first broadcast on NBC

1949 - George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four was published.

1949 - The FBI reported notable Hollywood elite as communists, including John Garfield, Paul Robeson, Paul Muni, and Edward G. Robinson.

1953 (Tornado) Flint, Michigan

1953 - The US Supreme Court ruled that restaurants in Washington DC, could not refuse to serve black patrons.

1966 - National Football League (NFL) and American Football League (AFL) announced that they would merge.

1969 - Founder Brian Jones quit The Rolling Stones. He died a month later, at age 27.

1983 - The first triplets resulting from in-vitro fertilization, Aaron, Jessica, and Chenara Guare were born at the Flinders Medical Centre in Adelaide, Australia.

1990 - Charles Freeman, the owner of E-C Records store in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, was charged with illegally selling the 'legally obscene' 2 Live Crew's 'As Nasty As They Wanna Be' to an undercover officer.

June 9
1650 - The Harvard Corporation, one of the two administrative boards of Harvard, was established. It was the first legal corporation in the Americas.

1856 - 500 Mormons left Iowa City, Iowa, and headed west for Salt Lake City.

1902 - Horn & Hardart opened first restaurant with vending machine service at the Automat Restaurant at 818 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1934 - Donald Duck debuted in The Wise Little Hen.

1953 - John H. Kraft was granted his patent (#2,641,545) for "manufacture of soft surface cured cheese".

1973 - In horseracing, Secretariat wins the US Triple Crown (The Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes).

1978 - The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormans) opened its priesthood to "all worthy men", ending a 148-year-old policy of excluding black men.

1979 - The Sydney Ghost Train fire killed 7 people in Luna Park Sydney, Australia.

1984 (Tornado) Belyanitsky, Ivanovo, and Balino, Russia

1993 - 'Hollywood Madame' Heidi Fleiss was arrested.

1997 - Married With Children television series came to an end on FOX.

2006 - Disney's Cars was released in theaters.

June 10
1692 - Bridget Bishop was hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for "certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft & Sorceries."

1809 - The first steamboat to navigate the open seas, the Phoenix paddle wheel steamboat took 13 days to sail from New York City to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1829 - The first Boat Race between the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge took place. Oxford won.

1854 - The first class of United States Naval Academy students graduated.

1886 (Volcano Eruption) Mount Tarawera

1902 - The US patent (#701,839) for a window envelope was issued to Americus F. Callahan of Chicago, Ill., which he called the outlook envelope.

1916 - An Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire led by Lawrence of Arabia began.

1935 - Alcoholics Anonymous is founded in Akron, Ohio, United States, by Dr. Robert Smith and Bill Wilson.

1943 - Laszlo Biro filed for a British patent (British #564172) on a practical ball point pen with quick-drying ink.

1944 - 15-year-old Joe Nuxhall of the Cincinnati Reds became the youngest player ever in a Major League Baseball game.

1947 - Saab produced its first automobile.

1952 - Mylar was registered as a DuPont trademark for an strong polyester film that grew out of the development of Dacron, product of the early 1950s.

1991 - 11-year-old Jaycee Lee Dugard was kidnapped in South Lake Tahoe, California she was freed in 2009.

1994 - Pay television content descriptors which describe the varying degrees of suggestive or explicit content in a series and movies began being broadcast by pay channels such as HBO, Cinemax and Showtime.

2007 - HBO's critically acclaimed, multi-award-winning Mob-family drama The Sopranos ended with a sudden cut to black and silence, leaving many fans to wonder whether Tony Soprano was dead or still alive.

June 11
323 BC - Alexander the Great died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II in Babylon.

1509 - Henry VIII of England married Catherine of Aragon.

1742 - Benjamin Franklin invented the Franklin stove. He chose not to patent it.

1793 - Robert Heterick was issued the patent (#X000063) for a stove design of cast iron

1837 - The Broad Street Riot occurred in Boston, fueled by ethnic tensions between Yankees and Irish.

1895 - Charles E. Duryea was granted he first US patent (#540,648) for a gasoline-driven automobile.

1949 - Hank Williams, Sr. debuted at the Grand Ole Opry.

1955 - Eighty-three spectators were killed and at least 100 are injured after an Austin-Healey and a Mercedes-Benz collided at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the deadliest accident to date in motorsports.

1962 - Frank Morris, John Anglin and Clarence Anglin (allegedly) became the only prisoners to escape from the prison on Alcatraz Island. They were never seen again after escaping on an inflatable raft.

1963 - Faget, Meyer, Chilton, Blanchard, Kehlet, Hammack and Johnson were granted the patent (#3,093,346), for NASA, for the Mercury space capsule.

1963 - Alabama Governor George Wallace (D) stood at the door of Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama in an attempt to block two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from attending the school.

1979 - Actor John Wayne died afrer a decade-long fight with cancer.

1982 - E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial was released in theaters.

1986 - Ferris Bueller's Day Off was released in theaters. The rare Ferrari 250 GT Spyder California was not really destroyed in the film.

2001 - Timothy McVeigh was executed for his role in the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing.

2002 - American Idol premiered on FOX

2002 - Antonio Meucci was acknowledged as the first inventor of the telephone by the United States Congress. His 1871 patent was not as detailed as Alexander Graham Bell's 1876 patent.

June 12
1790 - A 'Red Globe' was being reported by many people, flying over France.

1849 - A gas mask "inhaler or lung protector" was patented (#X006529) by Lewis Phectic Haslett of Louisville, Ky.

1899 (Tornado) New Richmond, Wisconsin

1906 - Sound movies were patented (#823,022) by John Ballance.

1913 - John Randolph Bray exhibited the first animated cartoon, a movie called The Artist's Dream (aka The Dachsund) in which a dog atesausages until he exploded.

1924 - US President George Bush, born June 12, 1924 in Milton, Massachusetts.

1939 - The Baseball Hall of Fame opened in Cooperstown, New York.

1942 - Anne Frank received a diary for her thirteenth birthday.

1964 - Anti-apartheid activist and ANC leader Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life in prison for sabotage in South Africa.

1967 - The US Supreme Court in Loving v. Virginia declared all US state laws which prohibit interracial marriage to be unconstitutional.

1972 - Fast food restaurant chain Popeyes was founded in Arabi, Louisiana.

1979 - Cyclist Bryan Allen flew the Gossamer Albatross across the English Channel, it was powered solely by human power.

1987 - "Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall." - Ronald Reagan, referring to the Berlin Wall.

1998 - Geraldo ended (syndicated show)

1994 - Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman were murdered outside her home in Los Angeles, California.

1997 - Queen Elizabeth II reopened the Globe Theatre in London.

1999 - The Style Network made its debut.

June 13
1373 - Anglo-Portuguese Alliance between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest international agreement in the world which is still in force.

1525 - Ex-Catholic priest Martin Luther married Katharina von Bora, against the celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for priests and nuns.

1611 - Astronomer Johannes Fabricius published Narratio de maculis in sole observatis et apparente earum cum sole conversione (Narration on Spots Observed on the Sun and their Apparent Rotation with the Sun), after his doscovery of sunspots.

1774 - Rhode Island became the first of Britain's North American colonies to ban the importation of slaves.

1844 - A safe lock was patented by Linus Yale (#3,630)

1886 - Great Vancouver Fire destroyed much of the Canadian city.

1898 - Yukon Territory was formed, with Dawson chosen as its capital.

1904 - PS General Slocum fire and sank, East River, New York

1927 - Aviator Charles Lindbergh received his famous ticker-tape parade down 5th Avenue in New York City.

1962 - Stanley Kubrick's controversial Lolita was released.

1966 - The United States Supreme Court rules in Miranda v. Arizona that the police must inform suspects of their rights before questioning them. It is a bit more detailed than what police say in most televised crime dramas.

1971 - The New York Times published the Pentagon Papers. 1983 - Launced in 1972, Pioneer 10 crossed the orbit of Neptune and became the first man-made object to leave our Solar System.

1994 - A jury in Anchorage, Alaska, blamed recklessness by Exxon and Captain Joseph Hazelwood for the Exxon Valdez disaster, allowing victims of the oil spill to seek $15 billion in damages.

2012 - Dallas, originally on CBS, returned to television, this time on TNT

June 14
1158 - Munich (in what is now Germany) was founded by Henry the Lion on the banks of the river Isar.

1775 -The Continental Army was established by the Continental Congress, marking the birth of the United States Army.

1777 - The Stars and Stripes was adopted by Congress as the Flag of the United States. Today, June 14 is officially 'Flag Day' in the United States.

1789 - Whiskey distilled from maize was first produced by American clergyman the Rev Elijah Craig. It is named Bourbon because Rev Craig lived in Bourbon County, Kentucky.

1834 - The first sandpaper was patented (#X08244, #X08245, #X08246, #X08247) and issued to Isaac Fisher, Jr., of Springfield, Vermont

1872 - Trade unions were legalized in Canada.

1884 - New York was the first state in the US to enact legislation requiring the burying of utility wires.

1938 - Dr. Benjamin Gruskin of Philadelphia, Pa. patented (#2,120,667) chlorophyll as a "therapeutic agent for the use in the treatment of infection" of the blood stream, infected parts, and for open cuts and wounds.

1951 - The Univac1 was unveiled in Washington, DC. and dedicated as the world's first commercial computer.

1954 - US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a bill that placed the words 'under God' into the United States Pledge of Allegiance.

1959 - Disneyland Monorail System, the first daily operating monorail system in the Western Hemisphere, opened to the public in Anaheim, California.

1966 - The Vatican announced the abolition of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum ("Index of Prohibited Books"), which was originally instituted in 1557.

1967 - The People's Republic of China tested its first hydrogen bomb.

1972 As of DEcember 31, the insecticide DDT was banned from use in the US.

2002 - The Bourne Identity was released in theaters.

June 15
763 BC - Assyrians recorded a solar eclipse, and that detail was later used to fix the chronology of Mesopotamian history.

1215 - The signed (sealed) Magna Carta guaranteed King John would respect feudal rights and privileges, uphold the freedom of the church within his kingdom. This was probably the same King John of Robin Hood lore.

1648 - Margaret Jones was hanged in Boston for witchcraft in the first such execution for the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

1752 - Benjamin Franklin proved that lightning is electricity (traditional date, the exact date is unknown).

1776 - Delaware Separation Day: Delaware voted to suspend government under the British Crown and officially separate from Pennsylvania.

1844 - Charles Goodyear received a patent (#3,633) for vulcanization, a process to strengthen rubber.

1846 - The Oregon Treaty established the 49th parallel as the border between the United States and Canada, from the Rocky Mountains to the Strait of Juan de Fuca.

1878 - Eadweard Muybridge took a series of photographs to prove that all four feet of a horse leave the ground when it runs the study becomes the basis of motion pictures. The purpose of the shoot was to determine whether a galloping horse ever lifts all four feet completely off the ground during the gait, since the human eye could not break down the action. It is considered by many to be the first 'motion picture.'

1896 (Earthquake & Tsunami) Meiji-Sanriku, Japan

1919 - The first US patent (#228,904) for a safety razor was issued to (brothers) Frederick and Otto Kampfe of New York.

1934 - The Great Smoky Mountains National Park was founded.

1985 - Rembrandt's painting Danaë is attacked by Bronius Maigys (later judged insane) who threw sulfuric acid on the canvas and cut it twice with a knife.

1991 (Volcano Eruption) Mount Pinatubo

1994 - Israel and Vatican City established full diplomatic relations.

2012 - Nik Wallenda became the first person to successfully tightrope walk over Niagara Falls.

June 16
1816 - Lord Byron read 'Fantasmagoriana' to his four house guests - Percy Shelley, Mary Shelley, Claire Clairmont, and John Polidori, and inspired his challenge that each guest write a ghost story.

1858 - Abraham Lincoln gave his "a house divided against itself cannot stand" speech.

1884 - The first public roller coaster, LaMarcus Adna Thompson's "Switchback Railway" (patent #310,966) opened in New York's Coney Island amusement park.

1893 - Cracker Jack, invented by R.W. Rueckheim, was introduced at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago's World Fair.

1903 - The Pepsi-Cola Co. registered the Pepsi-Cola trademark.

1903 - The Ford Motor Company was incorporated by Henry Ford and 11 investors.

1904 - Bloomsday is a commemoration and celebration of the life of Irish writer James Joyce during which the events of his novel, Ulysses, takes place.

1911 - IBM as founded as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company in Endicott, New York.

1961 - Dancer Rudolf Nureyev defected to the US from the Soviet Union.

1963 - Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman in space on Vostok 6.

1967 - The Monterey Pop Festival began.

2010 - Hot in Cleveland premiered on TV Land.

June 17
1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempted to assassinate Mehmed II, forcing him to retreat from Wallachia, in Romania.

1631 - Mumtaz Mahal died during childbirth. Her husband, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan I, spent the next 17 years building her mausoleum, the Taj Mahal.

1837 - Charles Goodyear obtained his first rubber-processing patent (#240). The success of his company came after he died in 1860.

1852 - W.H. Fancher and C.M. French of Waterloo, N.Y. received a patent (#35,600) for a combined plow and gun. Yes, you rwad that correctly.

1885 - The Statue of Liberty arrived in New York Harbor.

1944 - Iceland declared independence from Denmark and becomes a republic.

1963 - The US Supreme Court ruled 8 to 1 in Abington School District v. Schempp, against requiring the reciting of Bible verses and the Lord's Prayer in public schools.

1971 - President Richard Nixon declared the US War on Drugs.

1987 - Florida's Dusky Seaside Sparrow became extinct when 'Orange band', the last known of the species, died.

1994 - All major networks provided live coverage of the O.J. Simpson low-speed car chase in the White Bronco. The chase concluded with Simpson's surrender to authorities in front of his mansion in Brentwood, CA.

June 18
1178 - A meteor crached into the Moon or exploded between Earth and the Moon.

1812 - The US Congress declares war on Great Britain, Canada, and Ireland, starting The War of 1812.

1815 - Napoleon defeated at Waterloo, in Belgium.

1873 - Susan B. Anthony was fined $100 for attempting to vote in the 1872 presidential election.

1923 - Checker Taxi put its first taxi on the streets of Chicago.

1930 - Groundbreaking ceremonies for the Franklin Institute were held in Philadelphia, PA.

1940 - Winston Churchill gave his "Finest Hour" speech.

1965 - The first large solid-fuel rocket - a Titan 3C - rocket was launched into orbit.

1979 - SALT II was signed by the United States and the Soviet Union.

1983 - The space shuttle Challenger launched into space on its second mission, with Dr. Sally Ride, making her the first American woman in space.

1984 - Conservative talk radio host Alan Berg - "the man you love to hate" - was gunned down and killed in the driveway of his home in Denver, Colorado.

June 19
1586(?) - English colonists leave Roanoke Island, and disappeared. The only clue found was the word "CROATOAN" carved into a tree.

1718 (Earthquake) Gansu, China

1846 - The first officially recorded, organized baseball game was played under Alexander Cartwright's rules on Hoboken, New Jersey's Elysian Fields with the New York Base Ball Club defeating the Knickerbockers 23-1.

1862 - The US Congress prohibited slavery in United States territories, nullifying Dred Scott v. Sandford.

1905 - The first nickelodeon theater opened in Pittsburgh, PA.

1910 - The first Father's Day was celebrated in Spokane, Washington.

1941 - Cheerie Oats, later renamed Cheerios, was invented.

1949 - The first ever NASCAR race was held at Charlotte Motor Speedway.

1952 - I've Got A Secret premiered on CBS

1953 - Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed for spying for the Soviet Union, at Sing Sing, in New York.

2011 - Falling Skies premiered on TNT

2012 - WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange requested asylum in London's Ecuatorian Embassy for fear of extradition to the US after publication of previously classified documents.

June 20
1214 - The University of Oxford received its Royal charter.

1782 - Congress adopted the Great Seal of the United States, with the Bald Eagle clutching both an olive branch and thirteen arrows.

1837 - Queen Victoria succeeded to the British throne.

1840 - Samuel Morse received the patent (#1647) for the telegraph.

1863 - West Virginia joined the United States.

1893 - Lizzie Borden was acquitted of the murders of her father and stepmother.

1945 - The United States Secretary of State approved the transfer of Wernher von Braun (and other Nazi rocket scientists) to America.

1948 - Toast of the Town, a variety series hosted by Ed Sullivan, premiered on CBS. It was later renamed The Ed Sullivan Show.

1963 - The United States and the Soviet Union agreed to establish a "hot line" communication system between the two nations.

1975 - Hollywood's first major summer 'must see' blockbuster, Jaws, opened in theaters.

June 21
1788 - The United States Constitution was ratified.

1788 - New Hampshire joined the United States.

1834 - Cyrus Hall McCormick received a patent (#X008277) for his grain reaping machine,

1877 - The Molly Maguires, ten Irish immigrants convicted of murder, were hanged in Pennsylvania prisons, in Schuylkill County and Carbon County.

1893 - The first Ferris wheel premiered at Chicago's Columbian Exposition, and could hold up to 2000 people on 36 cars, and was 264 feet tall.

1913 - The first successful parachute jump from an airplane by a woman was made by Georgia Broadwick, age 18, over Griffith Field, Los Angeles, California.

1940 - The first successful west-to-east navigation of Northwest Passage begins at Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

1948 - Columbia Records introduced the long-playing record album (33 1/3 revolutions per minute) in a public demonstration at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York, New York. The first was released in 1949 - ML 4001, Nathan Milstein performing the Mendelssohn violin concerto.

1990 (Earthquake) Rudbar, Iran

2006 - Pluto's recently discovered moons were officially named Nix and Hydra.

June 22
1633 - The Holy Office in Rome forced Galileo Galilei to recant his view that the Sun, not the Earth, is the center of the Universe

1870 - US Congress created the United States Department of Justice.

1937 - Joe Louis won the world heavyweight boxing title when he defeated Jim Braddock.

1942 - Pledge of Allegiance was formally adopted by Congress.

1950 - The publication 'Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television' listed many suspected communists in American media, including Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland, Lena Horne, Pete Seeger, Artie Shaw and Orson Welles.

1969 - Cleveland, Ohio's Cuyahoga River caught fire.

1978 - Pluto's Moon Charon was discovered by James W. Christy, at the Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz.

2001 - The Fast and the Furious was released in theaters.

2009 - Eastman Kodak Company announced that it would discontinue sales of the Kodachrome Color Film.

June 23
1683 - William Penn signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania.

1860 - The United States Congress established the Government Printing Office.

1868 - Christopher Latham Sholes received the patents (#79265 & #79868) for an invention he called the "Type-Writer." He also invented the 'QWERTY keyboard' in 1873.

1894 - The International Olympic Committee was founded at the Sorbonne in Paris.

1926 - The College Board administered the first SAT exam.

1938 - The first 'Oceanarium' opened at Marineland in St. Augustine, Florida

1944 (Tornado) Shinnston, West Virginia

1953 - Frank J. Zamboni was issued a patent (#2,642,679) for his ice resurfacer.

1960 - The US Food and Drug Administration declares Enovid to be the first officially approved combined oral contraceptive pill in the world.

1973 - A fire at a house in Hull, England which killd a six year old boy, was the first of 26 deaths by fire caused over the next seven years by arsonist Peter Dinsdale.

1980 - The David Letterman Show debuted on NBC daytime. It was cancelled a few months later.

1982 - A record low temperature of -117ºF. was recorded at the South Pole.

1989 - Batman, starring Micheal Keaton, was released in theaters.

2013 - Nik Wallenda became the first man to successfully walk across the Grand Canyon on a tight rope.

June 24
1374 - An early morning, sudden outbreak of 'St. John's Dance' caused people in the streets of Aachen, Germany, to experience hallucinations and begin to jump and twitch uncontrollably until they collapsed from exhaustion.

159 - Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon were crowned King and Queen of England.

1873 - Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) received a patent (#140,245) for a self-pasting Scrapbook.

1916 - Mary Pickford became the first female film star to sign a million dollar contract (with Adolph Zukor/Paramount).

1938 - Pieces of a meteor, estimated to have weighed 450 metric tons when it hit the Earth's atmosphere and exploded, landed near Chicora, in western Pennsylvania. A cow was reportedly injured.

1947 - Kenneth Arnold reported seeing the Mount Rainier UFO

1948 - Veteran Pilots Clartence Chiles and Charles Whitted, in Alabama, saw a cigashaped vehicle, with windows, flying beside them.

1949 - The first television western, Hopalong Cassidy, aired on NBC, starring William Boyd.

1957 - Jack Parr became the host on The Tonight Show on NBC,

1997 - US Air Force officials released a 231-page report dismissing all of the claims of an alien spacecraft crash in Roswell, New Mexico, in 1947.

2004 - In New York, capital punishment was declared unconstitutional.

2008 - Wipeout premiered on ABC.

June 25
1788 - Virginia joined the United States.

1867 - Barbed wire was patented (#66,182) by Lucien B. Smith of Kent, Ohio.

1876 - Native American forces, led by Chiefs Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, defeated the US Army troops lead by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer in a battle near southern Montana's Little Bighorn River.

1910 - The US Congress passed the Mann Act, which prohibited interstate transport of females for "immoral purposes."

1910 - Igor Stravinsky's ballet The Firebird premiered in Paris,

1914 - The Greal Salem Fire, Massachusettes

1944 - The final page of the comic strip Krazy Kat was published, months after the author, George Herriman died.

1947 - The Diary of a Young Girl (better known as The Diary of Anne Frank) was published.

1949 - The cartoon classic, Long-Haired Hare starring Bugs Bunny, was released in theaters.

1967 - The special Our World was the first live worldwide "via satellite" TV broadcast, transmitting to 30 countries via the BBC. The Beatles closed the show ith All You Need Is Love. Performers include Mick Jagger, opera singer Maria Callas, Vienna Boys' Choir, Keith Richards, Keith Moon, Eric Clapton, Pattie Harrison, Jane Asher, Graham Nash, and others. The show lasted 2 and a half hours.

1978 - The rainbow flag, representing gay pride, was flown for the first time in the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade.

1996 - The Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia killed 19 US servicemen.

2009 - Michael Jackson died after suffering from cardiac arrest caused by a fatal combination of drugs given to him by his personal doctor, Conrad Murray.

June 26
1498 - The bristle toothbrush was invented in China.

1797 - Charles Newbold was issued a patent (#X000177) for an improvement for the cast-iron plow

1807 - Lightning struck a gunpowder factory in Luxembourg, killing more than 300 people.

1819 - The first US patent (#X003115) for a velocipede, a predecessor of the bicycle, was issued to William K. Clarkson Jr. of New York.

1870 - Christmas was declared a federal holiday in the United States.

1906 - 1906 French Grand Prix, the first Grand Prix motor racing event was held. Ferenc Szisz, driving for the Renault team, won the two day event.

1926 - Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises novel was released.

1927 - The Cyclone roller coaster opened on Coney Island.

1934 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Federal Credit Union Act, which established credit unions in the US.

1936 - The first flight of the Focke-Wulf Fw 61, the first working helicopter, in Berlin, Germany.

1945 - The United Nations Charter was signed, in San Francisco.

1948 - Shirley Jackson's short story, The Lottery, was published in The New Yorker magazine.

1963 - US President John F. Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech.

1974 - The Universal Product Code was scanned for the first time to sell a package of Wrigley's chewing gum at the Marsh Supermarket in Troy, Ohio.

1977 - Elvis Presley performed the final concert of his life in Indianapolis, Indiana.

1997 - The US Supreme Court ruled that the Communications Decency Act violated the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

2000 - The completion of a working draft reference DNA sequence of the human genome was announced at the White House by President Bill Clinton, and representatives from the Human Genome Project (HGP).

June 27
1556 - The thirteen Stratford Martyrs were burned at the stake near London for their Protestant beliefs.

1844 - Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Mormons, and his brother Hyrum Smith, were murdered by a mob at the Carthage, Illinois jail.

1898 - The first solo circumnavigation of the globe was completed by Joshua Slocum from Briar Island, Nova Scotia.

1949 - The first sci-fi TV show, Captain Video and His Video Rangers debuted. 1966 - ABC's dark shadows premiered.

1968 - Elvis Presley filmed his Comeback Special.

1976 - Air France Flight 139 (Tel Aviv-Athens-Paris) was hijacked en route to Paris by the PLO and redirected to Entebbe, Uganda.

1985 - US Route 66 was officially removed from the United States Highway System.

June 28
1635 - Guadeloupe became a French colony.

1832 - The first American case of a cholera epidemic was reported in New York City.

1838 - Coronation of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

1846 - Adolphe Sax patented the saxophone.

1894 - Labor Day became an official US holiday.

1895 - The US Court of Private Land Claims rules James Reavis' claim to Barony of Arizona is "wholly fictitious and fraudulent."

1914 - World War One (orginally 'The Great War') began with the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Serajevo.

1926 - Mercedes-Benz was formed by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz merging their two companies.

1964 - Malcolm X formed the Organization of Afro-American Unity.

1969 - Stonewall Riots began in New York City, marking the start of the Gay Rights Movement.

1992 (Eathquakes) Landers, California, about 100 miles east of Los Angeles.

1997 - Mike Tyson bit Evander Holyfield's ear in the third round of their heavyweight rematch, earning a disqualification.

2007 - Burn Notice premiered on USA

June 29
1613 - The Globe Theatre in London burned to the ground.

1889 - Hyde Park and several other Illinois townships voted to be annexed by Chicago, forming the largest United States city in area and second largest in population.

1956 - The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 was signed, officially creating the United States Interstate Highway System.

1967 - Actress Jayne Mansfield died in car crash on Interstate 90, east of New Orleans, Louisiana.

1974 - Mikhail Baryshnikov defected from the Soviet Union to Canada while on tour with the Kirov Ballet.

1995 - STS-71 Mission Atlantis Space Shuttle docked with the Russian space station Mir for the first time.

1998 - The Lifetime Movie Network made its debut.

2007 - Apple released its first mobile phone, the iPhone.

2014 The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS/ISIL) self-declared its caliphate in Syria and northern Iraq.

June 30
1831 - A patent for a platform scale was issued to brothers Erastus and Thaddeus S. Fairbanks of St. Johnsbury, Vermont.

1859 - Jean-Francois Gravelet, known as Emile Blondin, became the first daredevil to walk across Niagara Falls on a tightrope.

1860 - The 1860 Oxford evolution debate (Huxley-Wilberforce debate or the Wilberforce-Huxley debate) at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History took place.

1886 - The United States Division of Forestry was recognized and established by an Act of Congress

1894 - The Tower Bridge across the River Thames in London was officially opened

1906 - The United States Congress passes the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act.

1908 - The Tunguska Event happened near Lake Baikal, Russia. Destroying 770 square miles in Eastern Siberian Taiga. It was probably a big meteor. Or was it?

1936 - Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind was published.

1952 - The Guiding Light premiered on CBS.

1953 - The first Chevrolet Corvette rolled off the assembly line in Flint, Michigan.

1966 - The National Organization for Women (NOW) was founded.

1971 - Ohio ratifies the 26th Amendment to the US Constitution, reducing the voting age to 18, putting the amendment into effect.

1972 - The first leap second was added to the UTC time system.

1987 - Iran-Contra hearings aired during daytime television, pre-empting most programming.

Watch the video: 7 Minute Abs Blaster. The Body Coach TV (June 2022).


  1. Menelik

    There is something in this.

  2. Haddon

    I consider, that you are mistaken. I can defend my position. Email me at PM, we'll talk.

  3. Maugami

    every day is like the previous one. each post by the author is different from the previous one. conclusion: read the author :)

  4. Orin

    just in the subject !!!!))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

  5. Hassan

    This is a curious topic

Write a message