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Lewis Williams Douglas

Lewis Williams Douglas

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Lewis Williams Douglas (July 2, 1894 – March 7, 1974) was an American politician, diplomat, businessman and academic.

According to William E. Leuchtenburg, Tugwell had been greatly influenced by progressives like Robert LaFollette Jr., and headed the faction that advocated extensive government planning, heavy spending for relief and public works, and curbs on profiteers." During the banking crisis he urged Roosevelt to set up a national bank and take over "large blocks of paralyzed industries".

Tugwell's main opponent in the cabinet was Budget Director Lewis Williams Douglas. Leuchtenburg argued that "Douglas opposed government spending, abhorred currency tinkering, and believed that prosperity would come by balancing the budget and leaving capital investment to private industry". Douglas told Roosevelt that Tugwell's ideas might create the "establishment of a communistic or fascistic order of society". He also suggested that these measures would destroy the "middle-class by paper inflation or unbearable taxation". Douglas also supported regressive tax policies. His views were also shared by Raymond Moley.

On 30th August, 1934, deeply troubled by Roosevelt's fiscal policies, Douglas resigned. Some weeks later he wrote to President Franklin D. Roosevelt: "I hope, and hope most fervently, that you will evidence a real determination to bring the budget into actual balance, for upon this, I think, hangs not only your place in history but conceivably the immediate fate of western civilization." He was replaced by Henry Morgenthau, whose views were more like those of Tugwell than Douglas.

Lewis Williams Douglas - History

A few weeks into the journey, Boone had sent a dispatch to Richard Henderson requesting assistance due to Indan attacks that had already claimed 2 men and severly injured another. Richard Henderson immediately headed out with John Luttrell, brothers Thomas, David, and Nathanial Hart, and John Williams, all partners in the Transylvania business venture.

While crossing Cumberland Gap, Henderson notes in his diary they encountered 40 persons leaving Kentucky because of the Indian attacks. He says he was only able to persuade 1 of them to return with him. A few days later they came across James McAfee at the head of a company of 18 men, also leaving Kentucky. Henderson was able to persuade Robert, Samuel, and William McAfee, and 3 others to return, but not James.

Henderson notes that in addition to these 58, there were also 32 under Col. John Floyd at Dick's River, 60 or 70 in Mercer County, 19 in Harrison County, and a surveying party of 13 in Fayette County, for a total of 230 men in Kentucky prior to the Transylvania Colony movement.

Unknown to either Boone or Henderson, another group of 5 men had left Prince William County, Virginia shortly after Boone commenced blazing his trail into central Kentucky from North Carolina. They consisted of William Calk, Enoch Smith, Abraham Hanks, Robert Whitledge, and Phillip Drake. Upon hearing of Indian attacks, Hanks and Drake turned back.

Others also arrived at Boonesborough, laid claim to lands to the east, but waited until it was safe enough to bring their families to join them. These included Nicholas Anderson, Edward Williams, John Harper, Absolom Crook, and Peter Dewitt.

The monument at Fort Boonesborough State Park lists more than 400 people who lived at or near Fort Boonesborough. That list was developed from a number or sources, including Judge French Tipton's Papers. Many of these people lived in the surrounding areas, on both sides of the Kentucky River, in both Fayette (now Clark) and Madison Counties.

John ALLEN, Richard ALLEN, Thomas ALLEN, Aletha ANDERSON, James ANDERSON, Jemima ANDERSON, John ANDERSON, Mary ANDERSON, Nicholas ANDERSON, John ANTHONY, Joseph ANTHONY, Uriel ARK, Daniel ASHBY, l Thomas BAILEY, Isaac BAKER, Bland BALLARD, Abraham BANTA, Henry BANTA Jr., Henry BANTA Sr., John BANTA, James BARBORN, Samuel BARKER, William BARKER, Alex BARNETT, Abrose BARNETT, James BARNETT, John BARNETT, Joseph BARNETT, Robert BARNETT, James BARNHILL, David BARTON, Joab BARTON, Joshua BARTON, Samuel BARTON, Thomas BARTON, Williasm BARTON, Catherine BAUGHMAN, Jacob BAUGHMAN, John BAUGHMAN, Col. Edward BAXTER, Charles BEALE, G. Michael BEDINGER, Flowner BELL, Samuel BELL, John BELLENTINE, Charles BELLEW, John BENNETT, Joseph BENNING, William BENTLEY, Jesse BENTON, James BERRY, Humphrey BEST, Moese BEST, Stephen BEST, Mary Gass BLACK, William BLACK, Joseph BLACKFORD, Anthony BLEDSOE, Joseph BLEDSOE, Moese BLEDSOE, Robert BOGGS, John Peter BONDURANT, Ann BOONE, Betsey BOONE, Col. Daniel BOONE, Daniel Morgan BOONE, Edward or Allen BOONE, Enoch Morgan BOONE, George BOONE, Hannah BOONE, Isaiah BOONE, Josiah BOONE, Lvinia BOONE, Moses BOONE, Nathan BOONE, Rebecca BOONE, Sarah BOONE, Squire BOONE, Mrs. Squire BOONE, Squire BOONE, Squire H. BOONE, Susan BOONE, Ulissy BOONE, Albert BORUS, John BOWLES, John BOYLE, Edward BRADLEY, James BRIDGES, Samuel BROOKS, Thomas BROOKS, William BROOKS, David BRYANT, George BRYANT, Henry BRYANT, James BRYANT, Jonathan BRYANT, Joseph BRYANT, Rebecca BRYANT, Thomas BRYANT, William BRYANT, Capt. William BUCHANAN, Edward BULGER, John BULGER, John BULLOCK, Leonard Henley BULLOCK, Nathaniel BULLOCK, David BUNDAN, John BUNORAN, James BUNTEN, Capt. William "Billy" BUSH, Maj. William BUSHBY, John BUTLER, Robert CALDWELL, William CALK, Mrs. William CALK, Caleb CALLOWAY, Edgar CALLOWAY, Elizabeth CALLOWAY, Flanders CALLOWAY, Frances CALLOWAY, George CALLOWAY, John CALLOWAY, Hezekiah CALLOWAY, Keziah CALLOWAY, Lydia CALLOWAY, Col. Richard CALLOWAY, Mrs. Richard CALLOWAY, John CAMERON, Samuel CAMPBELL, Adam CAPERTON, Braxton CARTER, John CARTWRIGHT, Robert CARTWRIGHT, Abraham CHAPLAIN, Elizabeth Mullins CHENAULT, William CHENAULT, Gen. George Rogers CLARK, Gen. Green CLAY, Judge John COBURN, Samuel COBURN, Capt. William COCKE, Ambrose COFFEE, Jesse COFFEE, John COLEFORT, Alex COLLINS, Elijah COLLINS,

Josiah COLLINS, Thomas COLLINS, William COLLINS, Betts COLLIER, George COLMES, Joseph COMBS, John CONSTANT, John CONWAY, David COOK, Cuthberth COMBS, Enos COOMBS, Williams COOMBS, Jacob COONS, Ben COOPER, Jesse COPHER, William COOPER, Peter COSSART, Frederick COUCHMAN, James COULTER, Maj. William CRADLEBAUGH, John CRAIG, Lewis CRAIG, David CREWS, Elijah CREWS, John CROOKE, John CROSS, Charles CURD, Benjamin CUTBERTH, John DANIEL, Joseph DAVIS, Samuel DAVIS, William DEAL, Abram DEAN, Susan DEAN, Joseph DEBAN or DESON, DENTON family Thomas DIAL, John DONIPHAN, James DOSTER, James DOUGLAS, Joseph DRAKE, Margaret DRAKE, William DRYDEN, John DUMPARD, John DUNN, Benjamin DUNAWAY, John DURBIN, Daniel DUREE, Henry DUREE, Peter DUREE Jr., Mrs. Peter DUREE Jr., Peter DUREE Sr., Mrs. Peter DUREE Sr., Samuel DUREE, Robert ELKIN, Mrs. Robert ELKIN, James ELLIS, Mary ELLIS, Joseph ELLISON, Talton EMBRY, Richard EPPERSON, Robert EPSLEY, Ben ESTILL, Boudee ESTILL, Capt. James ESTILL, Sally ESTILL, Samuel ESTILL, Wallace ESTILL, Baker EWING, William FALL, John FARRAR, Edmund FEAR or FAIR, Col. Ezekiel H. FIELDS, Davind FINLEY, James FINLEY, John FINNELL, John FINNICK, John FLUTY, Col. John FLOYD, Thomas FOOT, Joseph FOWLER, John FOX, James FRENCH, James GASS, Jennie GASS, John GASS, Mary GASS, Sarah GASS, Capt. David GASS, James GATES, Capt. Charles GATLIFF, James GATLIFF, Letitia GATLIFF, Neal GATLIFF, Martin GENTRY, Richard GENTRY, Catherine GEORGE, John GEORGE, Nicholas GEORGE, Mrs. Nicholas GEORGE, Whitson GEORGE, Julius GIBBS, Samuel GILBERT, Ricard GIREY, Sameul GIREY, Ancil GOODMAN, Daniel GOODMAN, Elizabeth GRANT, Hannah GRANT, Isreal GRANT, l John GRANT, Rebecca Boone GRANT, Moses GRANT, Squire GRANT, William GRANT, Capt. Higgason GRUBBS, Mrs. Higgason GRUBBS, Peter GUERRANT, Thomas GOFF, Peter HACKETT, Edward HALL, Thomas HALL, William HALL, Andrew HAMILTON, John HAMILTON, James HAMILTON, George HANCOCK, Stepen HANCOCK, William HANCOCK, Edward HAND, Andrew HANA, John HARMON, Thomas HARGROVE, John HARPER, Peter HARPER, John HARVESTER, William HARRIS, Ben HARRISON, John HARRISON, Edward HARROD, Chenoa HART, China HART, Cumberland HART, David HART, Mrs. David HART, John HART, Kiziah HART, Mary HART, Nathaniel HART, Nathaniel HART Jr., Mrs. Nathaniel HART, Simpson HART, Susannah HART, Thomas HART, Thomas Richard Green HART, John HAWISTON, Elizabeth HAYES, James HAYES, Jemima HAYES, William HAYES, John HENDERSON, Nathaniel HENDERSON, Nicholas HENDERSON, Pleasant HENDERSON, Col Richard HENDERSON, Samuel HENDERSON, Frances Halley HENDRICKS, George HENDRICKS, William HICKS, Jospeh HINES,

Dr. HINES, . Col. Richard HINES, Isaac HITE, Jesse HODGES, James HOGAN, Richard HOGAN, William HOGE, James HOGG, Capt. John HOLDER, Francis HOLLEY / HALLEY, Mrs. Francis HOLLEY / HALLEY, Mrs. John HOLLEY / HALLEY, William HOOTON, Elizabeth HORN, Jeremiah HORN, Matthew HORN, Elizabeth HOY, Parthenia HOY, William HOY, Joseph HUGHES, Jake HUNTER, John HUNTER, Samuel HUNTER, Benjamin HOWARD, John HOWARD, Margaret HOWARD, Harry INNES, Christopher IRVINE Jr., Christopher IRVINE Sr., David C. IRVINE, Col. William IRVINE, John JACKSON, Joseph JACKSON, Jonathan JENNINGS, Charles JOCKARS, Andrew JOHNSON, Betsey JOHNSON, Rev. Cave JOHNSON, Isaac JOHNSON, Robert JOHNSON, William JOHNSON, Jacob JOHNSTON, Thomas JOHNSTON, Catlett JONES, Matthew JOUETT, Charles KAVANAUGH, William KAVANAUGH, Beal KELLY, Joseph KELLY, Benjamin KELLY, John KELLY, Andrew KENNEDY, David KENNEDY, Elizabeth KENNEDY, Jesse KENNEDY, John KENNEDY Jr., Joseph KENNEDY, Mary KENNEDY, Thomas KENNEDY, James KENNY, Simon KENTON, Johnthan KETCHAM, John KINCAID, Thomas KINCAID, Robert KIRKHAM, Samuel KIRKHAM, William KINTLEY, John KNOX, Samuel LACKEY, Col. John LADD, Thomas LANHAM, Charles LEE, John LEE, Abraham LEWIS, George LINCOLN, William LIPSCOMB, Nathan LIPSCOMB, Thomas LITTLE, Charles LOCKHART, Col. John LOGAN, Samuel LOGAN, Joseph LONG, Frances LONG, Lawrence LONG, Col John P. LUTTRELL, Thomas LUTTRELL, David LYNCH, William LYNN, Robert MCAFEE, George MCAFEE, William MCAFEE, Moses MCCLURE, John MCCOLLUM, MCGARY family, David MCGEE, James MCMILLAN Sr. Margaret White MCMILLAN, Thomas MCQUEEN, William MCWHINNEY, George MADDEN, James MANKINS, John MANNEN, John MARTIN, William MARTIN, Jesse MAUPIN, William MAYS, George MERIWEATHER, Nicholas MERIWEATHER, David MILLER, Thomas MILLER, William MILLER, Michael MIRAS, Alex MONTGOMERY, John MONTGOMERY, Charles MOORE, John MOORE, William MOORE, John MORGAN, Ralph MORGAN, William MORGAN, Jesse MORRIS, William MORRIS, Richard MORRISON, John MORTON, Thomas MOSELY, John MOUNCE or MOURNER, Jacob MYERS, Alexander NEELEY, Edward NELSON, Mrs. Edward NELSON, John NELSON, Moses NELSON, John NEWBY, Abraham NEWLAND, Thomas NOEL, Jesse OLDHAM, Tyree OLDHAM, Michael OVERSTREET, William O'REAR, Thomas M. OWENS, John Cockey OWINGS, Clough OVERTON, Lt. James PATTON, Richard PATTERSON, William PATTERSON, James PEAKE, Jesse PEAKE, John PEAKE, Joshua PENNIX,

Peter PENNYBACKER, James PERRY, Richard PETERSON, Anny Duffey PEYTON, Yelverton PEYTON, Anthony PHELPS, Edwin PHELPS, Elizabeth PHELPS, George PHELPS, Guy PHELPS, John PHELPS, Joshua PHELPS, Josiah PHELPS, Lucy PHELPS, Sarah PHELPS, Thomas PHELPS, William PHILLIPS, John PITTMAN, John PLEAKENSTALVER, John PLECK, John POGUE, William POGUE, Mrs. William POGUE, Samuel PORTER, Page PORTWOOD, Sam PORTWOOD, Levin POWELL, James PROCTOR, John PROCTOR, Joseph PROCTOR, Capt. Nicholas PROCTOR, Nicholas PROCTOR Jr., Rachel PROCTOR, Reuben PROCTOR, James QUISENBERRY, Benjamin QUINN, James QUINN, Thomas QUINN, John RANK, Nicholas RAY, Alexander REED, JOhn RICE, Joseph RICE, Samuel RICE, Benejamin ROBERTS, Davidn ROBINSON, George ROBINSON, Samuel ROBINSON, William ROBINSON, Col. Robert RHODES, Pemberton ROLLINS, Ambrose ROSS, Hugh ROSS, Gen. Christopher RIFFE, Fred RIPPERDAM, Mrs. Fred RIPPERDAM, James RUSSELL, Samuel SANDERS, John SAPPINGTON, William SCHOLL, Anderson SEARCY, Asa SEARCY, Bartlett SEARCY, Charles SEARCY, Reuben SEARCY, Richard SEARCY Jr., Richard SEARCY Sr. Samuel SEARCY, William SEARCY, James SCOTT, Hugh SEFER, Hugh SHIELDS, David SHELBY, Isaac SHELBY, David SHELTON, Charles SHIRLEY, Katie SHIRLEY, Michael SHIRLEY, Thomas SHORES, Col. Thomas SLAUGHTER, Enoch SMITH, Encoh George SMITH, John SMITH, Maj. William Bailey SMITH, John SNODDY, Samuel SNODDY, John SOUTH Jr., John SOUTH Sr., Mrs. John SOUTH, Samuel SOUTH, Thomas SOUTH, Richard SPURR, William STAGG, Barney STAGNER, John STAPLETON, Jacob STARNES, Joseph STARNES, Jacob STEARNS, John STEPHENSON, Dudley STONE, Michael STONER, Samuel STRODE, Berue SWEARINGEN, Benoni SWEARINGEN, Thomas SWEARINGEN, Hale TALBOTT, John TANNER, John TATE, Robert TATE, Samuel TATE, Edmond TAYLOR, John TAYLOR, Nancy TAYLOR, Peter W. TAYLOR, Richard TAYLOR, John TERRELL, Robert TERRELL, James THOMAS, Moses THOMAS, James THOMPSON, Lawrence THOMPSON, Col. John TODD, William TOMLINSON, Gerrett TOWNSEND, Joshual TOWNSEND, Oswald TOWNSEND, Thomas TRIBBLE, David TURNER, John TURNER, Solomon TURPIN, William TURPIN, Capt. Thomas TWIDDY, William TWIDDY, William UMPHREY, Benoni VALLANDIGHAM, Lewis VALLANDIGHAM, Joel VASSAR, Richard WADE, Joel WALKER, Isaac WANE, David V. WALKER, Felix WALKER, Robert WALTON, Thomas WARREN, James WARTON, Capt. Charles G. WATKINS, James WATKINS, John WEBBER, Walter WELCH, Richard WELLS, Ambrose WHITE, Aquilla WHITE, Galen WHITE, Robert WHITLEDGE, Capt. John WHITTAKER, Billy WILCOX, Sally Boone WILCOX, Daniel WILCOXON, Elizabeth WILCOXON, John WILCOXON, Rachel WILCOXON, Aletha Anderson WILKERSON, John WILKERSON, Mrs. John WILKERSON, Moses WILKERSON, Wyatt WILKERSON, William WILLIAMS, Edward WILLIAMS, Jarrett WILLIAMS, John WILLIAMS, Richard WITLEDGE, Moses WILSON, Adams WOODS, Capt. Archibald WOODS, John WOODS, Samuel WOODS, Samuel WOODSON, Capt. Edward WORTHINGTON, John WRIGHT, James WESTERVELDT (Westerfield), John WITHERS, James YATES, Jesse YOCUM


9314 W. Jefferson Boulevard
Dallas, Texas 75211


Private Company
Incorporated: 1917 as Lewis and Vought Company
Employees: 4,800
Sales: $1 billion (2001 est.)
NAIC: 336411 Aircraft Manufacturing 541710 Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences

Company Perspectives:
With a solid focus on the future, Vought will continue: producing products of superior quality creating an atmosphere that supports our reputation as an employer of choice maintaining strong financial performance providing customers a competitive advantage.

Key Dates:
1917: Lewis and Vought Company is founded.
1929: Vought joins Pratt & Whitney-led United Aircraft and Transport Corporation.
1935: Chance Vought becomes part of new United Aircraft Manufacturing Company.
1939: Vought-Sikorsky Division is formed as division of United Aircraft.
1948: Chance Vought moves to Dallas plant.
1954: Chance Vought becomes an independent corporation again.
1968: Grand Prairie plant is built.
1976: LTV Aerospace becomes Vought Corporation.
1983: Vought Corporation is renamed LTV Aerospace and Defense Company.
1992: Carlyle Group and Northrop acquire LTV Aircraft Division, which is renamed Vought Aircraft Company.
1994: Northrop Grumman acquires remainder of Vought from Carlyle.
2000: Carlyle Group buys Northrop Grumman's aerostructures business and revives the Vought name.

Vought Aircraft Industries, Inc. is the world's largest independent aerostructures manufacturer. The firm traces its origins back to the pioneering designer Chance Vought. From its heritage as a manufacturer of innovative naval aircraft, Vought has evolved into a major aerospace subcontractor, supplying large, complex aerostructures for many commercial and military aircraft. The Carlyle Group, a Washington, D.C.-based defense industry investment firm, owns about 90 percent of the company.

Launch During World War I

Chance Vought, born in 1890 as Chauncey Milton Vought, became known as one of the most creative American aircraft designers during World War I. He designed his first complete plane (the PLV) in 1914, only a couple of years after becoming a pilot himself. Vought landed jobs at Simplex Aircraft and, later, the Wright Company, where he was chief engineer of the legendary firm for a short time.

With backing from sportsman Birdseye B. Lewis, Vought founded Lewis and Vought Company in Long Island, New York, on June 18, 1917, to make aircraft needed during World War I. The VE-7 "Bluebird" trainer was the company's first product. While serving on General Pershing's staff, Lewis died in a plane crash in France in 1918. The Lewis and Vought firm would survive the drop-off in demand that accompanied the end of the war.

Pioneering Naval Aviation Between the Wars

In the 1920s, Vought pioneered the field of naval aviation. In 1922, a VE-7SF fighter made the first carrier take-off from the USS Langley. In May 1922, Lewis and Vought was reorganized as the Chance Vought Corporation, with Chance Vought's father being brought in as company president. In 1926, the O2U-1 Corsair entered production. It had been designed by Rex B. Beisel, who by then had already joined the staff at Curtiss.

During World War I, Vought met Pratt & Whitney founder Frederick Rentschler and began using his firm's Wasp engine in his designs. When Boeing Airplane and Transport acquired Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, Chance Vought Aircraft was brought into the new United Aircraft and Transport Corporation, incorporated on February 1, 1929, along with propeller manufacturer Hamilton Aero.

Chance Vought died from septicemia (blood poisoning) on July 25, 1930, at the age of 40 (aviation pioneer Glenn H. Curtis had passed away just two days earlier). His replacement as chief engineer was Rex Beisel, who rejoined the company in September 1931.

United Aircraft and Transport was dissolved on September 26, 1934. Within a few months, Chance Vought, Pratt & Whitney, Sikorsky, and Hamilton Standard were all made part of the new United Aircraft Manufacturing Company.

Winning Wings in World War II

Vought continued to make a small number of naval aircraft until the outbreak of World War II. The SB2U Vindicator, a light bomber, first flew in 1936 but was obsolescent by the start of the war in spite of its low-winged monoplane configuration. Two other designs were more successful. The OS2U Kingfisher began production in 1940 and excelled in its role as an observation aircraft. The F4U Corsair would become one of the most respected fighters of the era and Vought's best-known aircraft.

In 1938, Rex Beisel had launched a design effort for a new fighter specification calling for use of a powerful 4,000 horsepower engine when the F4U Corsair began flight tests it was the first American fighter to top 400 mph. The famous gull-winged fighter was the plane that decisively bested the Japanese Zero as the two fought for domination of the Pacific skies. The Corsair was flown by Col. Gregory "Pappy" Boyington, USMC, leader of the legendary Black Sheep Squadron. In a ten-year production run that ended in December 1952, 12,571 Corsairs were made.

The legendary Igor Sikorsky had been part of the design team for the F4U Corsair. Sikorsky Aircraft had joined the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation on July 30, 1929. This was combined into United Aircraft's Vought-Sikorsky Division on April 1, 1939.

Towards the end of the war, Vought was developing the XF5U "Flying Pancake," a twin-engine flying wing designed to excel at low speed flight and carrier operations. In 1948, the program was canceled by the Navy, which was by then emphasizing jet fighters. Vought developed one of the first naval jets, the F6U Pirate. Its successor, the revolutionary but troublesome F7U Cutlass, borrowed heavily from German jet technology.

Chance Vought relocated to Dallas in 1948, taking over the "B" Plant formerly occupied by North American Aviation. The move was initiated by the Navy, which did not want both of its main aircraft suppliers (the other being Grumman) located on the East Coast. Involving 1,500 employees and 50 million pounds of equipment, it was the largest industrial move to date, yet the production lines were barely disturbed.

Chance Vought became an independent company again on July 1, 1954. The company was spun off (first as a subsidiary in January 1954) owing to concerns that it might gain unfair advantage from Pratt & Whitney's dealings with other manufacturers.

The F7U Cutlass was succeeded by the F8U Crusader, later designated F-8, which first flew in March 1955 and remained in production until 1965. This fighter, used by the navies of the United States and France, was unique in employing a variable-incidence wing to facilitate carrier landings. The U.S. Navy's first single-engine supersonic fighter, the F-8 remained in the fleet for 31 years.

Part of a Conglomerate in the 1960s and 1970s

Chance Vought was renamed Chance Vought Corporation in December 1960, but was soon a takeover target of Ling-Temco Electronics, which had been formed through the acquisition of the former Texas Engineering and Manufacturing Company by Ling-Altec Electronics. Antitrust suits failed to stop the merger with Vought, and the Ling-Temco-Vought Corporation was formed on August 31, 1961, in a leveraged buyout. Fred Detweiler, who had become head of Vought after Rex Beisel stepped down in the early 1950s, resigned in protest. Texas industrialist James J. Ling, the man behind his namesake company, himself was forced to step down as CEO by his creditors and was succeeded by Robert McCulloch.

The Chance Vought Corporation name survived until a reorganization of Ling-Temco-Vought on October 20, 1963. Chance Vought operations formed the bulk of the LTV Aerosystems Corporation, formed in 1965 as a subsidiary of Ling-Temco-Vought.

In spite of the success of the new A-7 attack jet, the parent company accrued massive debts in the late 1960s, and Ling was forced to relinquish his chairmanship of Ling-Temco-Vought. Vought head and former test pilot W. Paul Thayer became Ling-Temco-Vought's new CEO in 1970. He sold off holdings such as Braniff Airways Inc. and Okonite Co. to reduce debt.

When Ling-Temco-Vought was renamed LTV Corporation in the early 1970s, it had three operating divisions: LTV Aerosystems, LTV Electrosystems, and LTV Ling-Altec. By this time, LTV Aerosystems was comprised of Vought Aeronautics Company, a few other units, and Vought Helicopters, Inc., a unit set up in 1969 to market Aérospatiale helicopters in North America. This subsidiary was sold to Aérospatiale in 1974 and renamed Vought Helicopter Corp.

In 1972, the Vought units were reorganized as the Vought Systems Division of LTV Aerospace, which itself was renamed Vought Corporation on January 1, 1976. The parent company LTV Corporation had become a $4 billion diversified conglomerate, with significant holdings in steel and food processing. With revenues exceeding $500 million and pretax profits of $41 million, Vought Corp. accounted for 12 percent of LTV's sales in 1975.

At this time, Vought's only prime contracts were the A-7 Corsair II attack jets being produced for the Navy and the Army's Lance missiles. Business Week reported that the A-7 program had brought Vought $3.3 billion in business between 1964 and 1977.

By 1980, reported Aviation Week & Space Technology, Vought's corporate strategy had shifted to becoming a major prime contractor in missiles, projected to be a growth market for the coming decade. Vought had already produced more than 3,000 Lance missiles, used by the United States and several European armies. Subcontracting work had already become a significant part of Vought's business. Vought was conducting unique research in the areas of hypervelocity (low-explosive projectiles achieving speeds of up to 5,000 feet per second) and lethality.

LTV Corporation made an attempt to acquire 70 percent of rival Grumman Corp. in 1981, but the sale was blocked on antitrust grounds. Two years later, CEO Paul Thayer left LTV for a stint as deputy secretary of defense. A restructuring in April 1983 renamed Vought Corporation as LTV Aerospace and Defense Company, and it was organized into two divisions: Missiles and Advanced Programs, and Aero Products. These were renamed the Missiles and Electronics Group and the Aircraft Products Group at the end of September 1986.

Poor results in LTV's steel and energy businesses forced the company to enter a long and litigious bankruptcy in July 1986. LTV Aerospace and Defense Co., however, was consistently profitable, posting operating earnings of $164 million on sales of $2.3 billion in 1985.

In the late 1980s, LTV was placing its hopes on the YA-7F, an upgrade of the A-7 Corsair II attack jet. This was the company's last program as a prime contractor the Air Force preferred the General Dynamics F-16. LTV Aircraft had sales of about $700 million in 1989.

LTV's bankruptcy resulted in the Aerospace and Defense division being offered for sale in May 1991. Martin Marietta and Lockheed together bid $355 million for the unit. A competing bid launched by Thomson SA, the French aerospace giant, raised political questions regarding foreign ownership in the defense industry.

In the end, LTV Aircraft went to Northrop and the Carlyle Group, which had also backed Thomson's bid, for $230 million. The whole unit was renamed Vought Aircraft Company. Loral paid $244 million for the LTV Missiles and Space Division, renaming it Loral Vought Systems. Both transactions closed on August 31, 1992.

Vought Aircraft attained sales of $1 billion in 1992, while reducing staffing levels 30 percent in three years to 7,300 employees. The company had diversified its subcontracting business to a nearly 50-50 split of commercial and defense work. It was involved in a handful of major programs: the Boeing 747, 757, and 767 on the civil side and the Northrop B-2 stealth bomber and McDonnell Douglas C-17 military transport. In June 1993, Gulfstream selected Vought to produce the wings for its new Gulfstream V business jet.

Vought President Gordon Williams credited the company's improvement on a commitment to total quality management (TQM). He rated Vought as one of the top two composite material structures fabricators in the United States, next to Boeing. Vought had also invested in advanced, flexible manufacturing equipment for large aluminum and titanium parts.

Vought was fielding cooperative bids for two major military aircraft contracts. It was on the McDonnell Douglas-led team to develop a successor to the Grumman A-6 naval strike aircraft designated A/F-X. The Pampa 2000 was a venture with FMA of Argentina to field an entrant for the USAF/US Navy Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (JPATS) program.

The commercial aviation business suffered from a world recession and effects of the Persian Gulf War in the early 1990s, and Boeing's cutback prompted Vought to cut 1,500 jobs in 1993.

Northrop Grumman Corp. exercised an option to buy the Carlyle Group's 51 percent share of Vought Aircraft Co. in July 1994. Northrop had earlier acquired Grumman Corp. for $2.2 billion. Northrop Grumman paid $130 million for Vought, which eventually became part of its Integrated Systems and Aerostructures sector.

Carlyle Buying Again in 2000

Northrop Grumman sold its aerostructures unit to the Carlyle Group in a deal worth $1.2 billion in July 2000. Carlyle renamed the business Vought Aircraft Industries. Sales at the unit had fallen from $1.6 billion to $1.4 billion in 1999, and Northrop Grumman preferred to focus on growth opportunities in defense electronics and information technology.

Vought Aircraft Industries cut 20 percent of its 6,000 strong workforce in late 2001 following a downturn in the civil aviation market and a downturn in Boeing business. At the same time, the company began closing a plant in Perry, Georgia, and moving its operations to its factory in Stuart, Florida. Grumman had opened the latter site in 1950 as a flight-testing facility.

Vought CEO Gordon Williams left the company to become chairman of the Carlyle Group in January 2002. He was succeeded at Vought by Tom Risley.

Principal Operating Units: Dallas Hawthorne Midgeville Perry Stuart.

Principal Competitors: CPI Aerostructures, Inc. Goodrich Corporation LMI Aerospace, Inc.

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  • Pattillo, Donald M., Pushing the Envelope: The American Aircraft Industry, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998.
  • Peltz, James F., "Northrop to Buy Rest of Vought," Los Angeles Times, July 13, 1994, p. D2.
  • Phillips, Edward H., "Vought Pursuing Seat on Sonic Cruiser Team," Aviation Week & Space Technology, April 15, 2002, pp. 69-70.
  • Ropelewski, Robert, "Role Shift Keeps Vought Taut, Viable," Interavia Aerospace World, August 1993, pp. 17-21.
  • Ruesink, David C., and Michael C. Kleibrink, "Mexican-Americans from the Rio Grande to Ling-Temco-Vought," Labor Law Journal, August 1969, pp. 473-79.
  • Stevenson, Richard W., "Making a Difference An Aerospace Executive with Good Reason to Smile," New York Times, March 1, 1992, Sec. 3, p. 10.
  • Tillman, Barrett, Corsair: The F4U in World War II and Korea, Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2002.
  • ------, Vought F4U Corsair, rev. Ed., North Branch, Minn.: Specialty Press, 2001.
  • Veronico, Nick, and John M. and Donna Campbell, F4U Corsair, Osceola, Wis.: Motorbooks International, 1994.
  • "Vought Sees Reagan Policy Increasing Exports of A-7s," Aviation Week & Space Technology, September 28, 1981, p. 66.
  • "Vought Submits Proposal to Navy for New A-7X," Aviation Week & Space Technology, May 25, 1981, p. 21.
  • "Why Grumman Insists and LTV Deal Won't Fly," Business Week, October 12, 1981, p. 46.

Source: International Directory of Company Histories , Vol. 49. St. James Press, 2003.

We teamed up with SurveyMonkey for a public ranking of the 50 greatest black athletes of all time.

The Undefeated partnered with SurveyMonkey to poll the public on the 50 Greatest Black Athletes. In April, 10,350 adults were asked to rank 200 athletes on 20 different surveys. Respondents were asked how great of an athlete each person was/is using a scale of 1 to 10 stars. The athletes were ranked in order based on their average scores to form a top 50 list. From there, the top 60 athletes (including the first 10 who didn&rsquot make the cut to 50) were used to create a final ranking. Each athlete was ranked on four factors: overall ranking, dominance, inspiration and impact on society. Average scores were calculated from each factor to create a composite score. Athletes were ranked in order by their composite score to determine our final list, which will be unveiled in groups of 10 per week for five weeks. We&rsquoll have more on how the public voted &ndash broken down by race, age, gender, education level and census region &ndash after the final group is revealed. The Undefeated&rsquos Justin Tinsley, Jerry Bembry and Aaron Dodson wrote the biographies of the athletes, although they didn&rsquot agree with some of the rankings. But the people have spoken, and the results should spark some serious debate. How we did it

The Undefeated and SurveyMonkey collaborated to rank the 50 Greatest Black Athletes as determined by the public. In February, pretesting began utilizing the SurveyMonkey Audience. Respondents were asked two open­-ended questions: &ldquoWho is the best athlete of all time?&rdquo and &ldquoWhat makes an athlete great?&rdquo Responses from this survey supplemented a separate list cultivated by The Undefeated to curate the list of 200 athletes to rank in Phase One.

The Phase One survey narrowed the list of 200 athletes down to the top 60. It was conducted online on SurveyMonkey from April 10-­14, 2017, among a national sample of 11,287 adults age 18 and older. Respondents for this survey were randomly selected from the nearly 3 million people who take surveys on the SurveyMonkey platform every day. Each respondent randomly received 10 athletes to rate (On a scale of 1 to 10 stars, how great of an athlete is each of the following? Skip any athlete you aren&rsquot familiar with), and each athlete was rated by approximately 500 respondents. Data for the survey was weighted for age, race, sex, education and geography using the Census Bureau&rsquos American Community Survey to reflect the demographic composition of the United States. The top 60 athletes with the highest ratings moved on to Phase Two.

The Phase Two survey ranked the top 60 athletes from Phase One according to four criteria, which were aspects that were mentioned as characteristics that made a great athlete in the pre­testing survey:

Each respondent randomly received three athletes to rate on these four dimensions, which were combined to create an overall score. The athletes were ranked by the overall score to determine the top 50 Greatest Black Athletes of All Time. The Phase Two survey was conducted online on SurveyMonkey from April 26 to May 1, 2017, among a national sample of 10,523 adults age 18 and older. Respondents for this survey were randomly selected from the nearly 3 million people who take surveys on the SurveyMonkey platform every day. Data for the survey was weighted for age, race, sex, education and geography using the Census Bureau&rsquos American Community Survey to reflect the demographic composition of the United States.

Lennox Lewis

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Lennox Lewis, in full Lennox Claudius Lewis, (born September 2, 1965, London, England), first British boxer to hold the undisputed heavyweight world championship since Bob Fitzsimmons held the title in 1899.

Lewis was born to Jamaican parents, spent his early childhood in England, and then moved with his mother to Canada. An all-around athlete in high school, he excelled in several sports but soon focused on boxing and developed into one of Canada’s best amateur fighters. At the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul, South Korea, Lewis beat American Riddick Bowe to earn the gold medal in the superheavyweight division.

Lewis returned to his native England in 1989 to pursue a professional career. He was undefeated in his first 22 professional fights and earned a title bout with Bowe, who had become the heavyweight champion. The 6-foot 5-inch (1.96-metre), 230-pound (104.3-kg) Lewis was exceptionally large for a boxer, and his size posed special problems for the average heavyweight. Not surprisingly, Bowe and his manager chose to pursue lucrative fights against easier opponents. The World Boxing Council (WBC) stripped Bowe of his title and awarded it to Lewis, who defended the title three times before losing in an upset to American Oliver McCall in London in September 1994.

For the next few years Lewis won all his fights and worked to secure another championship fight. In 1997 American boxer Mike Tyson held the WBC heavyweight title but was unwilling to face the much taller Lewis. When a court order demanded that Tyson defend his crown against Lewis, he surrendered the title. On February 7, 1997, Lewis again faced McCall for the vacant WBC crown and won by technical knockout in the fifth round after McCall refused to fight. A unification bout in March 1999 at New York City’s Madison Square Garden against American Evander Holyfield, who held the heavyweight titles of the World Boxing Association (WBA) and the International Boxing Federation (IBF) ended in a controversial draw. The November rematch in Las Vegas, Nevada, was another closely scored fight, but Lewis landed more punches and emerged, finally, as the undisputed champion of the heavyweight division.

In April 2000 Lewis was stripped of the WBA portion of his title after a legal dispute with the promoter Don King prevented a timely defense of his title against an acceptable opponent. That same year Lewis went on to defeat Michael Grant, Franz Botha, and David Tua to retain his IBF and WBC heavyweight titles. In a surprising outcome in April 2001, Lewis lost to underdog Hasim Rahman in a fifth-round knockout. In the November rematch Lewis reclaimed his title from Rahman, knocking him out in the fourth round. After much legal and business wrangling, a bout with Tyson was finally set for June 8, 2002, in Memphis, Tennessee. Lewis knocked Tyson out in the eighth round. In the fall of 2002, Lewis relinquished the IBF portion of his heavyweight title. While still recognized as the legitimate heavyweight world champion, Lewis announced his retirement in 2004 with a record of 41 wins (32 by knockout), 2 losses, and 1 draw.

Lewis was named a Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) in 1999 and a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 2002. In 2009 he was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame. The documentary Lennox Lewis: The Untold Story appeared in 2020.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.

You are here: Home » People » Steve Lewis

You know, the thing about Gaudino was that he appeared to be this sort of abstract intellectual and then you find out he was a bombardier, you think, “Well, that’s interesting!” We kidded about, you know, what kind of conversation, knowing him, what kind of conversation did he have with people as he was going [&hellip]

First term my sophomore year, PoliSci 1A or 2A, American politics. Fall of ’57, he had a freshman from my high school outside of Buffalo, N.Y., who was literally hanging on by his fingernails academically. And one of things that really struck me about Bob, since there was some sense, particularly among other faculty, that [&hellip]

When I came on the faculty, then I was a colleague and not a student. I remember he had been to India by then and my first job out of graduate school I spent two years in Karachi. And the first time that my former wife and I had Bob over for dinner, the first [&hellip]

…So when it comes his turn on this panel, he says, “Well now, this is what my profession says how we search for truth in Political Science,” and he went through kind of a ‘50s graduate school kind of how do you use evidence and how do you use quantitative reasoning and blah, blah, blah, [&hellip]

Bob was teaching two courses both called “Methods in Political Science” or something. And one section he taught with a kind of methodological “How do you do research?” and the other was the one I was in, which was Methods with a completely different spin. A little saying at the top of the syllabus was [&hellip]

That was the fall of ’58. One evening we met was the night after the Deke house had burned down and he made some initial comments about it in terms of the fact that here we were in the warmth across the street and think about the vast majority of people in the world who [&hellip]

It was in that course I think that he developed a number of the themes some of his colleagues on the faculty didn’t like. He used to distinguish between a college education and a university education, one being the training of good citizens and the other being unvarnished truths no matter where it lead you. [&hellip]

The other things that happened that fall was Jim Burns had run for congress against Silvio Conte, the long, long representative in Congress for Western Massachusetts–and he’d lost. And I think it was that same week we were reading Max Weber’s essay on politics as a vocation and talking about the level of commitment one [&hellip]

Gaudino’s ironic approach, he said, “I’m supposed to give all of you a character evaluation, ie. a grade at the end of every term.” And at the time you would put a postcard in his mailbox and ask him what was your grade on the final and what was the grade on the course and [&hellip]

It wasn’t a sword. It was a picture of Napoleon. And I think it was Herzog who said it ought to be the lawgiver because the lawgiver’s above the law.

Lewis documentary film makers Ryan Polomski and Dean Prator

He scored 53 points in a double-overtime thriller to lead Cal State to a 107-104, upset win. Later that year Lewis declared himself into the NBA draft and was selected as the 18th overall pick by the Philadelphia 76ers.

Representing himself as a 20-year-old youth, Lewis signed a three-year deal for what he thought was a $400,000 contract. However, after reports that he dominated the NBA&rsquos and Sixers number one draft choice Doug Collins in the Sixers rookie camp, Lewis then wanted to renegotiate his contract to match Collins five year $200,000 contract, which made him the league&rsquos first million-dollar player.

When Philadelphia refused, Lewis reportedly walked out of camp. From that point on he would never play one minute in the league.

Former NBA players, college coaches and teammates participate in the Lewis documentary film!

Current Washington Husky head basketball coach and former NBA player Lorenzo Romar sat down with us to discuss his personal friendship with Lewis.

Romar goes into great detail to describe Lewis' awesome basketball talent of how he completely dominated the former NBA player in on-on-one games while he was with the Golden State Warriors. Romar also talks of his failed efforts to try and persuade Lewis to change his views of the NBA and conform to their way of doing things in order to improve his chances of playing in the league.

Former L.A. Laker and five-time NBA champion and current WNBA's Atlanta Dream's head basketball coach Michael Cooper was a great interview for the Lewis documentary film. Cooper vividly recalled his days as a youth playing against Raymond Lewis and what the sport meant to inner city kids during those days.

Coop also candidly recalled the time when he meet Raymond Lewis in 1983, in a Summer Pro League game while a member of the Los Angeles Lakers. In the "talk-of-the-town" and much anticipated showdown, the defensive specialist was bombed by Lewis who scored 56 points on Cooper in only three quarters of play.

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One of our first Lewis documentary interviews was the legendary Jerry Tarkanian. Known to many in the basketball world as "Tark the Shark" Tarkanian, with 702 collegiate basketball wins over four decades as a head coach has sent over forty of his college players to the NBA.

In his 2006 novel Runnin Rebel, Tarkanian devoted nine pages of text to Raymond Lewis calling him "The Greatest Player I Ever Saw". Although now in failing health, &ldquoTark&rdquo was still able to attest to the greatness of Raymond Lewis.

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Theus, a former 13-year NBA veteran and two-time all-star sat down with us to talk about Raymond and what it was like for teens growing up in his era. Currently the men's head basketball coach at Cal State Northridge, Theus continues to mentor and teach student-athletes.

He was full of wisdom and insight - not only about the game of basketball, but also about the game of life. He grew up admiring Lewis and then went on to make a significant mark on the sport himself &ndash just like many of those we have talked to.

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Probably best known for his tenure with Nike Inc. and the man solely responsible for Nike signing Michael Jordan to his first sneaker deal, Sonny Vaccaro, a longtime fan and friend of Raymond Lewis, sat down with us and give his candid views and stories about Raymond.

Needless-to-say, we were all surprised of just how well Sonny knew Raymond and how he personally tried to help Lewis garner a professional career. Vaccaro's Dapper Dan Roundball Classics and other basketball tournaments over the years have featured hundreds of elite high school athletes which have produced numerous NBA pros along with current and future Hall-of-Famers.

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One of the most anticipated interviews of the film. Many including our film crew were delighted and anxious to hear Gene Shue's version of what happened at the Sixer camp in 1973, while he was the head coach in Philadelphia.

Shue provided us with his straightforward recollection of his personal experience with Raymond, as well as, what took place at the rookie camp that year and why Raymond Lewis never played in the NBA.

Known as the "basketball guru" and the "John Wooden of Watts", Caldwell Black for decades has been both a mentor and basketball coach to many athletes over the years.

As the Director of Youth Services and coach at Drew middle school, Black formed a basketball league at the school which kept troubled youth off the streets. Caldwell Black for decades was a staple and father-figure for many of the youth in which he coached on the basketball court. In the film, Black not only talks about Raymond the basketball player, but Raymond the person as well, and some of the trials and tribulations Lewis often faced.

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Currently a minister in Los Angeles, Adrian Chivers has the distinction of being the only person to play every game from Verbum Dei to Cal State L.A. with Raymond Lewis.

In the interview, Chivers talks about his life-long friendship with Lewis and what it was like during the Verbum Dei and Cal State L.A. years while living in Watts. He also touches on the underhanded going-ons and what the Black athlete had to endure doing his collegiate stay.

One of a handful of people who knew Raymond Lewis intimately from his early childhood days in the Watts youth leagues until his passing in 2001.

Slaughter, the father of 6 foot-9 inch Marcus Slaughter, who plays professional basketball in the European league, was also a teammate of Raymond Lewis and a star player in his own right, gives a candid interview of what it was like hanging out and playing with Lewis during the Verbum Dei years.

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Former Verbum Dei and UC Riverside basketball standout Eddie Williams was a long-time friend of not only Raymond Lewis, but Lewis website and documentary co-producer Dean Prator.

Unknowingly, Williams was the inspiration for the creation of this website, as well as,

the documentary film. In the film interview he tells the viewers what we have been talking about for years which were the great basketball skills of Raymond Lewis.

Pyles credits Raymond Lewis for helping him develop into an outstanding player at Verbum Dei. He along with Eddie Williams, who both became teammates at UC Riverside, help lead Verbum Dei to its fifth consecutive CIF Southern Section Championship posting a 29-2 winning record.

In the film interview, Pyles reflects on his playing days at Verbum Dei often rendering thoughtful opinion of the Lewis saga while offering insightful wisdom to up-and-coming athletes in general.

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An all "CIF" first-team basketball player from Compton High School, Biff Burrell in 1971, was considered one of the finest high school guards in Southern California. Burrell went on to be a standout guard at USC and is currently the operator and owner of Gym Ratt in North Carolina which trains boys and girls on the fundamentals of basketball.

Burrell sat down with us and talk about his personal matchups while playing against Raymond, as well as, giving advice to future athletes on how to avoid the pitfalls which often face many youths.

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From 1969 through the 1974-75 season Bob Miller was the Cal State L.A. Diablos (L.A. State until 1972) men's head basketball coach. In 1971, Miller was involved in the controversial recruitment and signing of Raymond Lewis who had all but enrolled at Long Beach State, before changing his mind at the last second to attended L.A. State.

In the interview, Miller expresses his fondness of Lewis and discusses his recruitment efforts that snared Lewis from his friend and basketball rival Jerry Tarkanian.

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Former Cal State L.A. and teammate of Raymond Lewis Steve Libring surprised us by bringing a treasure trove of Lewis articles he had accumulated some 40-years ago to the interview.

Lebring shared with us what it was like playing with Lewis and the culture shock during his first time traveling through Watts, CA. We really got sense of what it was like for a prep basketball player from upper-middle class suburbia with a solid academic background to attempt bonding with an entire group of individuals from a different world.

Former Manual Arts and Southwest Community College head basketball coach Reggie Morris is one of the finest coaches in Southern California. At the helm, he coached the 1988, Manual Arts senior high school to a State Championship. He then spent 16 seasons as the Southwest and three at L.A. City College. In 2013, Morris was inducted into the California Community College Hall of Fame.

He talked with us about Raymond who he's followed since Lewis a junior in high school. "I remember the first time I saw Raymond, I came back and was telling my friends I don't know how you could be that good that early. You'd have to be practicing hours and hours from the time you were 3-years-old." Morris also talked about inner city youth and the reality of playing professional basketball.

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Former AAU basketball coach whose first-hand knowledge of the game has helped such notable NBA talent as Baron Davis, Paul Pierce among others who have made it into the NBA.

Lewis, the first cousin of Raymond Lewis sat down with us to talk about the good-ole-days and what it was like growing up with Raymond from the early years until adulthood.

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As the head basketball coach of Warren High School in the early 70s, head coach Jay Young faced the Verbum Dei Eagles several times in his coaching career.

Warren a great team which featured 6-Foot 8-inch, 280 pound Dave Baker (a man amongst boys) that matched up well with Verbum Dei. In fact, during 1971, CIF quarterfinals, Warren took Verbum Dei into two overtimes before eventually losing 56-49 to the Eagles. Jay talks about that classic game in the interview.

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In a stirring interview, Echols recounted the days of his youth playing basketball at the &ldquoVerb,&rdquo Arizona and Cal State L.A., in the early 70&rsquos, as well as, disclosing personal details about his off-the-court friendship with Lewis.

More importantly, Echols had a chance to go into great detail addressing a major concern that has often plagued him over the past four decades, the quality education or lack thereof of many college student-athletes.

We were fortunate enough to interview former Maryland Terrapin and UC Santa Barbara basketball coach Billy Jones. In 1964, Jones became the first African-American to play basketball in the ACC.

He would later coach the freshman team at UC Santa Barbara that played Cal State L.A. during Lewis' freshman year, a game that saw Raymond set a conference single-game scoring record. In the contest, Jones recounted that Lewis, who was a little late getting to the game quickly laced up his shoes during an immediate timeout, rush onto the court and hit a 35-foot corner jumper. Jones stated, "At that point, I knew we were in trouble." And he was right, Lewis went on to make 30 out of 40 field goals and 13 free-throws to tally 73-points in a game and time where three-point range shots only counted as two.

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Dr. Harry Edwards, Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley and civil rights activist, took time out from his busy schedule on set to discuss the turbulent times of the 1960s which led professional Black athletes to seek social change and recognition through their respective sport.

He also talked about Raymond Lewis whom he had known of since Lewis' college days at Cal State L.A. while psychoanalyzing several determining factors in which he felt caused Lewis to leave the Sixer camp in an effort to chase a dream and get rewarded with what he thought he was worth.

Furthermore. Dr. Edwards rendered his professional advice to the youth of today if somehow they found themselves in a similar situation and what he would have suggested to a young Raymond Lewis back in 1973 after he already signed a contract with the 76ers.

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Kamilah Lewis-Kent (Raymond's Daughter)

We began our interview at Raymond's former dwelling in Long Beach some three decades ago where Kamilah vividly recounted as a young child the days she lived at the home as her father continued in his efforts to make an NBA roster.

The interview then moved on to Compton where Raymond grew up as a youth in his grandfather Rufus' home. A home that once literally housed a shrine-like room reserved for every trophy, certificate and any other award Raymond had received over his playing days.

Lastly, we ended up at the Inglewood Park Cemetery to shoot the final part of the interview as Kamilah laid a bouquet of assorted bright yellow flowers at her fathers final resting place while reminiscing about the past.

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Former 5x ABA All-Star Mack Calvin at Long Beach City College a few days back. Mack recounted his epic basketball battles with Raymond Lewis while confirming Lewis' greatness as a basketball player.

He harkened back to the time when he was a youngster for a brief period of time growing up in Imperial Courts in Watts, CA, then moving to Long Beach to attend Long Beach Poly to become a top high school basketball player on an outstanding team.

He also discussed in great detail the major differences between playing in the now-defunct ABA league which showcased an uptempo style of basketball game over the more methodical stifled play of the NBA of the 1960s and 70s. He went on to state that the ABA was solely responsible for bringing professional NBA basketball to Southern States and cities in the U.S. such as Florida, Houston and Dallas.

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Mel Sims who coached Chino Hills high school from 2014 through the 2018 championship years as an assistant basketball coach was the same Mel Sims that coached Raymond Lewis as a freshman at then L.A. State, now Cal State L.A. during the 1971-72 basketball season.

Sims sporting a fist-full of Chino Hills championship rings from just a few years back remembers well his coaching debut in 1971 at L.A. State and wild basketball season both on and off the court from several of his former players.

In 2012, the elder statesman was inducted into the Southern California Interscholastic Basketball Coaches Association (SCIBCA) Hall of Fame.

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Executive Director of the Mervyn Dymally African American Political and Economic Institute (MDAAPEI) on the campus of Cal State Dominguez Hills, Dr. Anthony Samad sat down with us to recall his early years living in Los Angeles and the effect as a former basketball player that Raymond Lewis had on him as a young child.

From the beginning days of listening to the late Brad Pie Jr. "Switch Reel" a quote made famous by the sports editor and talk show host at KGFJ am radio in Los Angeles during the early 1970s, Dr, Samad would often listen to KGFJ in anticipation that Pie would once again cover the Verbum Dei Eagles basketball team while acknowledging the outstanding play of Raymond Lewis.

Dr. Samad also rendered his professional opinion on the recent SB 206 "The Fair Pay to Play Act" co-authored by his colleague Senator Steven Bradford which will allow Division 1 college student-athletes to earn compensation off their likeness, while also discussing the social and political ills of past generations.

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Representing the 35th district in the California State Senate Senator Bradford co-authored assembly Bill SB 206 "The Fair Pay to Play Act" which will allow student-athletes to earn monetary compensation from their likeness.

Bradford a former student-athlete himself, talked about the advantages of college student-athletes being able to earn compensation which in a long run will keep many elite student-athletes in school since they will be able to earn a wage that can sustain them through their college years.

Legislation such as this has been long overdue and would have certainly benefited individuals like Raymond Lewis in the past and future student-athletes who bring in billions of dollars in TV revenue that the students participating in these televised sporting events receive absolutely nothing in terms of compensation for their hard work.

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Former General Manager for the Chicago Bulls, Philadelphia 76ers and Orlando magic Pat Williams used his photographic memory to recall in great detail his dealings with Raymond Lewis as though it was yesterday.

In an effort to have Lewis rejoin the Sixer team, Williams in 1975 bought Lewis back into camp in an attempt to find him a spot on a team now stacked with an abundance of young talent, such as Joe "Jelly Bean" Bryant, Lloyd "World B." Free, Daryl Dawkins, all who were drafted that year and was now in the Sixers camp. Second-year player Harvey Catchings was also in camp that year.

mv2.jpg/v1/fill/w_131,h_184,al_c,q_80,usm_0.66_1.00_0.01,blur_3/Gregory%20Willimas.jpg" />

Gregory Williams, a childhood friend of Raymond Lewis spent hours reminiscing about his friendship with Lewis recalling his greatness not only as a basketball player, but as a solid all-around athlete who not only excelled in basketball but in baseball and as a competitive shark-like swimmer as well.

Williams was one of three individuals to show up at the 109th Street Recreational Center in Watts, CA to support the Raymond Lewis documentary film.

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Former NBA player with then the San Diego Clippers Freeman Williams joined us at the 109th Street Recreation Center in Watts, CA along with friend Gregory Williams to participate in the Raymond Lewis documentary film.

Braving recent health issues, Williams sat down with us to exclaim that Raymond Lewis was his idol and the best basketball player that he had ever seen. As a young teen Williams was so impressed with the basketball skills of Raymond Lewis that against his mother's wishes he would often sneak out the house just to go to games to watch Raymond Lewis play basketball.

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First cousin of Raymond Lewis George Simpson came back to his old neighborhood at the 109th Street Recreation Center in Watts, CA to add his story to the Raymond Lewis documentary film. Recalling his days as a youth Simpson talked fondly about his days as a youth at 109th St. Park and began pointing in all directions inside the park towards the former homes of Raymond Lewis and his grandparents on both sides of the family who once lived only a stone's throw away from 109th St.

We ask George what was his fondest memory of his cousin Raymond Lewis? He replied "My fondest memory of Raymond is when I finally beat him in a game of one-on-one. I had probably lost 99 games in a row to him before that. I never did it again, but I can say that I did beat Raymond that one time."

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As the fourth round 53rd draft choice of the Philadelphia 76ers in 1973, Darryl Minniefield now living in Chicago but felt it was important to him to be a part of the Raymond Lewis documentary film and to give us a glimpse of what it was like to attend in Sixers rookie camp in an effort to make the team

Minniefield would also go on to evaluate the rookie talent bought into the camp that year as well as his personal thoughts of Raymond Lewis both on and off the court.

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As a 12-year professional basketball player, Wali spent 11 of those years in the NBA. His lone dissent from the NBA came in the 1974-1975 season when he became a member of the ABA's Utah Stars several years before the 1976 NBA, ABA merge.

It was there where Jones and Raymond Lewis' paths crossed as Raymond had left the NBA in an attempt to play in the ABA a year after his contract dispute with the Philadelphia 76ers. Jones stated that Lewis played exceptionally well in the Stars camp and the one day he had looked up and Lewis was gone without any explanation. He would learn years later that the Sixers had threatened the Stars organization with a lawsuit since they still had the contractual rights to Lewis.

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Drafted both by the NFL's New York Giants and the NBA's Philadelphia 76ers in 1973 Rod Freeman choose professional basketball over football but was still at 100 to 1 odds to make the squad. But through skill, hard work, and determination he defied those astronomical odds and

Today Rod is a successful businessman who once again had the opportunity through the Raymond Lewis documentary film to relive his once-in-a-lifetime opportunity of becoming a professional ballplayer.

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I got very hooked, largely through him, on philosophy and theology and so my senior year first term schedule was just essentially 100% filled with, except for my Poli-Ec major course, with abstract courses. And I talked to Gaudino about it and he said, “But Mr. Lewis, you must remember where ‘The Republic’ takes place. [&hellip]

Summer of ‘59 actually I lived in what’s now Mears House and in exchange for living in the house I painted woodwork and things of that sort and bumped into Gaudino several times during the summer. And I still have in my copy of the Dialogues of Plato the list that he gave me of [&hellip]

I think one of the things that got to his faculty colleagues was they thought that he thought he had the truth and was trying to brainwash us. And you know one of the worst things you could do in a way was to try to be agreeable with him and say, “Yes yes, I [&hellip]

I was up in the summer or spring and they were doing a reading of it in 3 Griffin. Gordon Winston my longtime buddy was reading one of the parts. And it was a terrible play as a play. But I remember Gordon saying to me, “You know, after the first time I read it [&hellip]

When he was proposing Williams at Home it was when he was then quite sick. And his proposal went to the Educational Policy Committee or whatever it was called, then came to the faculty. Somebody moved it, somebody seconded it, “Any discussion?” and nobody was gonna object to anything at all. And Gaudino got up [&hellip]

He was over to the house for dinner one night after he had been quite sick. He came over with Dave and Hanne Booth and David and I kind of carried him around to the back yard and we were sitting there and he took some pills and after about half an hour he said, [&hellip]

Senior year, I said “I’m kind of interested, Mr. Gaudino—maybe it would be interesting to be a college dean or a college president.” He said, a great twinkle in his eye, “But Mr. Lewis, I thought you were interested in education?” I think he opened my eyes to the big questions in life in a [&hellip]

One of the Last Slave Ship Survivors Describes His Ordeal in a 1930s Interview

More than 60 years after the abolition of slavery, anthropologist Zora Neale Hurston made an incredible connection: She located one of the last survivors of the last slave ship to bring captive Africans to the United States.

Hurston, a known figure of the Harlem Renaissance who would later write the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God, conducted interviews with Oluale Kossola (renamed Cudjo Lewis),਋ut struggled to publish them as a book in the early 1930s. In fact, they were only released to the public in a book called Barracoon: The Story of the Last 𠇋lack Cargo” that came out in May of 2018.

Author Zora Neale Hurston (1903-1960).

Hurston’s book tells the story of Lewis, who was born Oluale Kossola in what is now the West African country of Benin. A member of the Yoruba people, he was only 19 years old when members of the neighboring Dahomian tribe invaded his village, captured him along with others, and marched them to the coast. There, he and about 120 others were sold into slavery and crammed onto the Clotilda, the last slave ship to reach the continental United States.

The Clotilda brought its captives to Alabama in 1860, just a year before the outbreak of the Civil War. Even though slavery was legal at that time in the U.S., the international slave trade was not, and hadn’t been for over 50 years. Along with many European nations, the U.S. had outlawed the practice in 1807, but Lewis’ journey is an example of how slave traders went around the law to continue bringing over human cargo.

To avoid detection, Lewis’ captors snuck him and the other survivors into Alabama at night and made them hide in a swamp for several days. To hide the evidence of their crime, the 86-foot sailboat was then set ablaze on the banks of the Mobile-Tensaw Delta (its remains may have been uncovered in January 2018).

Most poignantly, Lewis’ narrative provides a first-hand account of the disorienting trauma of slavery. After being abducted from his home, Lewis was forced onto a ship with strangers. The abductees spent several months together during the treacherous passage to the United States, but were then separated in Alabama to go to different owners.

A marker to commemorate Cudjo Lewis, considered to be the last surviving victim of the Atlantic slave trade between Africa and the United States, in Mobile, Alabama.

Womump/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 4.0

“We very sorry to be parted from one ’nother,” Lewis told Hurston. “We seventy days cross de water from de Affica soil, and now dey part us from one ’nother. Derefore we cry. Our grief so heavy look lak we cain stand it. I think maybe I die in my sleep when I dream about my mama.”

Lewis also describes what it was like to arrive on a plantation where no one spoke his language, and could explain to him where he was or what was going on. “We doan know why we be bring ’way from our country to work lak dis,” he told Hurston. 𠇎verybody lookee at us strange. We want to talk wid de udder colored folkses but dey doan know whut we say.”

As for the Civil War, Lewis said he wasn’t aware of it when it first started. But part-way through, he began to hear that the North had started a war to free enslaved people like him. A few days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered in April 1865, Lewis says that a group of Union soldiers stopped by a boat on which he and other enslaved people were working and told them they were free.

Erik Overbey Collection, The Doy Leale McCall Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of South Alabama

Lewis expected to receive compensation for being kidnapped and forced into slavery, and was angry to discover that emancipation didn’t come with the promise of 𠇏orty acres and a mule,” or any other kind of reparations. Frustrated by the refusal of the government to provide him with land to live on after stealing him away from his homeland, he and a group of 31 other freepeople saved up money to buy land near Mobile, which they called Africatown.

Hurston’s use of vernacular dialogue in both her novels and her anthropological interviews was often controversial, as some black American thinkers at the time argued that this played to black caricatures in the minds of white people. Hurston disagreed, and refused to change Lewis’ dialect—which was one of the reasons a publisher turned her manuscript down back in the 1930s.

Many decades later, her principled stance means that modern readers get to hear Lewis’ story the way that he told it.

Lewis Williams Douglas - History

On Friday, November 17, 1911, three Howard University undergraduate students, Frank Coleman, Oscar James Cooper and Edgar Amos Love, met with Professor Ernest Everett Just in his office in Science Hall (Thirkield Hall) to establish a fraternity. At this meeting, they decided upon the motto “friendship is essential to the soul” as symbolized by the letters OMEGA PSI PHI, which are the initials of the three Greek words that represent the motto. They chose Manhood, Scholarship, Perseverance and Uplift as the four cardinal principles of the fraternity and decided upon the design of the fraternity’s pin and escutcheon.

On Thursday, November 23, 1911, the three undergraduate Founders met and elected Love as Grand Basileus, Cooper as Grand Keeper of Records (Grand Keeper of Records and Seals or Grand KRS) and Coleman as Grand Keeper of Seals (Grand Keeper of Finance or Grand KF). After carefully studying the student body for prospective candidates, they chose eleven men who not only possessed the principles upon which the fraternity was founded but also were willing to help Omega on its way. The eleven Charter members chosen for the first chapter of the fraternity, Alpha, established at Howard University were: William S. Gilbert, Charles Young Harris, Clarence Albert Hayes, Benjamin Harry Jones, Clarence Osceola Lewis, Julius Henderson Love, William Albert Love, William Henry Pleasants, Charles Brougham Washington, Edgar Paul Westmoreland and Frank Howell Wimberly. The three Founders then formed a committee to draw up a constitution that would be submitted to the President of the university for faculty approval.

On Thursday, December 8, 1911, the committee made its report to the Grand Chapter, the constitution was adopted and each charter member signed the original document that was submitted to the President. The Grand Chapter had to work hard to win faculty approval at Howard although the men who signed the constitution were student leaders in academics and extracurricular activities. Rather than wait for faculty approval, they placed small placards in conspicuous places around campus announcing the existence of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity and listed the names of its members.

On December 15, 1911, prior to faculty approval, Alpha Chapter, The Mother Pearl, was established at Howard University with fourteen Charter members. Along with the Founders, these eleven stalwart men selected on November 23 rd formed the foundation of The Mother Pearl. At this meeting, Coleman was chosen as Alpha Chapter’s first Basileus, Edgar A. Love as its first Keeper of Records and Cooper as its first Keeper of Seals. While still awaiting faculty approval of its constitution and confident that approval would eventually come, Alpha Chapter voted on new members on February 21, 1912. On February 28, 1912, members of the temporary chapter took the oath of allegiance and Alpha Chapter held its first initiation, adding four new members, Moses T. Claybourne, Christopher Columbus Cook, William Barrington Jason and James Raymond Johnson. The permanent chapter was established with the election of Westmoreland as Basileus, Cook as Keeper of Records and Wimberly as Keeper of Seals.

On March 2, 1912, Brother Coleman and Brother Hayes reported to the Grand Officers and Alpha Chapter on their conference with the faculty and informed them that the President of the university resisted the fraternity’s national aspirations. The Brothers kept the article in the constitution regarding Omega Psi Phi Fraternity’s national aspirations. Eventually, the faculty withdrew its objections and recognized the Fraternity as a national organization. The Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Grand Chapter was incorporated under the laws of the District of Columbia on October 28, 1914 by Edgar A. Love as Grand Basileus, Oscar J. Cooper as Grand Keeper of Records and Frank Coleman as Grand Keeper of Seals.

Having overcome faculty resistance for national expansion, Alpha Chapter appointed a committee to report on establishing a chapter at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. After recommending establishment of a chapter at Lincoln, Alpha Chapter appointed Cooper, John Howard McMorries (Alpha 1913) and William Griffith Carter Brannon (Alpha 1912) to carry out Omega’s expansion. On February 6, 1914, they initiated twenty men from Lincoln who became the Charter members of Beta Chapter, the second chapter established.

Omega Psi Phi had an early appeal for international students as Alpha Chapter initiated its first international student, from St. Vincent (now St. Vincent and the Grenadines), in 1912. Others followed from St. Kitts and the Dominican Republic.

The first Alpha Chapter House, in the year 1913, was located at 326 T Street, NW in Washington, DC.. Within a few weeks, the Brothers moved to 322 T Street, NW and remained there until 1917. Otto Leland Bohannon (Alpha 1913) wrote the first official fraternity hymn, “Omega Men Draw Nigh,” in 1917. As Editor of “The Oracle,” the official organ of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., Stanley Moreland Douglass (Alpha 1915) published its first issue in 1919.

During this period, the Brothers of Alpha Chapter firmly established Omega’s roots.

Alpha Chapter Brothers managed the Howard Players, edited the "Echo" Yearbook and "The Hilltop" campus newspaper, and served as Student Council President. In “The Oracle” (Summer 1974), Alfred Edgar Smith (Alpha 1922) noted “that the West Indian student on the campus of those days was the victim of some prejudice and discrimination. Omega was the first College Fraternity to extend membership to them - Z. Alexander Looby, H. Horne Huggins, et al.” The Lampados Club of 1929 donated the Benjamin Banneker Memorial to the campus. This sundial, more affectionately known as “The Dial,” quickly became part of the fabric of The Mother Pearl as Brothers have congregated there ever since. Each Howard Homecoming pays testament to the lasting effect of this project by a group of pledgees as Brothers from Chapters near and far circle the dial to sing “Omega Dear.”

The Alpha Chapter Fraternity House in 1931 was located at 1913 13 th Street, NW, in Was hington, DC. The first known student from the continent of Africa was initiated in 1933. Brothers continued to make their presence felt in extracurricular activities. The Student Council presidency was held by Omega men for at least 5 years. Both “The Hilltop” and the “Bison” Yearbook had Omega men serve as Editor-in-Chief.

In the 1940’s, Charles Edward Williams’ (Alpha 1945) estimable aegis as Basileus propelled The Mother Pearl from lows to unparalleled heights. Gill’s “The Omega Psi Phi Fraternity and the Men Who Made Its History” contains the following encomiums:

  • With these, however, there has been a serious side, which has included concerts, recitals, presentation of some of the best speakers in the nation, setting up scholarships and the making of contributions annually to the Community Chest, Infantile Paralysis Foundation and the University Scholarship Fund. Achievement Week is an annual event anticipated by everyone. The best remembered is the Roland Hayes concert during the ‘forties.
  • The files contain many letters from the faculty and administration commending the chapter and the brilliant leadership of Williams. Under him it grew from a membership of twenty-five active, financial members to well over two hundred.
  • The most impressive thing was the way in which Williams had memorized the ritualistic ceremony, the manner in which he executed it, and his insistence upon strict observance of the rules of order.
  • It was through Williams’ solicitation that the Supreme Council invited and sponsored the Alpha “Omega Choir” in a recital at the Columbus Grand Conclave. The performance was the cultural highlight of the meeting.
  • Williams compiled the first known pledgee manual in the Fraternity, called the “Pledgee Workbook.” ……. Because the History of the Fraternity was out of print, copies of these manuals were made available to the Grand Keeper of Records and Seal for distribution among undergraduate chapters.
  • The zealous quintet of Williams, Greene, Chase, Smith and Garrett – often referred to by disaffected members as “the new regime” – was likewise responsible for the reorganization of the “Que Players” under the direction of capable Frank Scott. The first performance, “Charley’s Aunt,” was a sellout.
  • In 1948, Alpha invited and entertained the Third District Conference in Washington. This was a project never before attempted by an undergraduate chapter alone.

William Eugene Greene, Jr. (Alpha 1945) was president of the Howard University Student Council. Maurice Darrow Bean (Alpha 1947) held the position of Second Assistant Third District Representative and succeeded Williams as Basileus. Bean maintained the Chapter’s momentum with the Chapter’s Choral Ensemble (Omega Choir), organized in 1947 by Valerian Edward Smith (Alpha 1945), recording and releasing an album of Commemorative Songs in 1949. The directors of the Choral Ensemble were Smith, Charles William Baskerville, Jr. (Alpha 1949), George Neil McKeithen (Alpha 1949) and Alphonso J. Patterson (Alpha 1954). In October 2001, the album was digitally re-mastered, then released on CD by Alpha Omega Chapter of Washington, DC.

In the 1950’s, Alpha Chapter continued to flourish. Howard Carlton Davis (Alpha 1949) held the position of Second Vice Grand Basileus. Arthur Louis Burnett (Alpha 1954) became the Chapter’s first Phi Beta Kappa Society member. The Choral Ensemble performed throughout the Washington, DC community until 1955. The Fraternity House at 1231 Harvard Street, NW was purchased in conjunction with Alpha Omega and Tau Upsilon Chapters in 1955 - Alpha Chapter matched Tau Upsilon Chapter's down payment and Alpha Omega's share came from the fraternity's National Housing Loan program. Since that time, the frat house has served the Chapter in many capacities such as a residence for undergraduates and hosting fraternity meetings, parties, reunions, smokers and pledging activities.

During the turbulent 1960’s, the chapter’s dynamic leaders maintained the high standards set by their predecessors. In 1964 or 1965, Alpha Chapter published the Omega Songbook, “a collection of favorite ‘Que’ songs complete with lyrics and musical score.” Through the efforts of the Basileus, Edwin William Sapp (2-61- KY ), the Chapter secured a Lifetime NAACP membership in 1964. Alpha Chapter excelled on campus as four Brothers were named Editor of the “Bison” Yearbook, one served as Editor-in-Chief of “The Hilltop” and one as Howard University Student Council President. The Chapter took 1 st place in the float division at the Howard University Centennial Homecoming Parade and was named Best All-Around Organization. Scholarship was paramount at the Mother Pearl as numerous Brothers made the Dean’s List, were Honors Students, received awards from Who's Who Among Students in American Universities and Colleges and were named to honorary societies such as Phi Beta Kappa and Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society. The Omega Playboy Balls and Happy Que Year dances were social successes. In Omega’s 3 rd District, two Alpha Chapter Brothers served as 2 nd Vice District Representative.

In keeping with the fraternity’s second cardinal principle, Alpha Chapter continued its scholarly tradition. Brothers were named 3 rd District Scholar of the Year and received prestigious academic awards. In an unofficial survey, 92% of the Brothers initiated from 1976-1986 graduated with Bachelor's degrees while 4 of those Pledge lines had 100% graduation rate. In 1975, Sampson Patrick Boozer (Alpha 1971), an architecture student, designed the Founders monument, a 4-sided granite national memorial that rests on Howard's campus east of Thirkield Hall, the birthplace of Omega. On campus, Omega men held positions as Howard University Student Association President, Undergraduate Trustee and Editor-in-Chief of “The Hilltop.” On a fraternal level, they held elective offices at the district and national level. One Brother was recognized as Omega Man of the Year on the district and national level while another Brother was named 3rd District Undergraduate Basileus of the Year. Alpha Chapter also won the 3 rd District Lampados Roundup five times. A number of Brothers received recognition as Outstanding Young Men of America. In 1981, the Brothers of Alpha Chapter helped reactivate Omicron Gamma Chapter, dormant since 1972, at the University of the District of Columbia (UDC) with a Pledge Club that produced seven new Brothers to carry Omega forth. Uplift manifested itself in blood drives, hospital visits, a health fair, lecture series, organizing our own Boy Scouts troop at a local elementary school, Halloween parties for neighborhood kids and Senior Citizens Appreciation Day. Also, the Chapter contributed to the United Negro College Fund (UNCF) . Socially, the “Spankdown” parties, the frat house soirees, homecoming balls and picnics in Rock Creek Park and Hains Point truly let the good times roll – we brought the funk - after all, this was the ‘70’s and '80's. And lastly, one of our own, Jimmie Olden Johnson (19-86-A), was drafted by the Washington Redskins in 1989 and played on a Super Bowl championship team, shining Omega’s bright light in the process.

After six years absence, Alpha Chapter was reactivated in 1992 and held its first initiation under the fraternity’s new membership program in 1993. The Brothers on campus at the time, Marlon C. Murphy (4-89-UZ), Jelani Horton (Sigma Epsilon 1986), Chapter Advisors E. Newton Jackson, Jr. (6-88-Alpha Omega) and Stephon Henderson (4-80- MZ ), along with Alpha Chapter alumni, George Dewey Stanyard II (10-84-A), Frank Wright, Jr. (1-86-A) and Robert Turner, Jr. (2-86-A), shepherded the revitalized Chapter through the first few years. The fruits of their labors have paid off with the Chapter winning District and National Undergraduate Chapter of the Year honors. Brothers have brought home 3 rd District Scholar of the Year and Undergraduate Basileus of the Year awards. As with their predecessors, they have held elective offices as 3 rd District Vice District Representative and Howard University Student Association President. In 1994-1995, Lenford Clarence Lloyd (12-93-A) developed Alpha Chapter's first website, giving many Brothers their first internet exposure to the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity. The chapter's website became one of the most popular destinations for fraternity related information. In 1996, Gernerique Truly Stewart (6-95-A) organized a Charter Day celebration that has evolved into an annual banquet recognizing the worthy contributions of Brothers to Alpha Chapter and the brotherhood.

Being the first chapter does not make us preeminent, being the first does not make us the best and being the first does not necessarily make us the model. Our sustained record of high achievement, exemplary leadership, collective triumphs, implementation of the fraternity's nationally mandated programs, dedication to the four cardinal principles and bond of brotherhood shed a brilliant light on Omega leaving Alpha Chapter second to none.

Watch the video: Lewis Williams - Calling The Shots (June 2022).


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