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New book brings 3D technology to ancient Cypriot sculptures
Thanks to 3D technology, readers of “Visualizing Votive Practice,” the new digital book published by the Digital Press at UND, can interact with and manipulate images of ancient Cypriot sculptures such as this one. Web screenshot.
A digital book published this week at UND uses 3D technology to let readers study, examine and enjoy 2,500-year-old sculptures from Cyprus in a remarkable new way.
The book, “Visualizing Votive Practice: Exploring Limestone and Terracotta Sculpture from Athienou-Malloura through 3D Models,” was published by the Digital Press at the University of North Dakota. It was written by Derek B. Counts, professor and chair of Art History at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Erin Walcek Averett, associate professor of Art History and Classical & Near Eastern Studies at Creighton University Kevin Garstki, lecturer in the Department of Anthropology, Global Religions, and Cultures at the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh and Michael Toumazou, professor of Classics at Davidson College in North Carolina.
“Visualizing Votive Practice” uses 3D images embedded directly in the PDF to present a significant new group of terracotta and limestone sculpture from the sanctuary of Malloura on Cyprus. The idea is that by combining traditional features of an archaeological artifact catalogue with the dynamic possibilities of a digital book, these fascinating objects will come alive on the page, the authors suggest.
The book also includes thousands of hyperlinks that invite the reader to engage with objects at the world’s greatest museums, explore previous scholarship, and learn more about Cyprus, a Mediterranean island uniquely situated at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Cyprus has been inhabited since as far back as the Stone Age some of the water wells discovered there, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old, are believed to be among the oldest in the world.
“Visualizing Votive Practice” provides an important discussion of the theory, methods, and practices that produced the 3D images in archaeology. It is available from The Digital Press as a free, open access, download.
“We wanted to challenge traditional approaches to publication and leverage open, digital platforms to provide better access to our research but also connect that research with a wider network of information,” said co-author Derek Counts.
Co-author Kevin Garstki agreed. “The book builds upon the available platforms for sharing 3D models and combines them with important archaeological context that makes them more than just ‘pretty’ models on a computer screen but actual research tools,” Garstki said.
“We wanted to challenge traditional approaches to publication and leverage open, digital platforms to provide better access to our research,” said an author of “Visualizing Votive Practice,” the new digital book whose images are enhanced by 3D technology. Web screenshot.
The site of Malloura on the Mesaoria Plain on Cyprus is significant in its own right. “This sanctuary is one of the few religious sites to be excavated scientifically and provides a wealth of information on changing Cypriot religious practices from the Cypro-Geometric through Roman periods (ca. 8th c. BCE to at least the 4th c. CE),” said co-author Erin Walcek Averett.
“From terracotta warrior figurines to limestone statues of Cypriot Herakles, this votive assemblage enriches our understanding of the cult and ritual habit at the site.”
In art, the word “votive” usually refers to an object offered to a god or goddess at a sacred place, such as a temple.
The book also relies on the Alexandria Archive’s Open Context digital, archaeological publishing platform. Each object in the book is linked to a permanent digital version on the web, allowing future researches to link to a specific artifact and for the catalogue to expand and develop in the future.
The digital publication of these artifacts “allows for continued expansion of the collection, as well as the addition and association of other related archaeological materials — such as the ceramic vessels, coins, and animal bones — facilitating exploration and reuse of the ever-growing collection, even for purposes not currently recognized in the context of the Visualizing Votive Practice publication,” explained Eric Kansa, Open Context’s program director.
William Caraher, the director at the Digital Press at the University of North Dakota, said that “open-access books such as ‘Visualizing Votive Practice’ shows the potential to combine rigorous peer review and innovative collaborative publishing practices. Scholar-led publishing is not the only future for academic publishing, but works such as this are starting to make the case for it being a viable and significant alternative to traditional academic and commercial publishers.”
Cypriot Votive Clay Figurines - History
FOR THE CYPRUS MUSEUM DOCUMENTARY PRESS HERE
The first archaeological Museum of Lefkosia was housed in a building on Victoria St. in old Lefkosia, in the occupied part of the town. It was founded in 1888 as a privately run institution to protect the finds that started to come to light during the first legal excavations undertaken during the British rule of the island.
The first law concerning archaeology was voted in 1905 and was the first essential step towards the establishment of archaeology in Cyprus. A committee, chaired by the British governor, undertook the direction of the museum. The continuously growing number of finds from systematic excavations which were mainly undertaken by foreign missions, such as the Swedish Archaeological School mission directed by professor Einar Gjerstad, forced the museum's committee to look for new premises for the exhibition and the storage of the finds.
The voting in 1935 of a new Archaeological Law and the creation of the Department of Antiquities gave the opportunity to the Museum to become fully official. Many significant excavations were undertaken by Cypriot researchers and brought to light some of the earliest phases of settlement in the island, establishing the historical evolution of Cyprus and enriching the collections of the Museum with important finds. With the island’s independence in 1960, Cypriot archaeology further flourished since it was at last possible for it to confront its relative isolation and to confirm its position in the front line of international archaeological research.
The Archaeological Museum of Lefkosia consists of fourteen rooms surrounding a square central area and is comprised of offices, a library, storerooms and areas for preserving and studying items in the collection. The objects in the rooms follow a chronological and a thematical succession.
On the right side of Room I a series of objects (tools, stone vessels and figurines) is presented, which constitute the earliest evidence of human presence on the island during the Neolithic period. The left side of the room is dedicated to the Chalcolithic period when stone vessels coexist with handmade clay vessels as well as with figurines made out of picrolite. In the first exhibition case, in the middle of the room, clay objects are on display, which constitute the first evidence of worship.
The following two rooms contain pottery. Room II is dedicated to the rich collection of pottery of the Early Bronze Age while in Room III reference is made to the evolution of pottery from the Middle Bronze Age to the Roman period. The exhibited objects demonstrate the rich local ceramic tradition of Cyprus but at the same time special reference is made to the imported Mycenaean, Phoenician and Attic pottery as well as to faience objects, which played a vital role in the establishment of the local pottery style.The imported Mycenaean craters and the locally produced Archaic vessels of the “free-field” style are given a prominent position .
The evolution of the strong Egyptian and Assyrian influences of the statuary from the Classical period is on display in Room V . The Archaic statues, carved in the local limestone, gradually gave their place to works with Greek influences, carved into the imported marble. The later phase of Cypriot statuary, dated to the Hellenistic and Roman periods, is exhibited in Room VI where we find mainly marble and bronze statues. In the centre of the room, the bronze statue of Septimius Severus constitutes the main exhibited work of art.
Room VII is divided into three sections. The first one is dedicated to the rich collection of bronze objects which reflect the wide use of this material, for which Cyprus was famous in antiquity, so much so in everyday activities (agricultural tools) as in warfare activities (weapons), commercial exchange goods (tripods) and ritual practices (Horned God from Egkomi). In the central section of the room specimens from the museum’s rich collection of seals and coins are on display, which represent all the mints of the Cypriot kingdoms as well as the mint during the Ptolemaic rule on the island. On the wall behind the coins two boards are hung containing parts of floor mosaics from two roman buildings. The last section of the room contains gold jewellery, silver vessels, glass objects and lamps dating from the Early Bronze Age to early Christian times.
Room VIII , which is on a lower level under the stairs leading to the metallurgy room, has been specially modified to receive a reconstruction of tombs dating from the 4th millennium to the 4th century B.C. To the right of Room VIII, is Room IX , which contains grave monuments such as carved grave stele, painted clay sarcophagi and limestone sarcophagi decorated with carvings.
Room XI is on the first floor and hosts magnificent finds from the royal tombs of Salamis, such as the bed decorated with pieces of ivory and coloured glass, the two thrones and a bronze cauldron supported on an iron tripod and decorated around the edges with four busts of sirens and eight griffins.
Sculptures that decorated the gymnasium in Salamis during the Roman period are on display in Room XIII , on the ground floor. The sculptures are accompanied by photographs of the excavations of the gymnasium, which took place before 1974.
Finally, the important production of clay figurines dating from the Early Bronze Age until the Roman period is represented in Room XIV following a thematic order.
Votive Terracotta Protomai in Greek Sanctuaries and their Settings
3 Sanne Hoffmann, PhD Fellow, The National Museum of Denmark & Aarhus University
The purpose of the paper is to study the use of votive terracotta protomai in Greek sanctuaries and the connection between the protomai as votive offerings, the deities to whom they were offered and their aspects, and their relations to the surrounding landscape of the sanctuaries. Greek sanctuaries often connect with the landscape, but certain elements of the setting, such as water, caves, rocks and cliffs may have had a specific impact on how the deities were worshipped – and thus which gifts were more suitable – such as the terracotta protomai. As symbolic, bodiless depictions of females, goddesses or worshippers, the protomai might have had a closer connection with deities shaped by the natural setting, as there were no limitations in gesture and attributes, but rather a more flowing and open symbolic value. The Athana Lindia sanctuary in Lindos, Rhodes, will be the starting point of the study, where, in the period between 525 and 330 B.C.E., more than 700 protomai out of around 2600 votive terracottas were dedicated. The sanctuary is placed on top of an acropolis next to the sea, with the temple itself situated directly above a natural cave in the rock. While considering the relevance and connections of these characteristics of the sanctuary and the aspects of the goddess, the study will seek similarities in other sanctuaries where offerings of protomai are prominent.
Though the symbolic value of votive terracotta protomai has been widely explored, there are still many unanswered questions, whose investigation might bring us closer to an answer, especially when viewed within a broader picture.
Bronze Age resources
While working on the Kent Collection catalogue, I noticed that various entries for bronze implements were accompanied by the cryptic phrase ‘Britt. Ass. Card Cat.’. Since I’m always looking for more information on the provenance of ancient Cypriot collections, I decided to try to track this reference down. This proved refreshingly straightforward, and led me down an interesting route with some familiar faces along the way.
Entry 171 from the Kent Collection catalogue />Harrogate Museums and Arts, Harrogate Borough Council
The ‘Britt. Ass. Card Cat.’ turns out to be the British Association Bronze Implements Card Catalogue, a truly remarkable initiative begun in 1920 under the auspices of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. The aim was to produce a card catalogue of “all the metal objects of the Bronze Age in the museums and collections in the British Isles”, in order to facilitate comparative research. One of the original movers in this enterprise was John Linton Myres, the ‘father of Cypriot archaeology’, excavator of Amathus in Cyprus and cataloguer of the Cesnola Collection at the Metropolitan Museum, New York. The work seems to have progressed on a voluntary basis, with museums, institutions, and private collectors providing basic information – and detailed drawings – of their Bronze Age implements, to be neatly recorded on index cards, filed, and made available for use.
Making information available is of course a different proposition these days, and I was hopeful that this Catalogue might have been digitised in a searchable format. It’s not quite there yet, but is well on the way to being so. In a fascinating project, part of the MicroPasts collaboration between the British Museum and UCL, the transcription of the cards is being crowd-sourced, with anyone with an interest invited to contribute to the task of translating the content of the cards into a digital format. As Neil Wilkin et al. point out in a very informative article on the project, this partnership with interested people from a variety of backgrounds fits well with the original compilation of the Catalogue, which relied on the contribution of time and knowledge from the owners of the objects, whoever they might be.
As far as I can tell, the fully functional, searchable database isn’t quite there yet, although the underpinning data is well on its way. However, vitally for my purposes, a key step of the project is to scan the original cards and make them available for transcription. This led me to Flickr and a wonderful treasure trove of original cards. These are arranged by the drawers in which the cards were stored it didn’t take long to conclude that ‘Foreign Weapons’ might be a good place to look for a sword from Cyprus and since the cards are ordered alphabetically by country, it was a mere matter of scrolling past Austria and China to arrive at Cyprus. It didn’t take long at all to find records relating to the Kent collection.
Index card for Kent Collection dagger
There are a number of helpful things about this record, beyond the satisfaction of having tracked it down. It’s not clear whether the object is still extant in the collection which survives today, but having a detailed technical drawing, as well as a written description, can only help to identify it. Most useful, from my perspective, is the information that it came from the collection of Cleanthes Pierides as the entry above shows, this information is not recorded in the Kent catalogue, and so would have been irretrievably lost if not for this record. Cleanthes Pierides was a merchant and dealer in ancient Cypriot objects, and I’m trying to find out more about his activities and how objects made their way through his hands from ancient Cypriot tombs to collectors, including the Kents this information provides a further piece of the jigsaw.
While looking through the other objects from Cyprus, I was pleased to come across a record relating to John Holmes, an influential collector and lecturer on Cypriot antiquity in Leeds from the 1860s onwards.
Index card for Holmes Collection dagger
In this case, the card and the information we already have are mutually informative. Holmes complained bitterly that his collection was neglected after he sold it to Leeds City Council in 1882, so it’s interesting that someone at the Art Gallery was sufficiently concerned to log the bronze implements with the British Association. The catalogue number 235 allows us to link this spear to the following entry in Holmes’ catalogue:
Holmes catalogue entry 235 />Leeds Museums and Galleries
This is not the most legible of entries, but the reference to ‘self’ makes it clear that Holmes himself obtained this spear on his visit to Cyprus in 1873, which potentially provides a lead about its area of origin.
Needless to say, I’m hugely impressed by the MicroPasts project and grateful for its contribution to my research. I’ll be watching with interest to see what forms the data takes in future I will certainly be visiting again when it’s available in searchable format, to see whether I can track down more objects associated with the collections I’m exploring. However, there’s something about the original cards which has value over and above the data they contain beyond the emotional charge of research artefacts from nearly a century ago, there’s also information such as the title of the Kent card pictured above. The original intention to describe the object as ‘Sword (short)’ has been changed to ‘Dagger’, and this reflects the hedging description in the Kent catalogue of ‘Short sword or dagger’. This tells us something about developing approaches to classifying Bronze Age objects, and I’m not sure how the cancelled information would be reflected in a transcribed card. In an ideal world, the images of the original cards would be available alongside the searchable transcribed information, and I hope this may be the case as the project progresses.
The J. Paul Getty Museum
This image is available for download, without charge, under the Getty's Open Content Program.
Unknown 21.6 × 13.2 × 7.5 cm (8 1/2 × 5 3/16 × 2 15/16 in.) 73.AD.83
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Currently on view at: Getty Villa, Gallery 110, The Etruscans
21.6 × 13.2 × 7.5 cm (8 1/2 × 5 3/16 × 2 15/16 in.)
Torso of a Man (Display Title)
This statuette represents a male torso with an incision from the breast bone to the abdomen that exposes the internal organs. The dedicator perhaps suffered from stomach or intestinal problems. The model is a schematic version of the human anatomy rather than an exact replica, but the relative placement, size, and shape of organs is generally correct. Such medical knowledge of internal anatomy may have been gained from the observation of butchered animals or mortally wounded warriors on the battlefield.
In Etruscan religion, like most ancient religions, the gods acted directly upon human affairs. Therefore, it was necessary to supplicate them with offerings and dedications. Beginning in the late 500s B.C. in Greece and then spreading to Etruria in the 300s, worshippers with physical ailments visited sanctuaries and appeased the gods with small terracotta models of the afflicted body part. Clay images of eyes, breasts, limbs and their extremities, and other body parts were the most frequent offerings, outnumbering other kinds of votives. Most anatomical torsos, which were exclusive to the Etruscan and Italic cultures, are found in Veii, Vulci, Lake Nemi, and Tessenano. These devotional models were presented with a prayer, which was either a request for healing, or a post-cure expression of gratitude.
Galerie Arete, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1973.
Fredericksen, Burton B., Jiří Frel, and Gillian Wilson. Guidebook: The J. Paul Getty Museum. 4th ed. Sandra Morgan, ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1978), p. 41.
Spivey, Nigel and Squire, Michael. Panorama of the Classical World (Los Angeles: Getty Publications, 2004), p. 95, fig. 152.
Turfa, Jean. "Exceptional Etruscan man joins the Louvre." Etruscan News 14 (Winter 2012), p. 23, ill.
Haumesser, Laurent. Archaeologie et anatomie: un buste votif etrusque au musee du Louvre. La Revue Des Musees De France: Revue Du Louvre. Paris: Reunion du Conseil scientifique des musees nationaux, Decembre 2013, pp. 16-23, figs. 13-14.
Oberhelman, Steven M. "Anatomical Votive Reliefs as Evidence for Specialization at Healing Sanctuaries in the Ancient Mediterranean World." Athens Journal of Health 1, no. 1 (March 2014), p. 60, fig. 10 [not credited].
Sofroniew, Alexandra. Household Gods: Private Devotion in Ancient Greece and Rome (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2015), pp. 102-3, fig. 53.
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Cypriot Votive Clay Figurines - History
The History of the Collection
The National Archaeological Museum houses the largest and one of the most significant collections of sculpture of Greek antiquity worldwide, dating from the 7th century BC to the 5th century AD. The formation of the collection was initiated in 1829 with the foundation of the museum on Aegina, whereas later it included marble and stone sculptures from the public archaeological collections of Athens, from excavations and acquisitions of the Archaeological Society at Athens as well as from other regions of the Greek world. The Collection comprises approximately 17.000 works, of which 1.000 are on display in Rooms 7-34 on the ground floor of the building, in the atrium and the Room of the Cypriot Collection, in Room 64 on the upper floor, whereas those sculptures in storage are accessible to researchers. Individual sculptures are also exhibited in the Egyptian Collection, the Vase Collection and the Stathatos Collection.
Browse the exhibition
The dawn of sculpture in the historical period: 8th-5th century BC (Rooms 7-14)
By the 8th century BC the Greek populations had completed their migration and established city-states, adopted the common name Greek, the alphabet, the Greek myths and the Dodekatheon (Twelve Olympian Gods) and also a method of calculating time based on the first Olympic Games (776 BC).
From the 7th century BC onwards the old temples that were made of timber were gradually replaced by stone-built structures adorned with architectural sculptures, such as the reliefs from the temple of Athena at Mycenae (no 2869, Room 7). Over the same time period, the earlier wooden statues (which were in effect plank-shaped images, called xoana) were also substituted by their stone counterparts, which nonetheless, preserved the traditionally stiff and austere shape, such as the statue of Artemis dedicated by Nikandre of Naxos (“Dedication of Nikandre”) to the temple of Apollo on Delos (no 1, Room 7). The same rigid pose is encountered on smaller sculptures depicting the human figure, such as those made of ivory (no 776, Room 7) and also on the funerary (grave) monuments, such as the monument of the brothers Dermys and Kit(t)ylos, portrayed embracing each other tightly, that had been installed over their grave at Tanagra in Boeotia by their father Amphalkes (no 56, Room 8). Similarly stiff is the pose of the female figures that mourn a deceased woman over her bier illustrated on the large clay amphora that also served as grave marker (sema) at the cemetery of the Kerameikos in a different rendering of the dead body of an eminent person (no A804, Room 7).
Marble statues were dedicated to the temples or mounted over the graves of significant people as grave markers (semata). These statues, the Kouroi or Korai (youths and maidens), created in the 6th century BC, are frontally depicted with restricted movement, yet they all smile at us. The Kouroi are portrayed standing with their arms extending downwards at the side of their torso, with their left foot slightly advanced. They are usually nude, while emphasis is placed on the modelling of the muscles however some of them are shown wearing painted sandals, as in the case of the large Sounion Kouros that had been dedicated to the sanctuary of Poseidon there (no 2720, Room 8). Several examples of Kouroi follow in the next Rooms among the most important are the Kouroi of the Kerameikos (no 3372, Room 11), of Myrhinnous (Attic deme, present-day Merenda) (no 4890, Room 11), of Volomandra (no 1906, Room 11) and the Anavyssos Kouros in Attica (depicting Kroisos who died in battle, no 3851, Room 13), of the sanctuary of Apollo at the Boeotian mountain Ptoon (no 20, Room 13), and also the latest Kouros of the Collection, Aristodikos, from Mesogeia (no 3938, Room 13). The sole Kouros that is depicted clothed was found on the riverbed of the Athenian river Ilissos (no 3687, Room 13). Bases of Kouroi decorated with relief representations of sports and games were possibly installed over the graves of athletes (no 3476, 3747, Room 13). The Korai are shown standing lifting their garment with one hand, whereas the other hand carries either a flower bud or a fruit before their chest. The earliest and best preserved Kore of the Collection is Phrasikleia that was unearthed together with the Kouros of Myrrhinous and is portrayed wearing jewels and red peplos (no 4889, Room 11), whereas two Korai from the Acropolis of Athens (BE 15, 16, Room 13) follow, as well as the Kore of Eleusis (no 26, Room 14). The sculptural funerary monuments of the time could also take the form of very tall stelae (up to 4,5 m in height) (no 2687, Room 11) crowned with the statue of a sphinx, a mythological creature with the head of a woman and the body of a winged lion (Room 11). In the transitional phase to the Classical Period bronze statues were also cast, such as Poseidon that was recovered from the seabed off the south coast of Boeotia. The statue that had been dedicated to the god, according to the inscription found at the base, shows him holding his trident vertically (no X11761, Room 14). In the temples of the time the pediments (the triangular part at the top of the front of a building beneath the roof) are decorated with multi-figure battle scenes, as in the case of the temple of Athena Aphaia on Aegina (Room 14).
The sculpture of the Classical Period – 5th and 4th century BC (Rooms 15-28 and 34)
In the 5th century BC democracy was already established in Athens (in 508 BC by Cleisthenes) and the Greeks confronted the invasion of the Persians, the greatest military power of its day. The victories at the battles of Marathon and Plataea and also the naval battle of Salamis brought about an era of intellectual creativity, material prosperity and democratic consolidation under the leadership of Pericles. Athens became the centre in which sculptors, among other artists, arrived from other regions, thereby contributing to the embellishment of the buildings and monuments of the city with works of high quality and originality.
At the outset of this period sculpture conquers the third dimension. One of the rarest bronze works preserved is the statue of Zeus or Poseidon that was retrieved from the seabed off Cape Artemision on Euboea and depicted either Zeus holding the thunderbolt or Poseidon carrying his trident (no X15161, Room 15).
At the peak of the 5th century BC, the great sculptors drew their inspiration from the human body imparting ideal (idealized) beauty and spiritual meaning. The large relief that shows the three main figures of the mystery cult in the Eleusinian sanctuary: Demeter, Persephone and the young hero Triptolemus (no 126, Room 15) was found at Eleusis. Next to the relief lies the clay “Ninnion Tablet” that was dedicated to the same sanctuary by a faithful woman named (the) Ninnion (no A11036, Room 15). Of the statue of Nemesis, attributed to the sculptor Agoracritus, that was venerated at Rhamnous, a Roman copy is preserved (no 3949, Room 19). A work of his master, the Athenian Pheidias, was the chryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenos (made of ivory and gold) on the Acropolis of Athens. Of the huge work that was 12 metres tall, a small Roman version is preserved, rendered in marble (no 129, Room 20). The marble statue of “”Diadoumenos”” from Delos depicting an athlete who binds the ribbon of victory around his forehead that was once gilded is a Late Hellenistic copy of the original bronze work by Polykleitos from Argos (no 1826, Room 21).
Harsh times followed associated with the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC), the civil strife between Athens and Sparta. The erection of funerary monuments that had been banned in the past by law for political and economic reasons was allowed once again for the victims of the war and the plague (epidemic) that broke out at the early stages of the conflict. Large marble vases that entailed special symbolism are frequently encountered (Room 16), or simple stelae, such as the one that depicts a youth holding the bird which he has just released from its cage, perhaps in a symbolic gesture that signifies the emancipation of the soul from his dead body (no 715, Room 16). Sometimes, they take the form of a naiskos (small temple) inside of which the deceased is depicted, such as the stele of Hegeso from the Kerameikos who is portrayed seated before her saddened slave (no 738, Room 18).
The end of the war signalled the Spartan leadership, but soon Athens and Thebes regained their strength, until the Panhellenic hegemony was successfully claimed by the Macedonian kings Philipp II and Alexander the Great. Large Greek urban centres developed, whereas in sculpture local schools represented by eminent sculptors had been created already before the end of the war. Sculpture is inspired by the rich movement of drapery that follows the movement of the body, as in the case of the female figures of the Peloponnesian sculptor Timotheus intended for the temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus (Room 22). Skopas from Paros undertook the building of the temple of Athena Alea at Tegea in Arcadia (Room 28). Praxiteles, son of the Athenian sculptor Cephisodotus, created nude, sensual works, while the bronze ephebe (youth) that was retrieved from the sea off Marathon (no X15118, Room 28) has been attributed to his school. The bronze ephebe that was recovered from the sea off Antikythera (no X13396), Room 28) adheres to the tradition established by Polykleitos. Lysippos had created the statue of Hercules leaning against his club, a copy of which is the oversized figure of Hercules discovered in the shipwreck of Antikythera and is now on display at the atrium. We are startled by its dark surface, as a result of the pollutants and the corrosion caused by the seawater, making it hard to imagine that it was actually made of bright Parian marble.
During the Classical period a wide range of reliefs were created that also incorporated texts of the decrees issued by the city of Athens (Room 25) or took the form of a cave (Room 25) or human body parts (Room 26, display case).
Hellenistic sculpture: Late 4th – early 1st century BC (Rooms 29-30 and 34)
The period dominated by the Diadochi (Successors) to Alexander the Great and their kingdoms that stretched across Greece, Asia and Egypt is called Hellenistic. New major urban centres emerged, such as Pergamon, Antioch and Alexandria. The citizens of these kingdoms experienced a cosmopolitan character that was further enhanced by the widespread use of a common language the Hellenistic Koine, a simplified form of the Attic dialect. The ethical conduct of the citizens was influenced by new philosophical movements, whereas the religious quests led to the consolidation of mystery cults that called for initiation in order for the faithful to achieve now personal salvation.
In sculpture, new local workshops and renowned sculptors that rendered the figures realistically, depicting their personal features, came to the fore. At Lykosura in Arcadia, Damophon from Messene created a composition 6 metres tall (including the pedestal): Demeter and Despoina are venerated seated on a common throne flanked by Artemis and Anytus, one of the Titans, (Room 29). At Aigeira in Achaea the Athenian Eukleides created the colossal statue of Zeus enthroned, known to us from its depiction on coins, but unfortunately, only the head and one arm are preserved (nos 3377 and 3481, Room 30). The group of Aphrodite and Pan, possibly dedicated by a man named Dionysios from Beirut, was unearthed on Delos: the smiling goddess, assisted by the flying Eros brandishes her sandal against the erotically disposed goat-footed Pan who assaults her (no 3335, Room 30). The bronze race horse with its young rider (“”The Artemision Jockey””) was lifted from the sea off Cape Artemision on Euboea (no X15177, Room 34).
Roman sculpture: 1st century BC – 5th century AD (Rooms 31-33)
From the 2nd century BC onwards Greece was gradually conquered by the Romans until their eventual dominance in 31 BC and the fall of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
The building programme designed for the capital of the Roman Empire had a twofold impact: initially the Greek cities were stripped of their artistic treasures that were transferred as spoils to Rome and concurrently some artists moved to the city. Subsequently, new local workshops were established in order to satisfy the demand for copies of Classical and Hellenistic works. Later, in the 2nd century AD, Athens turned once again into an artistic centre, mainly as a result of the special favour which the Philhellene emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius had shown. The Neo-Attic production thus emerged featuring mainly decorative reliefs (marble panels suspended on the wall) (no 5147, Room 31), marble sarcophagi (no 1186, Room 32) and trapezophora (marble table supports) (no 2706, Room 33).
The Roman administration was promoted through art and particularly sculpture, with the creation of portraits of the emperor, members of his family and also dignitaries or scholars, as these are successively displayed, grouped by dynasty. The bronze equestrian statue of Octavian Augustus recovered from the sea between Euboea and Hagios Eustratios (no X23332, Room 31) and the portrait of Hadrian’s companion Antinous, the beautiful youth who drowned in the Nile (no 417, Room 32) are markedly distinguished
Cypriot Collection (Room 64)
The Cypriot Collection was formed of donations and confiscations and consists, among others, of 160 sculptures made of local Cypriot stone. The head of a bearded young male with hair that imitates that of the Ionian Kouroi (no 1832) and the head of a goddess wearing kalathos headdress and lavish jewels (no 66) are among the most notable exhibits.
Dr Despina Ignatiadou, archaeologist
Head Curator of the Sculpture Collection
National Archaeological Museum
Statue: life-size figure of a person or animal made of stone, metal or other material
Statuette: figure of a person or animal, smaller than life size, made of stone, metal or other material
Relief: sculpture on which forms and figures stand out from the flat surface of a plaque
Votive: work dedicated to a temple or sanctuary
Architectural sculpture / relief: sculptural work that formed part of the decoration of a building
Architectural members: part of a building made of stone
Altar: structure on which sacrifices are offered
Funerary monument / statue / relief / stele: grave monument, marker of a grave
Historical times: the period of human history documented by written records
Kouros and Kore: statue of a nude young male figure standing or a draped young female figure standing, encountered in the 6th century
Plastic = sculpture
Bust: sculpture of the head and chest of a figure Portrait: head carved in the round that renders realistically the features of the depicted person
Sarcophagus: stone coffin
Stele: tall, oblong plaque
Cypriot Votive Clay Figurines - History
Serwint Nancy. Gifts for the Goddess: Votive Offerings at Ancient Marion. In: Cahiers du Centre d'Etudes Chypriotes. Volume 45, 2015. Hommage à Jacqueline Karageorghis. pp. 225-239.
Cahiers du Centre d’Études Chypriotes 45, 2015
VOTIVE OFFERINGS AT ANCIENT MARION
The field of Cypriote studies is indebted to the lifelong scholarship of Jacqueline Karageorghis, who has dedicated such passionate inquiry into the nature of Aphrodite and her association with Cyprus, the island that both the goddess and Jacqueline have loved so well. The tenure of a primary goddess on Cyprus is complicated by the various manifestations that an early powerful female deity, devoted to fertility, has assumed at various times and at numerous sites. What is remarkable about this goddess on Cyprus is that her persona develops over time, reflecting the syncretism with powerful Near Eastern goddesses and later assuming the identity of the transcendent Aphrodite, revered by the Greeks. Without question, she was esteemed deeply, as the thousands of votive offerings made in her honor attest. The ancient city of Marion venerated a female deity in splendid fashion as the dedications found at the site affirm. What is so critical about ancient Marion is that two different sanctuaries, separated by a short chronological span and proximate in distance, reflect markedly different aspects of the deity. This paper will review the distinctive votive assemblages, primarily in the form of terracotta sculpture, and will assess how the material remains document quite explicitly the transformation of the goddess from her Near Eastern aspect to a Hellenic guise. Much has been written on the dedications offered to the Cypriot goddess, and at the forefront of that scholarship is the published work of the woman who is honored by this volume. This essay is offered to advance that dialogue and is done so with great respect and affection for Jacqueline Karageorghis.
Republic of Cyprus (in Greek&mdashKypros, Kypriake Demokratia in Turkish&mdashKibns, Kibns Cumhuriyeti), a state in western Asia on the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean. A member of the British Commonwealth of Nations, Cyprus occupies an advantageous geographic position on international sea and air routes from Europe to the countries of the Near and Middle East and Northeast Africa. Its area is 9,251 sq km. In 1971, the population was 645,000. The capital of Cyprus is Nicosia. The country is divided into six administrative districts: Kirinia, Larnax (Larnaca), Lemesos (Limassol), Nicosia, Pafos, and Ammokhostos (Famagusta).
Constitution and government. Cyprus is a republic whose constitution went into effect on Aug. 16, 1960. The head of state is the president. Under the constitution, the president must be a Greek, and the vice-president, a Turk. Both are elected by the population for five years&mdashthe president, by the Greek community and the vice-president, by the Turkish community. The powers of the president are, in effect, substantially limited by the vice-president&rsquos right to exercise an independent veto on the major questions of state policy. The highest legislative body is the unicameral Parliament&mdashthe House of Representatives, which consists of 50 deputies elected for five years by universal direct suffrage. (The Greek community elects 35 deputies and the Turkish community 15.) In addition, the Turkish community elects a national communal chamber that considers questions of religion, culture, and education.
The highest executive body (the government) is the Council of Ministers, which is headed by the president and vice-president. Of the ten ministerial portfolios, seven are held by the Greeks, and three by the Turks. The ministers are appointed by a joint resolution of the president and the vice-president. The Supreme Constitutional Court was created to resolve controversies between government bodies and to consider parliamentary laws and decisions of the Council of Ministers that are vetoed by the president or the vice-president.
The representatives of the Turkish community have not taken part in the work of Parliament, the government, the Supreme Court, or other state bodies since 1963. An executive body of the Turkish community&mdashthe Provisional Turkish Administration&mdashwas created in December 1967.
The highest judicial body is the Supreme Court.
Natural features. Most of the coastline is low-lying and slightly indented, but in the north it is steep and rocky. Mountainous terrain prevails. The Kirenia Range (maximum elevation 1,023 m) and the low-mountain Karpas Range (maximum elevation 364 m) extend along the northern coast for almost 150 km. The Troodos Massif (maximum elevation, 1,951 m), which is made up of ultrabasites and gabbro, occupies central and southern Cyprus. The magmatic complex along the periphery of the massif is covered with marine carbonaceous deposits. The ridges of northern and southern Cyprus are divided by the broad Messaoria intermontane plain (elevations of about 200 m), which is composed of Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentation. Characteristic of this area is hilly terrain. Minerals found on Cyprus include chromites, iron and copper ores, and asbestos (in the Troodos Massif).
The climate is subtropical Mediterranean, with hot summers (air temperatures of 25°-35°C) and mild, comparatively rainy winters (10°-15°C). The total annual precipitation ranges from 300&ndash500 mm on the plains to 1,000&ndash1,300 mm in the mountains, where there is a snow cover in winter in some places. Only after it rains are the riverbeds full of water. Floods occur in winter and spring.
In the foothills and on the plains thickets of evergreen scrubs&mdashmaquis and frigana (xerophytic shrub and semishrub vegetation)&mdashprevail at elevations of up to 500 m. The limestone southern slopes of the Kirinia and Karpas ranges are characterized by sparse, steppelike flora. Forests, which occupy about 20 percent of the island&rsquos area (primarily in the Troodos Massif), consist of oak, cypress, and Aleppo pine. Oleander and tamarisk grow in the mountain valleys.
The mouflon is encountered in the forests. Among the island&rsquos characteristic fauna are snakes, lizards, and chameleons. Typical of the island&rsquos birds are the eagle and hawk. There are also many migratory birds on Cyprus.
Population. Greek Cypriots make up about 78 percent of the population, and Turkish Cypriots, about 18 percent. English, Arabs, Armenians, and Italians also live in Cyprus. The official languages are Greek and Turkish. The Greek Cypriots belong to the Orthodox Church, and the Turkish Cypriots are Sunnite Muslims. The official calendar is the Gregorian.
Between 1963 and 1970, population growth averaged 1 percent a year. The economically active population totals 273,000 (1971), of whom 35.2 percent work in agriculture, 22.8 percent in manufacturing industry and construction, 1.5 percent in mining, 11.3 percent in trade and administration, 13.5 percent in the service industries, and 15.7 percent in other branches of industry. The average population density is 68 inhabitants per sq km. Nicosia is the most highly populated area. In 1971, 41 percent of the total population was urban. The major cities in 1971 were Nicosia (118,000, including the suburbs), Lemesos (61,000), Ammokhostos (44,000), and Larnax (21,600).
Historical survey. The first traces of human beings on the territory of Cyprus date to the Neolithic period (sixth millennium B.C.). The origin of the earliest population has not been established, inasmuch as inscriptions from the 22nd through the 21st century B.C. have not yet been deciphered. Between the late 15th and the 11th centuries Cyprus was colonized by the Achaeans, and in the ninth century, by the Phoenicians. (According to some scholars, however, the Phoenicians came to the island in the second millennium.) Cyprus was one of the centers of Mycenaean culture. It was conquered by Assyria at the end of the eighth century, by the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose II in about 560, and by the Achaemenids in around the mid-sixth century. Part of Alexander of Macedonia&rsquos state from 333 to 323 and of the Ptolemaic state from 294 to 258, Cyprus was conquered by Rome in 58 B.C
After the partition of the Roman Empire in 395 A.D., Cyprus became a possession of Byzantium. It was conquered by the Arabs in 648 and reconquered by Byzantium in 965. Under Byzantine rule, feudal relations developed in Cyprus. In 1191 the island was seized by the Crusaders. Established in 1192 under the representatives of the Lusignan feudal family, the Kingdom of Cyprus survived until 1489. Cyprus belonged to Venice from 1489 to 1571, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire.
The movement of Greek Cypriots for the unification of Cyprus with Greece (enosis), which was in objective terms a progressive national liberation movement, arose on Cyprus in the 19th century. In 1878, Great Britain occupied Cyprus in accordance with the Cyprus Convention of 1878, a secret treaty between Great Britain and Turkey &ldquoconcerning a defensive alliance.&rdquo After Turkey&rsquos entry into World War I (1914&ndash18), Great Britain proclaimed the annexation of Cyprus (Nov. 5, 1914), which was recognized by Turkey under the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923. Cyprus received the status of a British colony in May 1925. Great Britain turned the country into one of its agrarian and raw materials appendages.
The development of capitalism in Cyprus, which began in the 20th century (chiefly in mining), resulted in the growth of the working class. Under the influence of the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia, Marxist circles were founded. An outgrowth of these circles, the Communist Party of Cyprus, which led the national liberation struggle of the toiling people, was formed on Aug. 20, 1926. A spontaneous uprising against British rule in October 1931 was harshly suppressed by the colonialists. By a special royal edict the country&rsquos elected institutions and its constitution, which had been put into effect before the uprising, were abolished. Political parties and social organizations were banned, and a dictatorship was established under the British governor.
Founded on Apr. 14, 1941, the Progressive Party of the Working People of Cyprus (AKEL), the successor to the Communist Party, participated actively in the struggle against fascism during World War II (1939&ndash45). More than 20,000 Cypriots fought in the British Army against fascist Germany. After the war, the national liberation movement grew stronger in Cyprus. In January 1950 a plebiscite on the question of enosis was held among the Greek Cypriots, 96 percent of whom voted for union with Greece. Refusing to recognize the results of the plebiscite, the government of Great Britain attempted to foist a colonial constitution on Cyprus.
Cypriot demonstrations organized by AKEL became larger and more militant. On Apr. 1, 1955, the National Organization of Cypriot Fighters (EOKA), led by retired Greek Army officer G. Grivas, began its political activity, which was reflected in terrorist acts against British military and civilian personnel. Striving to crush the struggle of the Cypriot people, British authorities declared a state of emergency in Cyprus in November 1955, banning AKEL and other democratic organizations. However, the unceasing struggle of the Cypriots compelled the government of Great Britain to enter into negotiations concerning independence for Cyprus.
Agreements providing for Cypriot independence and defining the foundations of the state structure of the future Republic of Cyprus while restricting its sovereignty were signed in February 1959 in Zürich by Greece and Turkey and in London by Great Britain, Greece, and Turkey, with the participation of representatives of the Greek and Turkish communities of Cyprus. Under these agreements Great Britain retained the military bases of Akrotiri, Episkopi, and Dhekelia (99 sq mi) on Cyprus and had the right to use the island&rsquos roads, ports, and airfields for military purposes. Greece and Turkey were given the right to keep military contingents on Cyprus.
On Dec. 4, 1959, British authorities rescinded the state of emergency, and on December 13 elections were held for the offices of president and vice-president. (The presidential election was won by Archbishop Makarios III, and the vice-presidential election, by F. Kütchük.) On Apr. 6, 1960, a joint constitutional commission signed a draft constitution for Cyprus, a number of articles of which artificially divided the Greek and Turkish population and set them in opposition to each other. On Aug. 16, 1960, Cyprus was proclaimed an independent republic. (In 1963, however, October 1 was named Cypriot Independence Day.) Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Cyprus in August 1960, and in September 1960, Cyprus became a member of the UN.
In foreign relations the government proclaimed a policy of &ldquopositive neutrality&rdquo and the development of friendly ties with all countries. A representative of Cyprus took part in the Belgrade Conference of Nonaligned Nations in 1961. In late 1963 the efforts of the NATO powers to dislodge Cyprus from its position of neutrality and put it under military control provoked armed clashes between Greek and Turkish Cypriots. The Cyprus question became the subject of discussion in the UN Security Council, which decided on Mar. 4, 1964, to send UN troops to the island. As a result of the worsening of relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots, the Turkish population, which lived in compact groups in various parts of the country, kept even more aloof from the Greek population.
At the end of 1967 the Provisional Turkish Administration was established on Cyprus. On Feb. 25, 1968, Archbishop Makarios III was reelected president, and F. Kütchük was reelected vice-president. The attempts of Anglo-American imperialism to force the Makarios government to renounce its policy of non-alignment, as well as Anglo-American efforts to turn the island into a NATO military base, encountered the determined resistance of the people of Cyprus and led to the rallying of anti-imperialist forces. In June 1968 negotiations began between representatives of the Greek and Turkish Cypriots concerning the resolution of their existing differences in such a way as to maintain a united independent state. Aggressive NATO circles endeavored to ruin these negotiations, persistently encouraging local reactionary forces to oppose the Makarios government and the country&rsquos progressive figures. On Mar. 8, 1970, an attempt was made on the life of President Makarios.
In parliamentary elections held on July 5, 1970, nine seats were won by AKEL, which received 40.7 percent of the votes. The results of the elections were evidence of the growing influence of democratic forces, which consistently defended the national interests of the Cypriot people. In June 1971, President Makarios made an official visit to the Soviet Union, thus promoting the further development of political, economic, and cultural ties between Cyprus and the USSR, and in May 1972 the two countries signed a cultural agreement.
Using Turkish extremists and Greek officers in the Cypriot National Guard who were supporters of enosis, the ruling circles of the NATO countries put increased pressure on the government of Cyprus in late 1971 and early 1972, hoping to force the retirement of President Makarios. In February 1972 the government of Greece presented an ultimatum to President Makarios demanding the formation of a government of &ldquonational unity&rdquo on Cyprus with the participation of supporters of the Athens regime and of Grivas. The ultimatum also demanded that UN troops have control over weapons imported by the Cypriot government. Moreover, the Cypriot government was to recognize Greece&rsquos leading role in the resolution of the Cyprus problem and to adopt measures against left-wing forces. Three metropolitans who belonged to the Holy Synod of Cyprus insisted that Archbishop Makarios III renounce his secular authority. The Greek ultimatum and the actions of the metropolitans were condemned by the overwhelming majority of the Cypriot people.
In July 1972 a new round of internal negotiations began in Cyprus concerning a new constitution and the regulation of relations between the Greek and Turkish Cypriots. A representative of the secretary-general of the UN and legal experts from Greece and Turkey participated in these negotiations. On Feb. 8, 1973, Archbishop Makarios III was again elected president of Cyprus, and R. Denktash was elected vice-president. On July 15, 1974, the Greek military junta, encouraged by militaristic NATO circles, instigated an armed rebellion in Cyprus, intending to overthrow the Makarios government and transfer power to reactionary forces in Cyprus. On July 20, Turkish troops landed on the island under the pretext of protecting the Turkish Cypriots. By August, 40 percent of the island was under Turkish control. Again, the Cyprus question was referred to the UN. The resolutions adopted by the UN called for the withdrawal of all foreign troops from the island, the end of foreign intervention in the internal affairs of Cyprus, and the restoration of constitutional order. On Feb. 13, 1975, the administration of the Turkish community announced the formation of the Turkish Federal State of Cyprus and declared its intention to unite with the Greek community in a federation made up of two regions and governed under an amended constitution. This maneuver was another attempt by certain NATO circles to block the normalization of the situation in Cyprus and bring about a partition of the island against the will of the Cypriot people.
The USSR consistently supports the independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of the Republic of Cyprus, the elimination of foreign military bases on the island, and the peaceful resolution of the Cyprus question without any foreign intervention.
T. K. GARUSHIANTS (to the 19th century) and K. A. SHEMENKOV (from the 19th century)
Political parties, trade unions, and other social organizations. The Unified Party of National-minded People (Eniaio komma ton ethnikophronon), which was founded in February 1969, reflects the interests of the big and middle bourgeoisie. The Progressive Front (Proodeutiko metopo), founded in March 1969, expresses the interests of the prosperous peasantry, the commercial bourgeoisie, and the rural clergy. The liberal intelligentsia are represented by the United Democratic Union of the Center (Eniaia demokratike enose tu kentru), which was founded in March 1969. Founded in April 1941, the Progressive Party of the Working People of Cyprus (AKEL Anorthotiko komma tu ergazomenu lau) is the successor to the Communist Party of Cyprus. A right-wing nationalist political organization, the Democratic National Party (Demokratiko ethniko komma) was founded in March 1968. The Republican Party of Turkish Cypriots (Kibns Cumhuriyeti tiirk partisi), which was founded in 1970, is a bourgeois nationalist party of the Turkish community.
Among the trade unions of Cyprus in 1975 was the Pan-Cypriot Federation of Labor, an outgrowth of the Pan-Cypriot Trade-union Committee (established in 1941). Founded in 1946, the Pan-Cypriot Federation belongs to the World Federation of Trade Unions. It had 42,000 members in 1972. The Cyprus Workers&rsquo Confederation, which was established in 1943, had 21,000 members by 1972. It belongs to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. Organized in 1927, the Pan-Cypriot Union of State Employees had 5,500 members in 1972. The Democratic Workers&rsquo Federation of Cyprus, which was founded in January 1962, had 500 members a decade later. The Pan-Cypriot Federation of Independent Trade Unions, which had 1,000 members in 1972, was founded in 1948. All of the Turkish trade unions in Cyprus belong to the Cyprus Federation of Turkish Trade Unions. Founded in 1944, it had 3,000 members by 1972.
Founded in 1959, the United Organization of Democratic Youth, an outgrowth of the Progressive Youth Organization (founded in 1946), belongs to the World Federation of Democratic Youth. The Pan-Cypriot National Youth Organization, which was founded in 1971, is a right-wing nationalist organization. Established in 1958, the Pan-Cypriot Federation of Women&rsquos Organizations is a mass democratic organization. The Pan-Cypriot Committee for the Defense of Peace was founded in 1960, and the Cyprus-Soviet Society, in 1961. Organized in 1946, the Union of Cypriot Peasants is a progressive mass organization. The All-Peasant Union of Cyprus, which was founded in 1942, represents the interests of the prosperous strata in the countryside.
Economy. Cyprus is primarily an agrarian country. Since independence (1960), it has made substantial gains in economic development: programs of economic development have been devised, the volume of agricultural and industrial production has increased, and the standard of living of the population has risen. However, foreign capital continues to hold a strong position in the economy.
In 1971, agriculture accounted for about 18 percent of the gross national product. More than one-third of the land belongs to the state, the clergy, and large-scale landlords. For the most part, farms are small and medium-sized peasant plots not exceeding six hectares (ha). The fragmentation and scattering of plots of land hinder the mechanization of agriculture. Farming is the leading branch of agriculture. Cultivated lands make up 66 percent of the total area of Cyprus. To a considerable degree, the further development of farming depends on irrigation. About 12 percent of the cultivated land is continuously irrigated, and approximately 50 percent of the entire agricultural yield is produced on land requiring irrigation.
Among the country&rsquos chief crops are wheat (78,000 ha yield, 95,000 tons in 1971), barley (72,000 ha 110,000 tons), and oats. Legumes, melons, and gourds are grown on the Messaoria plain and in the vicinity of the city of Pafos. On the southern and western slopes of the mountains and along the coast, grapes are grown (38,000 ha, 185,000 tons in 1971). Citrus fruits (172,000 tons) are raised primarily along the coast. Other major crops include carobs (35,000 tons), potatoes, carrots, tobacco, almonds, and pomegranates. The island&rsquos olive orchards produced 15,000 tons of fruit in 1971. Some olive oil is exported. There are also groves of walnuts on Cyprus. Of the harvest of fruits, vegetables, and industrial crops, four-fifths is exported.
Animal husbandry, which suffers from backward methods, is important in the mountainous regions. In 1971 there were 460,000 sheep, 365,000 goats, 115,000 pigs, and 35,500 cattle. Sericulture is well developed. Fish and sponges are caught in the coastal waters.
In 1971 industry&rsquos share of the gross national product was 18 percent. Mining provides one-third of the value of the country&rsquos industrial output, and manufacturing, two-thirds. Small enterprises prevail. Almost all of the comparatively large enterprises (particularly in the mining industry) are held by foreign capital (primarily British). The mineral resources extracted in Cyrus are copper ore (in 1971, 16,300 tons by metal content exported) ferrous pyrites (57,600 tons exported), chromites (41,300 tons), asbestos (23,300 tons exported), salt, and gypsum. The island&rsquos electric power plants (total capacity, 204,000 kW) operate on imported petroleum. In 1971 the output of electric power was 564,000,000 kW-hrs.
The food processing industry produced 49,400 tons of wine in 1971 and about 1,000 tons of olive oil, as well as various canned fruits and vegetables. Other well-developed industries include tobacco, textiles, and leather footwear. In 1971, Cyprus produced 303,000 tons of cement. A petroleum refinery was built in 1971 with the aid of British and American companies. The domestic handicrafts industry, which produces ceramics and metal goods, is well developed.
The motor vehicle is the basic form of transportation. (In 1971 there were about 80,000 motor vehicles and buses in the country.) The total length of the highways is 8,400 km, of which 3,700 km were paved with asphalt as of 1971. The major means of transportation to and from the island is foreign vessels. The main seaports are Ammokhostos, which handles 48 percent of the country&rsquos imports and 25 percent of its exports, and Lemesos (20 percent of the imports and 8 percent of the exports). Cyprus&rsquo main airport is located in Nicosia.
The country exports primarily mineral raw materials (22 percent of the value of exports in 1971), citrus fruits (27 percent), potatoes (9.5 percent), and wine and liquor. Its chief imports are machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, foodstuffs, chemicals, and petroleum products. In 1971, Cyprus&rsquo principal foreign trading partners were Great Britain (41.6 percent of the exports and 28.8 percent of the imports), the Federal Republic of Germany (16 percent and 8 percent), and Italy (7 percent and 10 percent). Trade relations with the USSR and other socialist countries are developing. Among the Soviet Union&rsquos exports to Cyprus are machinery and equipment, petroleum products, and lumber, and among its imports are citrus fruits, tobacco, raisins, brandy, and animal hides.
Tourism is important to the economy. (In 1971, 178,400 tourists visited Cyprus.) The main tourist attractions are Nicosia, Ammokhostos, Larnax, Pafos, and Kirenia. To a considerable degree, the income from tourism covers the deficit in the country&rsquos balance of trade. The monetary unit is the Cypriot pound.
Armed forces. The Greek and Turkish communities organized separate armed forces on Cyprus in 1964. The National Guard is manned by the Greeks. Overall leadership is exercised by the minister of internal affairs and defense (a civilian), and immediate leadership is exercised by the commander (a Greek general). In 1972 the National Guard consisted of 13,500 men. It includes an army (11,200 men), an air force (four planes, two helicopters, and about 300 men), and a navy (torpedo and patrol boats about 600 men). The Turkish Cypriot Army consists of land forces (about 5,000 men) under the leadership of the commander of the Turkish military contingent on Cyprus. The National Guard and Turkish Cypriot Army are in fact under the control of Greece and Turkey, respectively. Stationed on Cyprus are 17,000 British, 2,500 Greek, 1,200 Turkish, and 3,000 UN troops.
Health and social welfare. In 1971 the birthrate was 21.7 per thousand inhabitants, the general mortality was 6.4 per 1,000, and the infant mortality was 25.3 per 1,000 live births. (In 1956, the figures were 26.4, 6.3, and 31.7, respectively.) The average life expectancy is 64 years. The principal causes of death are arteriosclerosis and degenerative heart disease, malignant neoplasms, vascular disease affecting the central nervous system, pneumonia, and diseases of old age. Echinococcus is the most prevalent endemic disease. Noninfectious diseases include enzymic and blood diseases. Cooley&rsquos anemia is prevalent on the plains and in the mountainous areas. After the country gained its independence, trachoma and malaria were eliminated, and the incidence of intestinal infections, poliomyelitis, and leprosy decreased substantially. Between 1955 and 1963 the percentage of six- through 12-year-old children infected with tuberculosis decreased from 2.9 to 1.3.
In 1970 there were 3,300 hospital beds (5.4 per 1,000 inhabitants), 493 physicians (one for every 1,300 inhabitants), 176 dentists, 247 pharmacists, and about 2,400 other medical personnel. Only intermediate and lower-level medical personnel are trained in the country.
VETERINARY SERVICES. The most prevalent diseases of sheep and goats are enterotoxemia (45 outbreaks in 1971), piroplasmosis, and mange. Since 1952 cases of catarrhal fever of sheep have been recorded. Outbreaks of rickettsial conjunctivitis and paratuberculosis have been recorded (13 in 1971). Enzootic mastitis, cases of which have been recorded among cattle, sheep, and goats (in 1971, 116 outbreaks), is typical of the country&rsquos animal diseases. In 1971 there were about 30 veterinarians in the country. The Institute for the Study of Agriculture of Cyprus does important work on animal husbandry, and the veterinary laboratory in Nicosia does research and diagnostic work and produces vaccines and other biopreparations. There are veterinary quarantine stations in the ports of Ammokhostos and Larnax.
Education. Historically, the public education systems of the Greek and Turkish communities developed separately beginning in the early 19th century. In 1962 compulsory elementary education was instituted for children between the ages of six and 12. Instruction is given in the native language of the students. There are six-year elementary schools and six-year secondary schools the latter are divided into two three-year levels. The first level of the Greek secondary school (the Gymnasium) provides general education, whereas the second level has divisions offering instruction in the humanities, agriculture, and business. In the elementary schools and first level of the secondary schools instruction is free. A number of specialized secondary schools, including a technical institute, a pedagogical academy, and a forestry school, are designed to meet the needs of students who have completed the first level of secondary school.
In the academic year 1969&ndash70 the Greek system of public education consisted of 557 elementary schools (70,200 students), 70 general-education secondary schools (34,900 students), and 29 specialized secondary schools (5,100 students). During the academic year 1968&ndash69 the Turkish system included 227 elementary schools (16,700 students) and 15 general-education secondary schools and four specialized secondary schools (7,600 students). In addition, there were four Armenian schools (227 students) and five other schools (884 students).
Because there are no institutions of higher learning in Cyprus, young Cypriots go abroad for their higher education, usually to Greece or Turkey. The USSR gives Cyprus a great deal of assistance in training Cypriot specialists. (For example, in the academic year 1972&ndash73, 260 Cypriots were studying in Soviet institutions of higher learning.)
The Library of Phaneromeni, founded in 1934, holds about 35,000 volumes. About 4,000 volumes in Eastern languages are shelved in the Sultan Mahmud II Turkish Public Library. Also located in Nicosia are the Cyprus Museum (founded in 1883), the Folk Art Museum (1950), the Turkish Cypriot Museum, and the Museum of National Relics (1962).
Press, radio, and television. In 1975 several dozen periodicals with a total circulation of about 200,000 copies were published. Of the 30 newspapers published in Cyprus, 13 are dailies, three of which are published in Turkish, one in Armenian, one in English, and the rest in Greek. The main Greek-language newspapers are Agon, a daily that expresses the interests of bourgeois nationalist circles. Founded in 1964, its circulation was 9,000 in 1975. (All circulation figures are from 1975.) Founded in 1951, the weekly Aletheia (circulation, 9,000) reflects the interests of the liberal bourgeoisie. Mache (circulation, 10,000), which was first published in 1960, began in the 1970&rsquos to express the views of one of the Progressive Front groupings. Published since 1969, Nea is a daily that reflects the views of the United Democratic Union of the Center. The weekly Phileleutheros (circulation, 12,000), the unofficial organ of the government, first came out in 1955. Harauge (founded in 1956 circulation, 15,000) is the daily newspaper of the Progressive Party of the Working People of Cyprus.
The main Turkish-language newspaper is the daily Halkin Sesi (circulation, 5,000). Founded in 1941, it expresses the views of the Turkish Cypriot liberal bourgeoisie. On the whole, printing and publishing is privately owned and commercial in Cyprus. The main source of news is the Public Information Office. The Turkish community also has a central news agency.
Radio and television are under the jurisdiction of the Cyprus Radio Broadcasting Corporation, which is controlled by the government and operated on a commercial basis. Radio broadcasts have been produced in Cyprus since October 1953 (in Greek, Turkish, English, and Armenian), and television broadcasts, since October 1957 (in Greek, Turkish, and English).
Literature. Cyprus has both a Greek and a Turkish literary tradition. Greek Cypriot literature emerged and developed in close interaction with Greek literature as a whole. The first Cypriot literary texts were Stasinus&rsquo Cypriot Tales (seventh-sixth centuries B.C.) and the Homeric Hymns in honor of Aphrodite. The Cypriot dialect developed gradually. Among the works written in it were the akritic ballads (eighth-tenth centuries A.D.), a Cypriot version of the medieval Greek epic of Diogenes Akritas, which was written down in the 12th&ndash13th centuries. The Assizes of Jerusalem and Cyprus (14th century) and Love Lyrics (14th-15th centuries) date from the first appearance of a literary culture in demotic (the language of the people). Historical chronicles written by L. Machaeras in the 15th century were continued in the early 16th century by G. Bustron.
Church literature&mdashprimarily poetry&mdashwas developed by Neophytos (12th century), Gregory II, patriarch of Constantinople (13th century), and H. Kigala (17th century). Deacon Constantine was the author of Markolis, a narrative poem in the Cypriot dialect that depicted the way of life and customs of the island in the 17th century.
The development of the literature of Cyprus was held back by the Turkish conquest (1571). However, written literature flowered again in the late 19th century and the early 20th. By then the spirit of the struggle to liberate Cyprus from the British colonialists had permeated the poems of V. Michaelides (1850&ndash1918). D. Limpertes (1866&ndash1937) introduced idyllic motifs and everyday themes into literature. At the core of the creative work of the prose writer N. Nikolaides (1884&ndash1956) and of M. Nikolaidis, a master of the lyrical short story, are Cypriot provincial themes. Among those whose works were influenced by the Greek poets of the first Athenian school were O. lasonides and I. Karageorgiades.
With certain exceptions (P. Liasides), Greek Cypriot writers have turned to the standard Greek spoken language. After World War I (1914&ndash18) considerable poetic talent was concentrated around such journals as Avgi and Kipriaka grammata. G. Markides wrote poems on civic themes. Characteristic of G. Alyterses&rsquo poetry was a philosophical perception of life. T. Anthias introduced the theme of the &ldquolower depths&rdquo of society into Greek poetry. After the 1930&rsquos, themes of the struggle for national self-determination thundered in the works of many Greek Cypriot writers, including the poets K. Lysiotis, A. Pernares, and A. Ioannou, and the prose writers K. Prousis and A. Indianos. Dramatic intensity and the quest for new artistic solutions characterize the poems of P. Mechanikos, S. Lazaros, and S. Sophroniou. The short story was further developed by P. Ioannides and L. Malenis.
Among the writers of the 1950&rsquos and 1960&rsquos were A. Christophides and Ivy Meleagrou and the poets A. Pastelas and M. Pasiardes. A new generation of progressive writers took shape, including the poets A. Peliotes and G. Konstandes and the prose writers P. Paionides, L. Solomonidou, and N. Rosside. Because there are no literary publishing houses in Cyprus, periodicals are extremely important for the development of Cypriot literature.
Most Turkish Cypriot literature is poetry. Among the 19th-century Turkish Cypriot poets were Kenzi and Süküti Ismailaga, Hasan Hilmi Efendi, and Müftü Raci. Modern poets include Nazif Suleiman Ebeoglu (the collection At the Beirut Wharf), Urkiye Mine (the collection Roads Leading to My Homeland), and Mehmet Lèvent. Ozkerğas, in (born in 1932), Fikret Demirag (born 1940), and Oğuz Kuchetoglu (born 1928) are among the writers popular in the Turkish community. Modern dramaturgy is represented by Fadil Korkut (The Bride&rsquos Handkerchief) and Yiiner Ulutug (This Is Our Story). Hikmet Afif Mapolar (born 1919), the author of novels, short stories, and critical essays, is well known.
Architecture and art. The settlement of Khirokitia (sixth millennium B.C.), with its paved street and round dwellings, dates to the early Neolithic period. Stone vessels and primitive idols have been found at the site. Pottery with comb-shaped designs dates to the middle Neolithic period (fourth millennium B.C.). Typical of the early Bronze Age (2400&ndash1800 B.C.) was painted and red glazed pottery with relief designs and more complex stone and clay idols. The art of the middle Bronze Age (1800&ndash1400 B.C.) is represented by zoomorphic pottery and by vessels with a white slip and red or black painting. During the late Bronze Age (1400&ndash1050 B.C.) Cypriot Mycenaean art flourished. Both Aegean and Eastern artistic methods are reflected in painted vases, small works in the plastic arts, bronze articles, gold ornaments, and ivory reliefs. A city with a rectangular street grid and regular masonry has been found in Enkomi.
The geometric Cypriot style, which flourished between 1050 and 700 B.C., is represented by vessels with geometric painting and by clay figurines of idols and animals. During the archaic Cypriot period (700&ndash450 B.C.) two-color (red and black) vase painting (stylized depictions of people, animals, and plants), toreutics, and terra-cotta sculpture flowered. The typical Cypriot sanctuary of this period (for example, the one at Ayiaf Irini, 12th-sixth centuries B.C.) was an enclosed sector with an altar and clay and terra-cotta votive statues. The influence of the Greek archaic style can be felt in the monumental limestone sculpture of the late sixth century B.C. The layout of the palace in Vouni (early fifth century B.C.) combines features of Eastern palaces and of the Greek megaron. Between the fourth century B.C. and the fourth century A.D. the influence of classical Greek, Hellenic, and finally Roman art spread in Cyprus, as is evidenced by the monuments at Pafos, Kurion, and Salamis, for example.
Aside from architectural ruins, outstanding mosaics of the sixth-seventh centuries are the main examples of early Byzantine art in Cyprus (the churches of Panayia Angeloktista near Kita and Panayia Kanakaria near Litrangomi). Stylistically, they resemble the Ravenna mosaics. Frescoes created in the 12th through 15th centuries have been preserved in churches and monasteries of the 11th through the 13th century (the church in Asina and the Monastery of St. Neophytos near Pafos). Examples of Gothic architecture, such as the churches in Nicosia and Ammokhostos, the Abbey of Bellapais, the St. Hilarion castle, and the castle in Kolossi, date from the 13th through 15th centuries. Fortresses in Ammokhostos and Kirinia and icons that combine the Byzantine tradition with the influence of Italian Renaissance art date to the period of Venetian rule (1489&ndash1571). Under Turkish rule, mosques were built, and under British rule, administrative buildings in the spirit of 19th-century classicism and of modern architecture.
During the 1960&rsquos artistic activity became more intense. Architects (for example S. Oikonomou, the Mikhaelides brothers, and I. Demetrios), painters, and graphic artists (for example, A. Diamantis, G. Georgiou, and T. Kantos) have been developing their styles. The folk art of Cyprus includes wood carving, ceramics, silver engraving, lace-making, and embroidery.
Music. The history of Cypriot music dates from ancient times. Songs about the akrits (warriors) who defended the borders of the Byzantine Empire, lyrical songs from the time of the Frankish invasion of Cyprus, and songs of the liberation struggle of the period of Ottoman and British dominion are extant. Greek songs and instruments were well known on the island.
Professionalism did not develop in Cypriot music culture until the early 20th century. Among the first and best-known composers of Cyprus were Solon and Iangos Mikhaelides. The former founded a conservatory in Lemesos (1934), as well as the first symphony orchestra on Cyprus (1938) and a concert society in Nicosia. He wrote symphonic works, chamber music, music to a number of tragedies by Euripides, the opera Ulysses and the ballet Nausikae. In addition, Solon Mikhaelides has done research on music history and theory. I. Mikhaelides is the author of many popular songs and symphonic works. He was one of the founders of the Mozart Society (1938) and the symphony orchestra of Cyprus Radio and Television (1968), the only professional group in the country.
Among the contemporary composers of Cyprus are A. Limporides, G. Kotsones, M. Biolares, A. Dzozephain, and K. Kos-teas. Although the country does not have a professional music theater, there are singers who perform successfully in the homeland and on the stages of foreign theaters&mdashfor example, M. Smetopoulou, A. Tsitaros, P. Zarmaos, and D. Modinos and the variety singers K. Spirou and M. Biolares. There are conservatories in Lemesos, Ammokhostos, Larnax, and Nicosia and music schools in a number of cities. Amateur choral groups and song and dance ensembles have developed.
Античная тибетская фигура обету глины, показывающая Далай-лама-Ца-Тибет 16-й c
Редкая находка — в наличии имеется только один такой товар.
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Это очень редкий преданный обету (TSA-TSA). Хорошо детализированная глиняная фигура, изображающая Далай-ламу, с темной патиной из-за ее старения (кусок может быть старше указанного).
Эти фигуры часто были сделаны в одном месте и перевозились паломниками, чтобы их оставили на участке в другом месте, возможно, в пещере или в важной святыне.
«Нижняя базовая губа небольшая часть сколы.
Происхождение: Тибет 16-й или старше
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41 отзыв о магазине
Несколько человек поставили этому магазину 5 звезд за последние 7 дней.
5 stars without a doubt. Buddha Bead And Antique is one of the most unique shops I’ve crossed paths with on Etsy thus far. My experience was l same day responses to all questions I had regarding our exchange. To put it Simply, absolutely wonderful business etiquette. There are wonderful people behind this great shop! I am very happy with my purchase!
Our Tibetan singing bowl is absolutely magical. The sound, and therefore vibrations, are beautiful. Hearing it for the first sent waves of peace and comfort through my body. Tibet is a country that has seen much over the centuries and millennia, so I am happy that this part of their history still exists. They are said to promote relaxation and offer powerful healing properties, including stress and pain relief, and are sometimes used along meditation and deep breathing techniques. Buddhist monks have long used Tibetan singing bowls in meditation and healing practices. These Tibetan singing bowls are a wonderful example of their beautiful culture captured in a seemingly everyday object. Not only does Robert have some amazing pieces, which I will be buying more of soon, but he is also an amazing seller.
The intricate design and details on the copper dragon wall hanging is amazing. It is a conversation starter for my friends. It is light yet durable. Shipping was quick. Experience with the seller was top notch. Will def do business in the future..Thank you
Super Fast to Ship! Well packaged. Dimensions are accurate. What a wondrous piece! Pics just cannot capture the essence! Thank you Robert for the akashic record!