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I'm looking at clothing and dress from the period during the crusades and I suspect that buttons might have been something the crusaders took back with them from the Levant. They start popping up in the 12th and 13th century, yet I'm not sure because I cannot find any comprehensive book on buttons and their history (the Big Book of Buttons is only to be found in US libraries).
As you have noticed, buttons did not become popular as fasteners until around 1300. This is because before then clothing tended to consist of cloaks, robes, tunics and other loosely fitting garments that were easily secured with a pin (brooch or fibula). The Romans, Greeks and Levantines did wear buttons, but mostly as a sewn-on decoration, not as a fastener. They would sewn on gems, shells and many other types of button decorations. The exception was mostly for specialized equipment. For example, the Roman military boot, which was close fitting often was secured with a button.
The change that occurred around 1300 was that form-fitting tailoring developed. Shirts, trousers and coats were made to exactly fit the person. With this new type of clothing pins are impractical because you would need a lot of them. Therefore, buttons became popular and quickly spread along with the fashion for tailored clothing.
Military order (religious society)
A military order (Latin: militaris ordo) is a Christian religious society of knights. The original military orders were the Knights Templar, the Knights Hospitaller, the Order of Saint James, the Order of Calatrava, and the Teutonic Knights. They arose in the Middle Ages in association with the Crusades, both in the Holy Land and in the Iberian peninsula their members being dedicated to the protection of pilgrims and the defence of the Crusader states. They are the predecessors of chivalric orders.
Most members of military orders were laymen who took religious vows, such as of poverty, chastity, and obedience, according to monastic ideals. The orders owned houses called commanderies all across Europe and had a hierarchical structure of leadership with the grand master at the top.
The Knights Templar, the largest and most influential of the military orders, was suppressed in the early fourteenth century only a handful of orders were established and recognized afterwards. However, some persisted longer in their original functions, such as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Order of Saint John, the respective Catholic and Protestant successors of the Knights Hospitaller.  Those military orders that survive today have evolved into purely honorific or ceremonial orders or else into charitable foundations.
Who Lived In the Holy Land First?
An extremely rare 2000-year-old wool fabric from a tassel, dyed a mysterious blue from a source that had been lost in antiquity. Only in the last few days has the source been rediscovered. The Bible commanded Jews to wear tassels with one chord colored blue. (Photo APIMAGES)
Last December Muslim leader Mahmoud Abbas of the Palestinian Authority sent warm Christmas greetings to the world. He wrote, “In Bethlehem more than 2000 years ago, Jesus Christ was born, a Palestinian messenger who would become the guiding light for millions around the world.”
He continued, “Our prayers are with the churches and mosques of Jerusalem which remind the world of the Arab identity of our occupied capital…We are committed to bring a just peace to the region, including ending the occupation of the Holy Land with the establishment of a fully independent and sovereign Palestinian state on the 1967 “border” [actually cease fire lines], with East Jerusalem as its capital.” (upi.com, 24Dec2013)
It is interesting how riled up Israelis get when Palestinians start claiming Yeshua as one of their own.
“He should have read the Gospel before uttering such offensive nonsense, but we will forgive him because he doesn’t know what he’s doing,” Israel’s Foreign Ministry spokesman Yigal Palmor told the Times of Israel. Abbas’s statement is an “outrageous rewriting of Christian history,” according to Palmor.
Abbas continued his tirade against Israel, proclaiming that since 1948 when the UN voted for Israel to become a nation, Christians and Muslims have suffered the vicissitudes of a forced exile.
Now for the truth. The exodus of Christians from Bethlehem began to accelerate the moment the PA took control in 1995, and then turned into a flood during the Second Intifada that PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat initiated in the year 2000. Tourists simply stopped coming to Israel during the Intifada, and the Christians, mostly small shop owners whose livelihood came from tourism, closed shop and immigrated to America, South America and Europe.
Before the Intifada, I used to take my visiting friends to Bethlehem often, and knew wonderful Christian shop owners. I watched their revenue dry up, not because of Israel’s “occupation,” but because tourists were afraid to come to Israel as a result of the unimaginable violence of Palestinian suicide bombers.
But that is not the whole story. Living among an Islamic majority is never easy for Christians or Jews, anywhere in the world at any time. So if a naïve journalist travels to Bethlehem and asks the Christians – who are mainly Catholic, Orthodox, Armenian with a few Protestants – why their numbers are decreasing, they will never say it is because of Muslim persecution. That kind of answer can get them a jail sentence – or more. So yes, they will tell the reporter, it’s because of “the Israeli occupation.” What else can they say?
The fact is, the only place in the Middle East that the number of Arab Christians is growing, is in Israel. (Wikipedia, Christianity in Israel)
THE LATEST TWIST
Arab leaders have recently come up with a new idea. They want Israel to recognize Palestinians as an “indigenous minority.” This suggests that Israeli Arabs are the oldest population in Israel, like the Native American Indians are on the North American continent.
It is only one of a multitude of ways the Palestinians are working to reach their goal to 1) Erase the Jewish nation’s 3,000-year history in the Land of Israel and 2) Invent an ancient Palestinian people.
At a conference of Palestinian historians in 1998, its speakers called on all universities and colleges to “write” and “guard” the history of Palestine and not enable the enemies to distort it or legitimize the existence of the Jews in this land. They claimed that there is no connection between the ancient generation of Jews and the Jews who now occupy their land. (Al-Ayyam, 4Dec1998)
Muslim columnists and writers have summarily erased Jewish history and filled the void by fabricating ancient histories of Palestinians, Arabs and Muslims. They claim that Palestinians populated the Land of Israel in Biblical times and even earlier. These fictions are all historically impossible, as the name ‘Palestine’ as a replacement for the Land of Judea and Israel was coined by Rome only in 135 A.D. by the Roman Emperor Hadrian who, incidentally, had the same desire as the Palestinians – to blot out the Jewish people and their claim to the Land of Israel.
Secondly, Islam was established only in 610 A.D., and the first Arabs arrived in Israel with the Muslim invasion in 637. Media watch organizations like www.palwatch.org explains, “Inventing thousands of years of history when none existed is accomplished through numerous distortions and lies, including changing the Biblical Canaanites into Arabs, changing Biblical Israelis, Judeans and Hebrews into Arabs and Muslims, changing the religion preached by Moses from Judaism into Islam, and changing Jesus into a Palestinian who preached Islam and not Christianity.”
A sympathetic portrait in the New York Times of a Palestinian woman whose son murdered a soldier on a bus. No picture of the parents of the slain soldier appeared. (Photo APIMAGES)
As just one example, the PA TV has for several years, been broadcasting a “documentary” with their new history. According to them, “the ‘Arab’ Canaanites established ports on the coast of Canaan, known today as Palestine. Palestine was attacked by invaders, but its Arab Canaanite features withstood attempts to change them. Jaffa [today Jaffa-Tel Aviv] was one of the cities,” says the PA, “whose Canaanite origins the invaders failed to erase.”
A typical article in the official PA daily Adel Abd Al-Rahman writes about the “historical places and sites in Palestine from the [Jordan] River to the [Mediterranean] Sea, in which every plot of land holds the Palestinian-Arab past, [ever] since the first Canaanite stepped on Palestinian soil thousands of years ago.” (palwatch.org)
It is difficult, if not impossible, for most westerners to grasp the atmosphere of hatred in the Palestinian areas. Using every possible vehicle at their disposal, the PA is promoting inside the West Bank and around the world demonization and religious and ethnic hatred of the Jewish people. We all know that this campaign has been so successful that any means of terror against Israelis and Jews is seen by the majority of Palestinian Muslims as justified self-defense and as Allah’s will.
The Palestinians have been taught from birth that Jews are treacherous, corrupt, deceitful and unfaithful by nature. They boldly insist that Jews plan and execute heinous crimes, including burning Palestinians in ovens, murder, using prisoners for Nazi-like experiments, and more.
The PA assigns responsibility to the Jews for all the problems in the world. Really! Wars, conflicts and civil wars are all said to be triggered by Jews. In fact, Palestinian leaders teach that the Europeans allowed the State of Israel to be created in order to get rid of the evil Jewish presence in their countries. (Ibid.)
Day after day, the filth spews forth: “The Zionist enemy has continued, with its corruption and tyranny, to devote its efforts to killing, expelling, and violating everything that is holy to Muslims and Christians.” (Ashraf Dabbour, the PA’s ambassador to Lebanon.) (Note: No pro-Israel point of view is tolerated.)
Absurd? The problem is that one and a half billion Muslims believe these lies. And this hatred of the Jewish people bleeds into the third world countries – and thus the UN has become a robust tool for Islam with the goal to wipe out Israel.
CORE HINDERANCE TO PEACE
Israel’s Defense Minister Moshe Ya’alon has rejected U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry’s peace proposal to demand that Israel remove all its security presence on the ground in the West Bank in exchange for an array of remote surveillance capabilities.
The Defense Minister responded, “When I’m told about the security answer in Judea and Samaria, and when they talk about satellites, drones and technologies, I say, ‘Guys, you’re wrong.’ The principal problem is education. If in Nablus and Jenin they continue to educate the young generation as it is being educated today, to idolize terrorism and jihad, and that the Jewish people have no right to this land – if this is how they’re educated, then technology stops nothing.”
|A typical anti-Semitic cartoon representing Netanyahu |
as burying Palestinians as he builds the security wall.
If the education does not change, then creating a Palestinian state will be creating a Hamastan in Judea and Samaria, like in Gaza. (Jerusalem Post, 31Dec2014)
Ya’alon’s message was clear. No amount of drones or satellites can replace boots on the ground when it comes to containing Palestinian terrorism.
So long as jihad and warfare remain principal messages in Palestinian media and schools, Israel will feel the need to keep “the lid on the pan,” explained Ya’alon. Only a visible, permanent Palestinian discontinuation of systematic incitement to violence will stop the war the Palestinians have declared on Israel. (Ibid.)
HATRED OF ZION HAS SPREAD AROUND THE WORLD
But it is not only third world countries. British papers repeat many of the falsehoods as if truth, and carry in their pages anti-Zionist cartoons equalling those the Nazis published.
For example, Britain’s former foreign secretary, Jack Straw, claims that Jewish money controls the American government and Congress, a classic anti-Semitic remark sprouting from the ideology that the Jews secretly rule the world.
But the media in the U.S. is also culpable. One could give a thousand examples. The New York Times regularly slants or distorts what is happening in Israel. It can be blatant or it can be subtle. For example, an unsuspecting young Israeli soldier on a public bus was murdered in cold blood by a Palestinian. How did the NYT present the story? With a stunningly sympathetic picture of the mother being comforted by friends over her 16-year-old son who will now spend years in jail.
Organizations such as http://honestreporting.com and http://palwatch.org are among those websites that try to expose the anti-Semitic slants of western media, encouraging readers to complain to the guilty media outlets.
Homepage of Palestinian Media Watch, one of the watchdog organizations that continually follows the Palestinian Media. PMW gets much material not normally seen because it translates anti-Semitic Arabic media into English. (PMW WEBSITE)
THE LAST WORD ON THE MIDDLE EAST
Here is the irony of the whole issue. Historically, no Arab entity has ever established a national state in the Land of Israel. No Arab people have ever named Jerusalem as their capital. The land of Israel was conquered in 640 A.D. and occupied by Muslim-Arabs for 431 years. These tribal nomads, constantly quarrelling among themselves, ruled from other locations such as Egypt or Syria. But never did they set up a capital in the Holy Land. Yes, Muslims from different races ruled at other times the Land of Israel, but not Arabs.
Besides the Arabs, there were Canaanites, Israelites, Babylonians, Persians, Hellenists, Jewish Hasmoneans, Romans, Byzantines, Crusaders, Kurds, Mamluks who were Turks and Circassians, Ottoman Turks and the British who conquered the Holy Land over the last 3500 years. The Jews themselves ruled over the Land from about 1250 to 587B.C., and again from 142-63B.C.
It was the Romans, starting in 70 A.D., who utterly destroyed Jerusalem – slaughtering, enslaving and scattering the Jews. In 135 Emperor Hadrian renamed the Land of Israel as Syria Palaestina and renamed the city of Jerusalem as “Aelia Capitolina.” He thought he had destroyed the Jews.
In spite of all the hostile nations that conquered Israel’s land, God watched over His people to make sure there were always Jews living in their Promised Land. Sometimes there were more, sometimes less. They were persecuted, massacred, exiled, banned from Jerusalem, but they clung to the promises that God had given to the Jewish people: “To your descendants I will give this land.” (Genesis 12:7) How can any Bible-believing person miss these promises? God repeated these promises over and over in His Word:
He has remembered His covenant forever, the word which He commanded to a thousand generations, the covenant which He made with Abraham, and His oath to Isaac. Then He confirmed it to Jacob for a statute, to Israel as an everlasting covenant, saying, ‘To you I will give the land of Canaan as the portion of your inheritance.” (Psalm 105:8-11)
The Battle of the Ages continues and centers over the Land and People of Israel.
Before we think too harshly about the Muslim populations who have no relationship or knowledge of the Bible, let us ponder the fact that the Byzantine Empire which ruled the Holy Land for over 300 years, (313-636), and whose rulers claimed to be Christians, did nothing to help restore the Jewish people to their homeland. Nor did the British Empire, which controlled the Holy Land for a critical thirty years (1918-1948), but worked against the Jews recreating their long lost state from the ashes of the Holocaust. And the Byzantine rulers knew what was written in the Bible.
In fact, we can ponder the fact that the leaders of North and South America and Europe today, who have some familiarity with the Bible, are doing very little – can we say, almost nothing – to help the struggling nation survive.
Thank God, born-again Christians and Messianic Jews who love God and His Word are praying and fighting for the right of Israel to exist as a Jewish state – just as God promised. And Christians understand what the renowned Jewish pundit Charles Krauthammer wrote about his ancient fatherland:
Israel is the very embodiment of Jewish continuity: It is the only nation on earth that inhabits the same land, bears the same name, speaks the same language, and worships the same God that it did 3,000 years ago. You dig the soil and you find pottery from Davidic times, coins from Bar Kokhba, and 2,000-year-old scrolls written in a script remarkably like the one that today advertises ice cream at the corner candy store.” (The Weekly Standard, May 11, 1998)
The conflicts that are usually associated with crusades in the Holy Land begin with the Council of Clermont in 1095 and end with the loss of Acre in 1291. These include the numbered Crusades (First through Eighth or Ninth) with numerous smaller crusades intermixed. One of the first to view the Crusades as a movement was English historian Thomas Fuller (1608–1661), whose Historie of the Holy Warre (1639) identified crusades as the Holy War consisting of "Voyages," numbering One through Thirteen, plus a Last Voyage and two additional Holy Wars.  These Voyages include the First through Eighth Crusades in current numbering. Shortly thereafter, French Jesuit Louis Maimbourg (1610–1686) published his Histoire des Croisades pour la délivrance de la Terre Sainte (1675), identify the First through Fifth Crusades.  In his work The Crusades—An Encyclopedia, historian Alan V. Murray further explains the traditional numbering of crusades: 
It was in the eighteenth century that historians evidently first allocated numbers to individual crusades, from the first to the ninth. However, these numbers are neither consistent nor accurate. Of the identity of the First Crusade (1096—1099) there can be no doubt, but there is no consensus about numbering after the Fourth Crusade (1202–1204). The Crusade of Emperor Frederick II (1227–1229) is sometimes regarded as part of the Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) and sometimes as a separate expedition. This means that the term Sixth Crusade may refer either to Frederick II's crusade or to the first crusade of King Louis IX of France, which might also be called the Seventh Crusade. Consequently, each subsequent number after the fifth might refer to either of two different expeditions. The only absolutely clear method of designating individual crusades is by a combination of dates and descriptive terminology relating to participation, goals, or both, and this is the solution that has been adopted [here]. However, the names of the First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Crusades, which are at least unambiguous (if not accurate), have been retained, as they are now established by long tradition.
The list of the Crusades to the Holy Land from 1095 through 1291 is as follows.
First Crusade. The First Crusade (1095–1099) refers to the activities from the Council of Clermont of 1095 through the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the battle of Ascalon in 1099. Sometimes segregated into the People's Crusade and the Princes' Crusade. Some accounts also include the Crusade of 1101 here. The original chroniclers of the First Crusade did not, of course, refer to at such, or even as a crusade (as noted above). In the twelve Latin chronicles, the event is called, for example, the Deeds of the Franks or the Expedition to Jerusalem. Anna Komnene simply notes the arrival of the various armies in Constantinople, and Arabic historian ibn Athir calls it the Coming of the Franks. Thomas Fuller referred to it as Voyage 1 of the Holy Warre. It is unclear as to who first used the term, but it has been credited to Louis Maimbourg in his 1675 Histoire des Croisades. The term was certainly in common use by the 18th century as seen in Voltaire's Histoire des Croisades (1750–1751)  and Edward Gibbon's History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776–1789).  Thomas Asbridge's The First Crusade: A New History (2004)  is among the standard references used today.     
People's Crusade. The People's Crusade (1096) was a prelude to the First Crusade led by Peter the Hermit. The first of what is known as the Popular Crusades. Sometimes regarded as an integral part of the First Crusade, with the Princes' Crusade as the second part. A standard reference is Peter der Eremite. Ein kritischer Beitrag zur Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges (1879) by pioneering German historian Heinrich Hagenmeyer (1834–1915).  Peter and his crusade achieved a popular status in the 19th century through such works as Heroes of the Crusades (1869) by Barbara Hutton. The references shown above for the First Crusade generally cover the People's Crusade as well.  
Crusade of 1101. The Crusade of 1101 (1101–1102) was also called the Crusade of the Faint-Hearted. Campaigns that followed the capture of Jerusalem in 1099 that were generally ignored by 18th and 19th century historians. Thomas Fuller nevertheless referred to it as Voyage 2 of the Holy Warre whereas Jonathan Riley-Smith considered it part of the First Crusade in his The First Crusaders, 1095-1131 (1997).    
Norwegian Crusade. The Norwegian Crusade (1107–1110), also known as the Crusade of Sigurd Jorsalfar, king of Norway. More of a pilgrimage than a crusade, it did include the participation in military action, with the king's forces participation in the siege of Sidon. This crusade marks the first time a European king visited the Holy Land. This crusade is described in Heimskringla by Icelandic historian Snorri Sturluson.    
Venetian Crusade. The Venetian Crusade (1122–1124), also known as the Crusade of Calixtus II. The Western participants from the Republic of Venice were regarded by Riley-Smith as First Crusaders, and the actions resulted in the capture of Tyre from the Damascene atabeg Toghtekin. This marked a major victor for Baldwin II of Jerusalem prior to his second captivity in 1123.    
Crusade of 1129. The Crusade of 1129, also known as the Damascus Crusade, was begun by Baldwin II of Jerusalem after his captivity. The crusade failed in its objective to capture Damascus and is described by Syriac historian Michael the Syrian in his Chronicle (after 1195).     
Second Crusade. The Second Crusade (1147–1150). After the disastrous siege of Edessa in 1144, the Western powers launched the Second Crusade, which accomplished little. Principal chroniclers of the event were Odo of Deuil, chaplin to Louis VII of France, who wrote his account De profectione Ludovici VII in Orientem and Otto of Freising who wrote Gesta Friderici imperatoris concerning the emperor Frederick Barbarosso. Referred to as the Second Crusade in Maimbourg's Histoire des Croisades... as well as Georg Müller's De Expedition Cruciatis Vulgo Von Kreutz Fahrten (1709). Thomas Fuller referred to it as Voyage 3 of the Holy Warre. The Wendish Crusade of 1147 (one of the Northern Crusades) is usually associated with the Second Crusade.   
Crusader invasions of Egypt. The Crusader Invasions of Egypt (1154–1169) were attacks into Egypt by Amalric I of Jerusalem to take advantage of crises concerning the Fatimids. These activities eventually led to the fall of the Fatimids and the rise of Saladin and the Ayyubid dynasty.  
Crusade to the East of Philip of Flanders. The Crusade to the East (1177) was a crusade led by Philip I, Count of Flanders that intended to invade Egypt, instead only mounting an unsuccessful siege of Harim.  
Third Crusade. The Third Crusade (1189–1192). The Third Crusade was in response to the loss of Jerusalem to Saladin in 1187 and had significant English participation, under Richard I of England, as well as by the emperor Frederick Barbarosso. To the English, it was known as the Itinerarium Regis Ricardi, the Itinerary of king Richard, and to the Germans as the expedition of Frederick, as described in Historia Peregrinorum (History of the Pilgrims). Thomas Andrew Archer's The Crusade of Richard I, 1189–1192 (1889) provides a comprehensive look at the crusade and its sources.  Thomas Fuller referred to Frederick's portion as Voyage 4 of the Holy Warre, and Richard's portion as Voyage 5. The numbering of this crusade followed the same history as the first ones, with English histories such as David Hume's The History of England (1754–1761)  and Charles Mills' History of the Crusades for the Recovery and Possession of the Holy Land (1820)  identifying it as the Third Crusade. The former only considers the follow-on crusades to the extent that England participated.   
Crusade of Emperor Henry VI. The Crusade of Henry VI (1197–1198) was also known as the Crusade of 1197 or the German Crusade. A crusade led by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI as a follow-up to the Third Crusade. Although Henry died before the crusade began, it was modestly successful with the recapture of Beirut. Thomas Fuller referred to it as Voyage 6 of the Holy Warre.    
Fourth Crusade. The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) wasalso known as the Unholy Crusade. A major component of the crusade was against the Byzantine empire. Thomas Fuller referred to it as Voyage 7 of the Holy Warre. Charles du Cange, wrote the first serious study of the Fourth Crusade in his Histoire de l'empire de Constantinople sous les empereurs françois (1657).  Geoffrey of Villehardouin was a knight and historian who wrote his eyewitness account De la Conquête de Constantinople (c. 1215) of the crusade and its aftermath.  Voltaire did not call it a crusade in his Histoire des Croisades, instead calling it the Suite de la Prise de Constantinople par les Croisés.  Jonathan Philips' The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople (2004) is a standard reference today.    
Fifth Crusade. The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was a failed attempt to recapture Jerusalem by first conquering Cairo. Critical original sources include Historia Damiatina by Oliver of Paderborn (died 1227) and Chronica Hungarorum by Joannes de Thurocz, compiled in the collection Gesta Dei per Francos (God's Work through the Franks) (1611) by Jacques Bongars. A standard reference is Reinhold Röhricht's Studien zur Geschichte des fünften Kreuzzuges (1891).  Thomas Fuller referred to it as Voyage 8 of the Holy Warre.     
Sixth Crusade. The Sixth Crusade (1228–1229), was also known as the Crusade of Emperor Frederick II. Sometimes regarded as part of the Fifth Crusade, it was an extension of that activity that involved little fighting. Jerusalem was nevertheless returned to Western hands by negotiation. Original sources include Chronica Majora (1259) by Matthew Paris and Flores Historiarum (1235) by Roger of Wendover, with Arabic sources that include Abu'l-Feda's Tarikh al-Mukhtasar fi Akhbar al-Bashar (1329). Modern histories include Röhricht's Die Kreuzfahrt Kaiser Friedrich des Zweiten (1228–1229) (1872). Referred to it as Voyage 9 of the Holy Warre by Thomas Fuller in his 1639 Historie. See also references under the Crusade against Frederick II (1220–1241) below.     
Barons' Crusade. Barons' Crusade (1239–1241) was also referred to as the Crusade of 1239, or the Crusade of Theobald I of Navarre and the Crusade of Richard of Cornwall. Called for in 1234 by Gregory IX in his papal bull Rachel suum videns. Successful expeditions to recaptured portions of the Holy Land. First treated by R. Röhricht in his Die Kreuzzuge des Grafen Theobald von Navarra und Richard von Cornwallis nach dem heligen Landen.  Thomas Fuller referred to it as Voyages 10 and 11 of the Holy Warre.    
Crusade of Theobald I of Navarre. The Crusade of Theobald I of Navarre (1239–1240) was a crusade led by Theobald I of Navarre, also referred to as Thibaut of Navarre or Theobald of Champagne. Part of the Barons' Crusade, 1239–1241. Among modern historians, René Grousset was among the first to discuss this crusade in his Histoire des croisades et du royaume franc de Jérusalem (1934-1936)  Thomas Fuller referred to it as Voyage 10 of the Holy Warre.   
Crusade of Richard of Cornwall. The Crusade of Richard of Cornwall (1240–1241) was also known as the Crusade of Richard of Cornwall and Simon of Montfort to Jaffa. Richard also held the title King of the Romans, and had a noteworthy biography written by Noël Denholm-Young.  Usually referred to as part of the Barons' Crusade, 1239–1241. Thomas Fuller referred to it as Voyage 11 of the Holy Warre.    
Crusade to Tzurulum. The Crusade to Tzurulum (1239) led by future Latin emperor Baldwin of Courtenay was conducted concurrently with the Barons' Crusade. In the military action, Baldwin besieged and captured Tzurulum, a Nicaean stronghold west of Constantinople. 
Crusade against the Mongols. The Crusade against the Mongols (1241) was ked by Conrad IV of Germany and is also known as the Anti-Mongol Crusade of 1241. British historian Peter Jackson documented this crusade in his study Crusade against the Mongols (1241).     
Seventh Crusade. The Seventh Crusade (1248–1254) os also known as the Crusade of Louis IX of France to the East, or Louis IX's First Crusade. Early works on this crusade include Primat of Saint-Denis' Roman des rois (1274) and Jean de Joinville's Life of Saint Louis (1309).  Thomas Fuller referred to it as Voyage 12 of the Holy Warre. Grousset's Histoire des croisades. and Peter Jackson's Seventh Crusade, 1244–1254: Sources and Documents (2007) provide the necessary historical background.     
Crusade of Odo of Burgundy. The Crusade of Odo of Burgundy (1265–1266) was an expedition of Odo, Count of Nevers, who led 50 knights to protect Acre from Mamluk sultan Baibars.   
Crusade of 1267. The Crusade of 1267 was an expedition from the Upper Rhine to counter the threat posed by Baibars. 
Crusade of Charles of Anjou. The Crusade of Charles of Anjou against Lucera (1268) refers to the attack made by Charles I of Anjou on the Muslims at Lucera in conjunction with the Crusade against Conradin of 1268 (cf. Italian Crusades below).   
Crusade of James I of Aragon. The Crusade of James I of Aragon (1269–1270). James I of Aragon joined forces with Abaqa, Mongol ruler of the Ilkhanate, to take a crusade to the Holy Land, but returned without engaging the Mamluks in light of their strength at Acre.  
Eighth Crusade. The Eighth Crusade (1270) was also known as the Crusade of Louis IX of France to Tunis. Accompanied by Jean de Joinville who wrote the biography Life of Saint Louis (1309).  Thomas Fuller referred to it as Voyage 31 of the Holy Warre.     
Lord Edward's Crusade. Lord Edward's Crusade (1271–1272) was led by the future Edward I of England, and is also known as the Crusade of Lord Edward of England, the Ninth Crusade, or the Last Crusade. It is regarded by some as an extension of the Eighth Crusade. Edward, later King of England, was accompanied by his wife Eleanor of Castile, who came to his aid after an assassination attempt. Discussed as part of the Eighth Crusade by Joseph François Michaud in Volume 3 of his seminal Histoire des Croisades (1812–1822).    
Crusade of Henry of Mecklenburg. The Crusade of Henry of Mecklenburg (1275). Henry I, Lord of Mechlenburg (died 1302) went on a crusade or pilgrimage to the Holy Land c. 1275 and was captured by the Egyptians and held for 32 years. The only known reference to this is by Thomas Fuller in his Historie of the Holy Warre, where it is referred to as the Last Voyage.  
Siege of Acre. The Siege of Acre (1291) marked the loss of the Holy Land to the Mamluks, typically identifying the end of the traditional Crusades. The anonymous Les Gestes des Chiprois (Deeds of the Cypriots) contains one of two eyewitness accounts of the siege.  
After the fall of Acre, the crusades continued in the Levant through the 16th century. Principal references on this subject are Kenneth Setton's History of the Crusades, Volume III. The Fourteenth and Fifteen Centuries (1975),  and Norman Housley's The Later Crusades, 1274-1580: From Lyons to Alcazar (1992)  and The Crusading Movement, 1274–1700 (1995).  Barbara Tuchman's A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century (1978) provides an interesting perspective on both the crusades and the general history of the era.  A nineteenth-century reference often cited is Joseph François Michaud's Histoire des Croisades (1812–1822), translation by William Robson. 
Crusade against Frederick III. The Crusade against Frederick III of Sicily (1298, 1299, 1302). The final round of the War of the Sicilian Vespers in which pope Boniface VIII attempted to dislodge Frederick. Frederick's position was solidified by the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302, after which the crusaders were unable to dislodge him.   
Crusade against the Colonna Cardinals. The Crusade against the Colonna Cardinals (1298) was a crusade of Boniface VIII against the Colonna family.   
Expedition of the Almogavars. The Expedition of the Almogavars (1301–1311) consisted of campaigns of the Catalan Company, formed by veterans of the War of the Sicilian Vespers (the Almogavar) against the Anatolian beyliks. It concluded with the Catalan's taking control of the Duchy of Athens and Thebes.   
Hospitaller Crusade. The Hospitaller Crusade (1306–1310). A crusade known as the Hospitaller conquest of Rhodes that consolidated hold of the Knights Hospitaller on Rhodes. Documented by Hans Prutz in his Die Anfänge der Hospitaliter auf Rhodos, 1310–1355 (1908).  
Crusade against the Catalan Grand Company. The Crusade against the Catalan Grand Company (1330–1332) was also called the Anti-Catalan Crusade, waged by Walter VI, Count of Brienne, and titular Duke of Athens. In 1330, John XXII issued a papal bull and ordered prelates in Italy and Greece to preach for a crusade against the Catalan Grand Company. Shortly thereafter, Robert of Naples gave the crusade his support. The Venetians, however, renewed their treaty with the Catalans in 1331. By the summer, it was clear that the expedition had failed, and Walter returned to Brindisi, saddled with crippling debts.     
The Naval Crusade of the Holy League. The Naval Crusade of the Holy League (1332–1333) was short-lived crusade against the Aydinid Turkish fleet by Pietro Zeno, serving as balio of Negroponte. In 1332, a Turkish armada under Umur Bey attacked Negroponte, and Zeno bought them off with a large tribute. Zeno and Pietro da Canale were accused by Francesco Dandolo with arranging an anti-Turkish alliance. By the end of the year the Holy League (also known as the Naval League) "a union, society and league for the discomfiture of the Turks and the defence of the true faith", had been formally constituted. In 1334, Zeno took command of the league's fleet and defeated the fleet of the Beylik of Karasi at the battle of Adramyttion. Zeno later served as one of the leaders of the Smyrna Crusade of 1344.   
The Holy League of Clement VI. The Holy League of Clement VI (1343) was a crusade proclaimed by Clement VI in 1343 that resulted in a naval attack on Smyrna the next year. The Grand Counci of Venicel elected Pietro Zeno as captain of the flotilla sent to assist the crusade against Aydinid-held Smyrna. Other crusader leaders included patriarch Henry of Asti, The crusade was a naval success and Smyrna was taken. Zeno was killed by Umur Bey's forces in an ambush while he and other crusaderswere attempting to celebrate mass in the no-man's-land between the battle lines.   
Smyrna Crusade. The Smyrna Crusade (1344) was the first of the Smyrniote Crusades (1343–1351). The Smyrna Crusade began in 1344 with the naval victory of the battle of Pallene and ended with an assault on Smyrna, capturing the harbour and the citadel but not the acropolis. Sometimes considered as part of the Holy League of Clement VI.  
Crusade of Humbert II of Viennois. The Crusade of Humbert II of Viennois (1346) was the second of the Smyrniote Crusades. A second expedition under the command of Humbert II of Viennois with little to show other than a victory over the Turks at Mytilene. Described in the Book of Chivalry by Geoffroi de Charny. Also called the Second Smyrna Crusade.  
Crusade against Francesco Ordelaffi. The Crusade against Francesco Ordelaffi (1355–1357) was a campaign by Innocent IV and Cardinal Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz against Francesco II Ordelaffi in order to restore papal authority to central Italy. The pope's Angevin troops had some success against Ordelaffi through 1356, by mercenary troops sent by Bernabò Visconti allowed him to hold out until 1357.   
Crusade of Peter I de Lusignan. The Crusade of Peter I de Lusignan (1362–1365). Peter I of Cyprus (Peter I de Lusignan) was King of Cyprus and titular King of Jerusalem. He founded the chivalric Order of the Sword in 1347, dedicated to the recovery of Jerusalem, and attempted to convince nobles in Europe to mount a new crusade. His efforts were eventually merged with the Alexandrian Crusade.    
Alexandrian Crusade. The Alexandrian Crusade (1365). An attack by Peter I of Cyprus that resulted in the destruction of Alexandria, but had little real impact. Accounts of the crusade was given by Guillaume de Machaut in his La Prise d'Alexandre (after 1369) and by Muslim historian al-Nuwayrī in his Kitāb al-Ilmām (1365–1374).    
Crusade of Amadeus VI. The Crusade of Amadeus VI of Savoy (1366–1367). Amadeus VI of Savoy (Amadeo), known as the Green Count of Savoy, launched a minor crusade against Thrace and Bulgaria. He attacked Ottoman sultan Murad I with 15 ships and 1,700 men in 1366 in order to aid his cousin, John V Palaiologos. Recounted by Romanian historian Nicolae Iorga in his work about French knight Philippe de Mézières (c. 1327 – 1405) and Eugene L. Cox's Green Count of Savoy (1967).   
The Great Schism and the Crusades. The Great Schism and the Crusades (1382–1387). The Great (or Western) Schism within the Catholic Church from 1378–1417 led to a number of minor crusades included that against Charles III of Naples (1382) the Despenser's Crusade (1383) and the crusade of John of Gaunt (1387). The work by Walter Ullmann on the subject is a standard reference.   
Crusade against Charles III. The Crusade against Charles III of Naples (1382). Charles Durazzo became Charles III as king of Naples and titular king of Jerusalem after having his cousin Joanna I of Naples strangled in jail. In 1382 Clement VII granted crusade indulgences to Louis I of Anjou and others to dethrone Charles. A crusade associated with the Great Schism.  
Despenser's Crusade. Despenser's Crusade (1383), also known as the Norwich Crusade, was a military expedition led by Henry le Despenser in order to assist Ghent in its struggle against the supporters of antipope Clement VII. A crusade associated with the Great Schism.  
Crusade of John of Gaunt. The Crusade of John of Gaunt (1387). John of Gaunt led an unsuccessful crusade against Henry of Trastámara to claim the throne of Castile by right of his wife Constance of Castile. A crusade associated with the Great Schism.   
Mahdia Crusade. The Mahdia Crusade (1390), also known as the Barbary Crusade or the Crusade of Louis II de Bourbon against Mahdia, was a Franco-Genoese military expedition in 1390 that led to the siege of Mahdia, a stronghold of the Barbary pirates. A work by Belgian court historian Jean Froissart called the Chronicles of England, France, and the Adjoining Countries (c. 1400), referred to as Froissart's Chronicles, includes an account of this crusade.     
Crusade of Nicopolis. The Crusade of Nicopolis (1396), also known as the Battle of Nicopolis or the Crusade to Nicopolis. The crusader army of Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, French and German force (assisted by the Venetian navy) was defeated by the Ottoman's at the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis, leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire.    
Crusade of Marshal Boucicaut. The Crusade of Marshal Boucicaut to Constantinople (1399). In 1399, Boniface IX preached a crusade to Constantinople, and Jean II Le Maingre (Boucicaut) was the only respondent. His one-man crusade consisted of raids on Turkish towns along the Black Sea coast.   
Crusade of Varna. The Crusade of Varna (1443–1444), also known as the Crusade to Varna, was an unsuccessful military campaign by the European monarchies to check the expansion of the Ottoman empire into Central Europe. The crusade was called by Eugene IV and led by Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi of Hungary, Voivode of Transylvania, and Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy. The aftermath left the Ottomans free from further attempts to push it out of Europe.     
Crusades to Recover Constantinople. Crusades to Recover Constantinople (1453–1460). New crusades called for after the loss of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453. Includes the Crusade of Nicholas V (later, Callixtus III) and the unrealizeded Crusade of Pius II.    
Crusade of Nicholas V. The Crusade of Nicholas V (1455–1456). After the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453, pope Nicholas V planned a small crusade to recapture the city, reconfirmed by Callixtus III after Nicholas' death. Only John Hunyadi responded, defeating the Turks at Belgrade in 1456 before his untimely death. See Crusade of St. John of Capistrano (1456).     
Genoese Crusade to defend Chios. The Genoese Crusade to defend Chios (1455–1457) began after Mehmed II declared war on Chios and Rhodes, and a Genoese fleet was dispatched to defend the island.  
Crusade of St. John of Capistrano. The Crusade of St. John of Capistrano (1456), also known as the Siege of Belgrade of 1456, began after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 when Mehmet II set his sights on the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ottoman forces were defeated by an army led by Catholic priest John of Capistrano and John Hunyadi. Crusade of Nicholas V (1455–1456).   
Occupation of Sporades. The Occupation of Sporades (1457). Occupation of the northern Sporades islands by papal galleys.  
Siege of Rhodes. The Siege of Rhodes (1480). In 1480, an Ottoman fleet unsuccessfully began the siege of Rhodes. The Ottoman army under the command of Mesih Pasha was defeated by the Knights Hospitaller garrison led by Pierre d'Aubusson. Gulielmus Caoursin, vice-chancellor of the Hospitaller, was also an eye-witness to the siege.     
The Anti-Turkish Crusade. The Anti-Turkish Crusade (1480–1481) was a crusade of pope Sixtus IV against Mehmet II to protect southern Italy. Primarily consisted of the Crusade of Otranto.  
Crusade of Otranto. The Crusade of Otranto (1481) was acrusade to recapture the city after the Ottoman invasion of Otranto. The citizens, killed by the Ottomans for refusing to convert to Islam, are known as the martyrs of Otranto. Part of the Anti-Turkish Crusade of Sixtus IV.  
Spanish Crusade in North Africa. The Spanish Crusade in North Africa (1499–1510). Following the end of Muslim rule in Hispania, a number of cities were recaptured including: Melilla (1497), Mers el-Kebir (1505), Canary Islands (1508), Oran (1509), Rock of Algiers, Bougie and Tripoli (1510). 
Siege of Rhodes. The siege of Rhodes (1522) was the second and ultimately successful attempt by the Ottoman empire to expel the Knights Hospitaller from their island stronghold of Rhodes.  
Crusade of the Emperor Charles V to Tunis. The Crusade of the Emperor Charles V to Tunis (1535) was also known as the Conquest of Tunis. In 1535, Tunis, then under the control of the Ottoman empire, was captured by emperor Charles V and his allies.  
Crusade of the Emperor Charles V to Algiers. The Crusade of the Emperor Charles V to Algiers (1541), also known as the Algiers Expedition, was an unsuccessful attempt to dislodge to Ottomans from Algiers..  
Spanish Crusade to Mahdia. The Spanish Crusade to Mahdia (1550), also known as the Capture of Mahdia. A Spanish naval expedition supported by the Knights of Malta under Claude de la Sengle, besieged and captured the Ottoman stronghold of Mahdia. Mahdia was abandoned by Spain three years later, wit its fortifications demolished to avoid reoccupation of the city. 
Crusade of King Sebastian. The Crusade of King Sebastian of Portugal to Morocco (1578) was also known as the Battle of Alcácer Quibir or the Battle of Three Kings. The battle was between the army of deposed Moroccan sultan Abu Abdallah Mohammed II allied with Sebastian I of Portugal, against a large Moroccan army under the new sultan Abd Al-Malik I who was allied with the Ottomans. Al-Malik and the Ottomans won a decisive victory.  
Crusades against the Byzantine empire began shortly after the First Crusade and continued throughout its existence. These include the following.    
Crusade of Bohemond of Taranto. The Crusade of Bohemond of Taranto (1107–1108), also known as Bohemond's Crusade. A campaign led by Bohemond of Taranto against the Byzantine empire that ended with the Treaty of Devol.    
Crusading Project against Byzantium. The Crusading Project against Byzantium (1149–1150) was an effort by Roger II of Sicily and Louis VII of France to aid the East and exact revenge on the Greeks after the Second Crusade.    
Fourth Crusade. The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204), also known as the Unholy Crusade. See details above.
Crusade against the Bulgars. The Crusade against the Bulgars (1205) was a call for a crusade against Kaloyan, king of the Bulgarians, by Renier of Trit, duke of Philippopolis. Their offense was that they had aligned themselves with enemies of the Cross of Christ, the Bogonils and Paulicians. Nothing came of the request. This and other aspects of the eastern Byzantine commonwealth were exhaustively studied by contemporary Russian historian Dimitri Obolensky.  
Crusade of William VI of Montferrat. The Crusade of William VI of Montferrat (1225). A minor crusade of William VI of Montferrat to support his claims to the throne of Thessalonica (rarely mentioned).  
Anti-Byzantine Crusades. The Anti-Byzantine Crusades (1261–1320) included three attempts to regain the Byzantine empire from the Palaiologos dynasty. The loss of Constantinople in 1261 happened during a papal interregnum, and the next year the newly-seated Urban IV authorized a crusade to retake the city. Nothing beyond the defeat of the Byzantines at the naval battle of Settepozzi in 1263. Urban IV renewed his call for crusade in 1264, for the succor of the Morea, but to no avail. In 1281, Charles of Anjou, Philip of Courtenay and the Venetians planned an incursion into Romania for the recapture of Constantinople. This was blessed by Martin V, labeling it a crusade. This was thwarted by the war of the Sicilian Vespers. After the Peace of Caltabellotta, the final anti-Byzantine crusade was hatched. Charles of Valois, the husband of Catherine of Courtenay, titular Latin empress of Constantinople, sought to use the Catalan Grand Company to advance his goals, but the company proved unable to effectively organize.    
Some pilgrimages are referred to as crusades, especially if the journey resulted in some military activity. Some examples include the following. 
Norwegian Crusade. The Norwegian Crusade (1107–1110), also known as the Crusade of Sigurd Jorsalfar. See above. 
Crusade or Pilgrimage of Fulk V of Anjou. The Crusade or Pilgrimage of Fulk V of Anjou (1120–1122). The future king of Jerusalem traveled to the Holy Land and joined the Knights Templar, according to Ordoric Vitalis' Historia Ecclesiastica (c. 1141).  
Pilgrimage of Rognvald Kali Kolsson. The Pilgrimage of Rognvald Kali Kolsson (1151–1153) was also known as the Crusade of Rognvald Kali Kolsson. In 1151, Rognvald set out on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land as described in the Orkneyinga saga. The earl's party left Orkney in the late summer of 1151 in fifteen ships, with six sailing to Jerusalem while Rognvald stoppeded in Narbonne. After visiting Jerusalem, the party returned via Constantinople, where they were received by the emperor, then sailed to Apulia where they took horses for the journey to Rome, arriving back in Orkney in time for Christmas 1153. 
Crusade or Pilgrimage of Henry the Lion. The Crusade or Pilgrimage of Henry the Lion (1172). A pilgrimage to Jerusalem documented by Arnold of Lübeck in his Chronicae Slavorum (1209), often referred to as a crusade.    
Crusade of Henry of Mecklenburg. The Crusade of Henry of Mecklenburg (1275). Henry I, Lord of Mechlenburg (died 1302) went on a crusade or pilgrimage to the Holy Land c. 1275 and was captured by the Egyptians and held for 32 years. The only know reference to this is by Thomas Fuller in his Historie of the Holy Warre, where it is referred to as the Last Voyage.  
The Popular Crusades were generated by enthusiasm for crusading, but unsanctioned by the Church. 
People's Crusade. The People's Crusade (1096). A prelude to the First Crusade led by Peter the Hermit. See above.
Children's Crusade. The Children's Crusade (1212) was a failed Popular Crusade by the West to regain the Holy Land. The traditional narrative includes some factual and some mythical events including visions by a French boy and a German boy, an intention to peacefully convert Muslims to Christianity, bands of children marching to Italy, and children being sold into slavery. Thomas Fuller referred to it as a Holy war in his Historie of the Holy Warre.      
First Shepherds' Crusade. The First Shepherds’ Crusade (1251) was a popular crusade also known as the Crusade of the Pastoreaux. The movement was aimed at rescuing Louis IX during his imprisonment during the Seventh Crusade. The group was dispersed in Paris.   
Crusade of the Poor. The Crusade of the Poor (1309) was also known as the Crusade of 1309 or the Shepards' Crusade of 1309. A popular crusade that began with the unfulfilled Crusade of Clement V (see below).   
Second Shepherds' Crusade. The Second Shepherds' Crusade (1320), also known as the Pastoreaux of 1320, it was the last of the popular crusades.    
Crusades against heretics and schismatics include the following.  
Albigensian Crusade. The Albigensian Crusade (1209–1229), or Cathar Crusade, was the first of the so-called religious crusades and was conducted against the Cathars in southern France. The 20-year campaign was successful. One of the first actions, the massacre at Béziers, helped earn the crusade the title as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history." After the military phase, the inquisition conducted by Gregory IX in 1234 all but eliminated the Cathars. Contemporaneous chronicles of the crusade include Peter of Vaux de Cernay's Historia Albigensis and Guillaume de Puylaurens' Cronica, both of which appear Guizot's Collection des mémoires relatifs à l'histoire de France (1823–1835). Thomas Fuller referred to it as a Holy war in his Historie of the Holy Warre (1639).      
Bogomils Crusades. The Bogomils Crusades (1234, 1252) were crusades against the Bogomils were called for in 1234 by Gregory IX and in 1252 by Innocent IV.  
Crusades against the Bosnian Heritics. The Crusades against the Bosnian Heritics (1235, 1241), also known as the Bosnian Crusades. Fought against unspecified "heretics," the action was essentially a war of conquest by Hungarian prince Coloman of Galicia against the Banate of Bosnia, sanctioned as a crusade by Gregory IX. The would-be crusaders only succeeded in conquering peripheral parts of the country.  
Despenser's Crusade. Despenser's Crusade (1383), also known as the Norwich Crusade, was a military expedition led by Henry le Despenser in order to assist Ghent in its struggle against the supporters of antipope Clement VII. A crusade associated with the Great Schism.  
Crusades against the Hussites. The Crusades against the Hussites (1420–1431). The five crusades from the Hussite Wars known as the Anti-Hussite Crusades.    
First Anti-Hussite Crusade. The First Anti-Hussite Crusade (1420). Pope Martin V issued a bull in 1420 proclaiming a crusade "for the destruction of the Wycliffites, Hussites and all other heretics in Bohemia". Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund and many German princes laid siege to Prague with an army of crusaders from all parts of Europe, largely consisting of adventurers attracted by the hope of pillage. Sigismund was defeated that same year at the battle of Vítkov Hill.  
Second Anti-Hussite Crusade. The Second Anti-Hussite Crusade (1421–1422). After the Hussite victory in 1420, a priest named Jan Želivský obtained authority over Prague. In 1421, a new crusade against the Hussites was undertaken, laying siege to the town of Žatec. Sigismund arrived in Bohemia at the end of 1421, but was decisively defeated at the battle of Deutschbrod in 1422.  
Third Anti-Hussite Crusade. The Third Anti-Hussite Crusade (1423–1424). The pope called a new crusade against Bohemia, but it was a complete failure. Poles and Lithuanians did not wish to attack the Czechs, the Germans were hampered by internal discord, and Eric VII of Denmark, intending to take part in the crusade, soon returned to Scandinavia. Sigismund Korybut, governor of Bohemia, helped broker the peace in 1424. 
Fourth Anti-Hussite Crusade. The Fourth Anti-Hussite Crusade (1426–1428). In 1426, the Hussites were attacked again by foreign forces. Hussite forces, led by Sigismund Korybut and Prokop the Great, defeated the invaders in the battle of Aussig of 1426. Despite this, the pope believed that the Hussites were weakened and proclaimed a fourth crusade in 1427. Cardinal Henry Beaufort was appointed leader of the crusader forces. The crusaders were defeated at the battle of Tachov that same year. Korybut was imprisoned in 1427 for conspiring to surrender Hussite forces to the emperor Sigismund. He was released in 1428, and participated in the Hussite invasion of Silesia.  
Fifty Anti-Hussite Crusade. The Fifth Anti-Hussite Crusade (1431). In 1431, Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg and papal legate cardinal Julian Cesarini led a crusader army against Bohemia. The defending army led by Prokop the Great, supplemented by Polish Hussites, defeated the crusaders at the battle of Domažlice that same year.   
Waldensian Crusade in the Dauphine. The Waldensian Crusade in the Dauphine (1487–1491) was a crusade against the Waldensians (Vaudois), a sect regarded as heretics, beginning with the burning at the stake of 80 Waldensians in 1211. In 1487, Innocent VIII issued a bull for the extermination of the heresies of the Vaudois. Alberto de' Capitanei organized a crusade and launched an offensive against the Vaudois in Dauphiné and Piedmont. Charles I, Duke of Savoy, intervened in order to save his territories from further turmoil and promised the Vaudois peace, which did not occur before the offensive had devastated the area. Angelo Carletti di Chivasso brought about a peaceful agreement between the parties, which was short-lived as attested by the Mérindol massacre of 1545, with persecution continuing until after the French Revolution.    
Political crusades include the following. 
Political Crusade against Roger II of Sicily. The Political Crusade against Roger II of Sicily (1127–1135). Called the First Political Crusade, it began in 1127 when Honorius II, suspicious of the growth of Norman power in southern Italy, and at Capua in December, the pope preached a crusade against Roger II of Sicily. Upon the death of Honorius in 1130, Anacletus II and Innocent II were both claimants to the papal throne. Roger supported the antipope Anacletus. In 1135, Innocent II offered Crusader indulgences to those who fought his enemies. There is no evidence that any military action was taken, but the action is viewed as a harbinger for the political crusades of the 13th century.   
Crusade against Markward von Anweiler. The Crusade against Markward von Anweiler (1199). The second of the so-called political crusades, that the papacy regarded as a pre-condition to a fourth crusade. In 1199, Innocent III declared a crusade against Markward von Anweiler, Imperial seneschal and regent of the Kingdom of Sicily, who opposed papal claims on the regency of Sicily. Markward was regarded by Innocent as "worse than the infidels," granting those few who fought against him crusader indulgences. Among those taking arms was Walter III of Brienne who wished to secure his claim to Taranto by virtue of his marriage to Elvira of Sicily. The need for the crusade ended with Markward's death in 1202.   
Papal Quarrel with John Lackland. Papal Quarrel with John Lackland (1208). The conflict between John of England and Innocent III that led to John's excommunication has been referred to as a crusade.  
A Political Crusade in England. A Political Crusade in England (1215–1217). Two crusades were declared by Henry III of England against his rebellious subjects. The first began with a French knight Savari de Mauléon who had been in service to Hemry's predecessor, John of England, in the First Barons' War. The pope, Innocent III, had described Savari as crucesignatus pro defense Regni Anglie, setting the stage for Henry to take the cross, with the inherent protections from Rome. The conflict was finally settled in 1217 with the Treaty of Lambeth between Henry and Louis VIII of France.  
Crusade against Frederick II. The Crusade against Frederick II (1220–1241). Efforts of pope Gregory IX against Frederick II. See also references under the Sixth Crusade above.     
Crusade against the Stedinger. The Crusade against the Stedinger (1233–1234), also known as the Stedinger Crusade. The Stedinger were free farmers whose grievances over taxes and property rights turned into full-scale revolt. A papal-sanctioned crusade was called against the rebels. In the campaign of 1233, the small crusading army was defeated. In a follow-up campaign of 1234, a much larger crusader army was victorious.   
Innocent IV's Crusade against Frederick II. Pope Innocent IV's Crusade against Frederick II (1248). The conflict between the pope and the emperor began with the apostolic letter Ad apostolicae dignitatis apicem in 1245 and was not resolved until Frederick's death in 1250.   
Crusade against Sicily, The Crusade against Sicily (1248). Actions taken by Innocent IV after Frederick II's defeat at the battle of Parma.
Crusade against Conrad IV. The Crusade against Conrad IV (1250). A crusade against Conrad IV of Germany that was a continuation of the crusade against his father Frederick II.  
Another Political Crusade in England. Another Political Crusade in England (1263–1265). The second of Henry III's political crusades began with the Second Barons' War in 1263. Again a crusade was declared by Henry III of England against his enemies, with consent two papal legates to England. The death of Simon de Montfort in 1265 put an end to this rebellion.  
Crusade against Frederico I of Montefeltro. The Crusade against Frederico I of Montefeltro (1321–1322) was a crusade proclaimed by John XXII in 1321 against Federico I, Count of Montefeltro (1296–1322), and his brothers to regain possession of the March of Ancona and Duchy of Spoleto. Malatesta da Verucchio, ruler of Rimini, supported by the commune of Perugia, killed Federico and captured his brothers in 1322.   
Crusade against the Emperor Louis IV. The Crusade against the Emperor Louis IV (1328–1329) was a crusade against Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, also called the Crusade against Ludwig IV of Bavaria. Pope John XXII declared a crusade against Louis shortly after his coronation in 1328. Louis responded by installing an antipope, Nicholas V, declaring John deposed because of heresy. The crusade against Louis was renewed in 1329, and Robert of Naples sent forces against Louis and his ally Frederick II of Sicily but little came of it. Louis was also a protector of the Teutonic Knights, bestowing on the order a privilege to conquer Lithuania and Russia.  
The Northern Crusades (1150–1560), also known as Baltic Crusades, occurred in northern Europe at the same time as the traditional crusades.   
Wendish Crusade. The Wendish Crusade (1147) was the first of the Northern Crusades, usually associated with the Second Crusade. A military campaign by the Holy Roman Empire and directed against the Polabian Slavs, or Wends.  
Swedish Crusades. The Swedish Crusades (1150s–1293) consisted of the First Swedish Crusade (1150s), likely fictional, the Second Swedish Crusade (13th century), and the Third Swedish Crusade (1293).  
Drenthe Crusade. The Drenthe Crusade (1228–1232) was a papal-approved military campaign launched against Drenthe in 1228. The crusade was led by Willibrand, Bishop of Utrecht, commanding a Frisian army. Willibrand's crusade ended inconclusively in 1232.   
Danish Crusades. The Danish Crusades (1191, 1293). The Danes made at least three crusades to Finland. The first is from 1187 when crusader Esbern Snare mentioned in his christmas feast speech a major victory from the Finns. Two next known crusades were made in 1191 and in 1202. The latter one was led by the Bishop of Lund, Anders Sunesen, with his brother. The Danes also participated in the Livonian Crusades. 
Livonian Crusades. The Livonian Crusades (1193–1287) are the various Christianization campaigns in the area constituting modern Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia following the 1193 call of Celestine III for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe. It was conducted mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes, and consisted of four parts: Crusades against the Livonians (1198–1209) Conquest of the Estonian Hinderland (1208–1226) Crusades against the Oeselians (1206–1261) Crusade against Curonians (1242–1267) and, Crusade against Semigallians (1219–1290). The principal original sources on these crusades are the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle and the Livonian Chronicle of Henry.  
Crusades against Livonians. The Crusades against Livonians (1198–1209). When peaceful means of conversion failed to convert the Livonians, bishop Berthold of Hanover arrived with a large contingent of crusaders in 1198. Berthold was surrounded soon after and killed, his forces defeated. To avenge Berthold's death, Innocent III then issued a bull declaring a crusade against the Livonians. Albert of Riga arrived the following year with a large force and in 1202, formed the Livonian Brothers of the Sword to aid in the conversion of the pagans. The Livonians led by Caupo of Turaida rebelled against the crusaders. Caupo's forces were defeated in 1206, and the Livonians were declared to be converted. Albert invaded with the forces of the Order in 1209, and the Livonians under duke Visvaldis were forced to submit to Albert. 
Conquest of the Estonian Hinderland. Conquest of the Estonian Hinderland (1208–1226). The crusaders began operations against the Estonians in 1208, with the help of the newly converted Livonians. From 1208–1227, war parties rampaged through Estonia. A truce was established from 1213–1215, but the Estonians were unable to develop into a centralized state. They were led by Lembitu of Lehola who was killed along with Caupo of Turaida (fighting for the crusaders), at the 1217 battle of St. Matthew's Day, a crushing defeat for the Estonians. The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia relates how in 1226, papal legate William of Modena successfully mediated peace in the area. 
Crusades against the Oeselians. The Crusades against the Oeselians (1206–1261). The Estonian region of Saaremaa, whose occupants were known as Oeselians, resisted the German crusaders, maintaining war fleets that continued to raid Denmark and Sweden. Danish armies led by Valdemar II of Denmark failed in Saaremaa in 1206 and 1222, as did John I of Sweden in 1220. The Livonian Brothers of the Sword finally succeeding in converting the Oeselians to Christianity in 1226 after failing in 1216. After regressing, the Oeselians once again accepted Christianity in 1241, and signed a treaty in 1255. Conflict returned in 1261 as the Oeselians once more renounced Christianity and killed all the occupying Germans. A final peace treaty was imposed that year by the Livonian Order, a branch of the Teutonic Order.  
Crusade against Curonians. The Crusade against Curonians (1242–1267). After the defeat of the Estonians in 1126 and the Oeselians in 1241, the crusade moved against the Curonians who had attacked Riga in 1210 and 1228. Those in the north accepted peace with the Germans in 1230, but in the south the fighting continued. In 1260, the Curonians fought along side of the crusaders in the battle of Durbe, abandoning them in the midst of battle, allowing the Lithuanians to gain victory over the Livonian Order and Teutonic Knights. The Curonians were finally subdued in 1267 and the land partitioned. This was documented by Peter of Dusburg in his 1326 work Chronicon terrae Prussiae.   
Crusade against Semigallians. The Crusade against Semigallians (1219–1290). According to the Livonian Chronicle of Henry, the Semigallians formed an alliance with Albert of Riga against the Livonians before 1203, and received military support to hold back Lithuanian attacks in 1205. In 1219, this alliance was shattereded after a crusader invasion in Semigallia. Duke Viestards then formed an alliance with Lithuanians and Curonians. In 1228, Semigallians and Curonians attacked the main crusader stronghold, with the crusaders taking revenge and invaded Semigallia. In 1236, Semigallians attacked crusaders retreating to Riga after the battle of Saule, but by 1254, the Semigallians had been subdued by the Livonian Order. In 1270, the Semigallians joined Lithuanian Grand Duke Traidenis in an attack on Livonia and Saaremaa. During the battle of Karuse, the Livonian Order was defeated, and its master Otto von Lutterberg killed. In 1287, a force of Semigallians attacked a crusader stronghold in Ikšķile and plundered nearby lands. As they returned to Semigallia, they defeated the crusaders at the battle of Garoza, the last such victory. The Semigallians were finally subdued by 1290.  
Prussian Crusades. The Prussian Crusades (1222–1274) were a series of 13th-century campaigns of Catholic crusaders, primarily led by the Teutonic Knights, to Christianize the pagan Old Prussians. These include the Crusade of 1222–1223, the First Prussian Uprising of 1242–1249, and the Great Prussian Uprising of 1260–1274.   
Lithuanian Crusades. The Lithuanian Crusades (1284–1435) were a series of economic Christian colonization campaigns by the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order under the religious pretext of forcibly Christianizing the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania to Roman Catholicism. (cf. Italian Wikipedia, Crociata lituana)    
Crusade of Magnus II Eriksson. The Crusade of Magnus II Eriksson (1347–1351). The Crusade of Magnus II Eriksson of Sweden (Magnus IV of Sweden) against Novgorod began in 1348, when Magnus led a crusade, marching up the Neva, converting the tribes along that river, and briefly capturing the fortress of Orekhov. The Novgorodians retook the fortress in 1349 after a seven-month siege, and Magnus fell back, partially due to the ravages of the plague. He spent much of 1351 unsuccessfully seeking support for further crusading action among the German cities.
Crusades in the Iberian peninsula, commonly referred to as the Reconquista, from 1031 to 1492.  
Granada War. The Granada War (1482–1491) was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1491, during the reign of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Emirate of Granada. It ended with the defeat of Granada and its annexation by Castile, ending all Islamic rule on the Iberian peninsula. 
Crusades against Italian republics and cities, and Sicily. These are documented in the work by British historian Norman Housley, The Italian Crusades: The Papal-Angevin Alliance and the Crusades Against Christian Lay Powers, 1254-1343 (1982). 
Mallorca Crusade. The Mallorca Crusade (1113–1115), also known as the Balearic Islands Expedition.
Crusade of John of Brienne in Apulia. The Crusade of John of Brienne in Apulia (1229). Conflicts between John of Brienne and his son-in-law Frederick II in Italy.  
Genoese Crusade against Savona and Albenga. The Genoese Crusade against Savona and Albenga (1240). A minor conflict summoned to suppress supporters of Frederick II.  
Crusade against Manfred of Sicily. The Crusade against Manfred of Sicily (1255–1266). The first crusade against Manfred of Sicily, the illegitimate son of Frederick II, was preached in 1255. The second was declared after Manfred's coronation as the King of Sicily in 1258. He was excommunicated by Innocent IV and indulgences continued to be enjoyed by those crusaders until his death at the hands of Charles I of Anjou, brother of Louis IX, at the battle of Benevento of 1266.   
Crusade against Ezzelino III da Romano. The Crusade against Ezzelino III da Romano (1256). A crusade preached by Innocent IV in Venice against the tyrant Ezzelino III da Romano and his son Alberico da Romano. Innocent had excommunicated the father, who won an initial victory over the crusaders. Wounded in the battle of Cassano d'Adda of 1259, Ezzelino killed himself by self-neglect while imprisoned. The reaction to this crusade left no doubt that crusades against domestic enemies of the Church were every bit as serious as those against Muslims. Ezzelino was a "son of perdition" in Dante's Inferno, his soul consigned to Hell.    
Crusade against Conradin. The Crusade against Conradin (1268). Conradin (1252–1268) was nominal king of Jerusalem as the son of Conrad IV of Germany. He attempted to get control of the Kingdom of Sicily, causing Charles I of Anjou to declare a crusade against him. Conradin joined with Muslim forces at Lucera and was defeated by Charles at Tagliacozzo and later beheaded.    
First Crusade against the Arogonese. The Crusade against the Arogonese (1284–1285), also known as the Arogonese Crusade, or Crusade of Aragon, was part of the War of the Sicilian Vespers. The crusade was declared by Martin IV against Peter III of Aragon in 1284 and was conducted by Philip III of France. The crusade effectively ended with a French loss at the battle of the Col de Panissars in 1265. The wars of the Sician Vespers continued until 1302.  
Second Crusade against the Arogonese. The Crusade against the Arogonese (1309) was a dispute over the succession of Azzo VIII d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara.  
Third Crusade against the Arogonese. The Crusade against the Arogonese (1321–1322). Also known as the Anti-Ghibelline Crusades, these were crusades preached against Matteo I Visconti and his son Galeazzo I Visconti in 1321 and renewed in 1325 against Aldobrandino II d'Este and his son Obizzo III d'Este and supporters in Ferrara. Angevin forces carried out the fighting for these crusades.  
In the 14th century, much work was done to call for a new crusade to recapture Jerusalem. This includes proposals by Benedetto Accolti, Martin Luther's On War Against the Turk, Francis Bacon's Advertisement Touching on a Holy Warre, and Leibnitz' Project de conquête l'Egypte présenté à Louis XIV. In addition, there were other crusades that did not leave the planning stage, including the following.
Crusade of Emperor Henry IV. The Crusade of Emperor Henry IV (1103) was a planned crusade planned by Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV that never materialized. 
Crusade of Conrad III. The Crusade of Conrad III (1124) was an expedition by Conrad III of Germany discussed by Ekkehard of Aura in his Chronicon universale.  
Crusade Preached against the Mongols in Syria. A Crusade Preached against the Mongols in Syria (1260). After the Mongol takeover of Aleppo in 1260, the Franks in the kingdom called on Alexander IV and Charles I of Anjou for help. The pope issued the bull Audiat orbis calling for a crusade against the Mongols and excommunicating Bohemond VI of Antioch for cooperating with the invaders. The abbot Benedict of Alignan was tasked with organizing the crusade, preaching it in Acre. The defeat of the Mongols at the battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 removed the Mongol threat, at the cost of an increased threat from the Mamluks.      
Plans for a Joint Latin-Greek Crusade. Plans for a Joint Latin-Greek Crusade (1274–1276). The Second Council of Lyon in 1274 thwarted Charles I of Anjou's hopes of leading a new crusade. Nevertheless, Gregory X was favorable to a proposal from Michael VIII Palaiologos for a crusade against the Turks to restore the ancient Christian cities of Anatolia. Gregory's death in 1276), put an end to such talks.   
Crusade of the Genoese Women. The Crusade of the Genoese Women (1300). Boniface VIII declared 1300 a Jubilee Year, and crusading planning was generated by enthusiasm for the celebration. The women of Genoa intended to go on crusade, to the point of designing and building armored suits.   
Crusade of Clement V. The Crusade of Clement V (1309) was a crusade, or passagium generale, against the Mamluks was planned by pope Clement V. The crusade was to be executed by the Knights Hospitaller under Foulques de Villaret, fresh from his successes at Rhodes, and reduced to a passagium. Instead, members of the lower classes of England, France and Germany formed a peasant army, and executed the Crusade of the Poor.   
French Plans for Crusade. French Plans for Crusade (1317–1333) were crusades planned for or proposed during the Avignon Papacy, involving three successive kings of France, Philip V, Charles IV and Philip VI. 
Crusade of Philip V. The Crusade of Philip V (1317–1322) was a planned crusade by Philip V of France. At the Council of Vienne in 1312, Philip's father Philip IV of France and pope John XXII had agreed to a new crusade. John continued to assure the Armenians that a crusade would soon happen, but instead turned his energies against Ludwig IV of Bavaria and to the Second Shepherds' Crusade.  
Crusade of Charles IV. The Crusade of Charles IV (1322–1328) was a planned crusade by Charles IV of France, continuing the interest expressed by his brother Philip V. Charles entrusted his uncle Charles of Valois to negotiate the terms, but conflicts with England took precedence. Nothing ever became of the proposed conflict and the idea died with Charles IV in 1328.  
Crusade of Philip VI. The Crusade of Philip VI (1330–1332). An anonymous document Directorium ad passagium faciendum proposed an extensive crusade to Philip VI of France in 1330 or 1332. The proposal was for the conquest of the Holy Land, the Byzantine empire and Russia, In RHC Documents arméniens, Volume 2.IV.  
Crusade of Joan of Arc. The Crusade of Joan of Arc (1430). In 1430, Joan of Arc threatened to lead a crusading army against the Hussites unless they returned to the Catholic Church. This followed Martin V's threat to the Hussites and the subsequent Fourth Anti-Hussite Crusade. 
Crusade of Pius II. The Crusade of Pius II (1464). At age 60, Pius II took the cross in 1464 and departed for Ancona where he was to meet a small Venetian fleet to attack the Turks. Pius died before the fleet arrived. Nevertheless, a fresco of the pope by Bernardino di Pinturicchio depicts an idealized (and fictional) version of his launching the crusade (Fresco #10, Pope Pius II Arrives in Ancona).    
The consolidated list of the Crusades to the Holy Land from 1095 through 1578 is as follows. For the Reconquista, consult the Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula for a more detailed chronology.
The Holy Land
The following time line is not intended to show the complete history of the area known as the Land of Israel / Holy Land/ Palaestina/ Palestine. Only dates and events which may be relevant to a discussion of "Who Owns the Land" are presented.
Early dates may be approximate. Some of these dates are subject to disputes. However, the exact early dates are usually not that important. What is important is the historical sequence of events.
Dates BCE are preceded with a "-" sign. Dates CE/AD are preceded with a "+" sign.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF KEY RELEVANT DATES
King David purchased the land on which the Jewish Holy Temple in Jerusalem was later built. The Arabs have no ancestral or historical relationship to King David.
-422 (some historians date it as -586)
The Babylonians destroyed the First Holy Temple in Jerusalem. The people of Israel were exiled by the Babylonians from the Land of Israel to Babylonia.
-352 to -348 (some historians date it as -516)
The people of Israel returned from Babylonia to the Land of Israel and constructed the Second Holy Temple on the site of the First Holy Temple in Jerusalem.
The Romans destroyed the Second Holy Temple in Jerusalem. The people of Israel were exiled from the Land of Israel and spread around in many countries.
The Crusaders, the Mamluks, and the Ottomans conquered the Land of Israel.
The British conquered the Land of Israel . Following the British conquest of the land, Arabs from neighboring countries started a massive 30-year invasion of the Land of Israel, to look for jobs and to fulfill their religious obligation to capture as much foreign land as possible. These Arabs came from other countries, none of them had any historical connection to the Land of Israel.
DETAILED TIME LINE
The Biblical Period
-2000 to -1800 approx.
The Philistines arrived from the Mediterranean islands near Greece and invaded the coastal land near the southern coast of the Mediterranean sea, an area which now includes Ashdod, Ashkelon, and Gaza  . They were also known as "The people of the sea".
The forefather Abraham traveled to the Holy Land.
Abraham's son, Ishmael, was born.
Abraham's son, Yitzhak (Isaac), was born.
Abraham purchased the land of Hebron from the local Canaanites as a burial site for his wife Sarah - the foremother of the people of Israel. In addition to the Cave of the Patriarchs, which is the actual burial site, Abraham also purchased a large area of land surrounding it, and paid for it with 400 silver coins. The details, the name of the seller, and the witnesses to the transaction, are recorded in the Bible .
-1712 to -1532
The forefather Yitzhak (Isaac) settled on never-inhabited land in the southern area of the Land of Israel, between Beer-Sheva and the Philistines. He made a land covenant with Avimelech - the king of the Philistines - after they reachd an agreement on who lives where .
The forefather Israel/ Yaakov (Jacob ), the son of Yitzhak, purchased the land on which Shchem (Nablus) is now built, from the local Canaanites. The transaction, the sellers, and the purchase price, are recorded in the bible . This area was later used as the burial site for his son Yosef (Joseph).
Discussion: Since this land was purchased and paid for, there can be no further dispute as to who owns this land. The only heirs to this land are the Jews - the Children of Israel. The Arabs have no ancestral or historical relationship to the forefather Jacob.
The Jewish forefathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were extremely careful not to settle on land which was owned or inhabited by others. If they wanted land owned or inhabited by others, they purchased it.
Jacob and his children leave the Land of Israel because of a heavy famine, and travel to Egypt.
The Jewish people - the Children of Israel - get out of Egypt and travel back to the land of their forefathers - the Land of Israel.
The people of Israel re-entered the Land of Israel after a 40 year journey out of Egypt.
Discussion: The Canaanites who inhabited the Land of Israel practiced extreme sexual and social immorality (brother-sister father-daughter mother-son and paganistic human sacrifices). God commanded the people of Israel to kill all the Canaanites when they enter the Land of Israel because of their extremely immoral lifestyle. The people of Israel did not obey this commandment, and the Canaanite later went extinct on their own.
When the people of Israel approached the Land of Israel, they proposed to the local inhabitants a peaceful passage through their land into the Land of Israel. Those who refused and did NOT attack the people of Israel (e.g. the Edomites), were respected and avoided. Those who did attack the people of Israel, lost their war and lost their land with it . Those who start a war and lose, have no right to complain about their loss.
King David purchased the land on which the Jewish Holy Temple in Jerusalem was later built. King David paid for the land with hundreds of gold coins. The deed, the name of the previous owner, and the purchase price were recorded in the Bible .
|The kingdom of King David. His son, King Solomon, |
"reigned over all the kingdoms from the (Euphrates) River
to the land of the Philistines and to the border of Egypt.
and he was at peace with all his surrounding neighbors."
(Kings I, ch.5, v.1, v.4)
-832 to -825
King Solomon constructed the First Holy Temple in Jerusalem, on the land purchased by his father King David.
-422 (some historians date it as -586)
The Babylonians destroyed the First Holy Temple in Jerusalem. The people of Israel were exiled by the Babylonians from the Land of Israel to Babylonia.
-352 to -348 (some historians date it as -516)
The people of Israel returned from Babylonia to the Land of Israel and constructed the Second Holy Temple on the site of the First Holy Temple in Jerusalem.
|An artist's view of Jerusalem and Temple Mount |
at the time of the Second Holy Temple
The Hellenistic Period -332 to -63
The Greeks conquered the Land of Israel
The Greeks defiled the Holy Temple in Jerusalem and robbed it of its treasures.
-167 to -161
The Hashmonaim, under the leadership of Yehudah HaMakabi (Judah Maccabee, Judas Maccabeus) revolted against the ruling Greeks, liberated Jerusalem, and re-consecrated the Holy Temple. The Jewish holiday Hanuka was established to commemorate this victory against the Greeks.
The Roman/ Byzantine Period -63 to +638
The Romans conquered Syria and later conquered the Land of Israel.
The Romans renamed the Land of Israel, and called it "Iudea". Before that, the land was known by the Hebrew/Jewish name "Judea". The name was changed to "Iudea" to show that it is now part of the Roman empire.
The Romans destroyed the Second Holy Temple in Jerusalem . The Romans completely demolished the city of Jerusalem. The people of Israel were exiled from the Land of Israel and spread around in many countries.
+132 to +135
The Roman emperor Hadrian changed the name of the Land of Israel and called it "Syria Palaestina". He also renamed the city of Jerusalem and called it "Aelia Capitolina".
+610 to +632
Muhammad invented the Muslim religion in southern Saudi Arabia and composed the Quran (the Muslim bible). He studied the Jewish Bible in order to be better equipped in his attempts to persuade the Jews to follow his newly invented religion. When the Jews refused, he murdered most of them dictated the stories of the Quran to his students and filled the Quran with his own imaginary accounts of Biblical events. (Muhammad himself did not know how to read or write.) He also took the liberty to change the God-given day of rest, Saturday - the Sabbath. Since Sunday was already taken by the Christians, he picked Friday as the next-best Muslim day of rest.
Muhammad had a dream about an unknown "far distant place of worship (mosque)".
+634 to +638
The Arab Islamic Empire under Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattāb conquered Jerusalem along with the lands of Mesopotamia, Syria, Palaestina, and Egypt. The Byzantine (Roman) Empire lost control of the entire Mideast to the Muslims. The name "Palaestina" was no longer in use.
Discussion: Under Muslim religious law, anyone who dwells on land for three years becomes the owner of the land. The Muslims consistently built structures on conquered and stolen land in order to "prove" their claims to the land.
The Quran commands Muslims to take land away from non-Muslims, including land which they have never trodden on before . The Quran explicitly encourages lying and deception if it helps Muslims achieve a desired goal . The most common Muslim practice for rewriting history is to build a Muslim structure over existing holy sites which belong to other religions. The Land of Israel is full of Muslim structures constructed over Jewish holy sites. The mere fact that Jewish archeological findings are found UNDER the Muslim structures, is sufficient evidence to prove who was there first.
The Al-Aqsa mosque was built in Jerusalem, at the southern side of Temple Mount.
|A current aerial view of Temple Mount |
The Dome of the Rock is visible at the center
The Al-Aqsa mosque, without a minaret, is visible at the left
The crusaders entered the Land of Israel. There were Jewish communities all over the country. Fifty of them are known and include Jerusalem, Tiberias, Ramleh, Ashkelon, Caesarea, and Gaza. Jews fought side-by-side with Muslim soldiers to defend Jerusalem against the Crusaders. When the crusaders entered Jerusalem, they proceeded to massacre the Jewish and Muslim civilians and destroyed the city. This marked the end of 460 years of Islamic control of the Land of Israel.
+1209 to +1211
A wave of Jewish religious scholars from Europe returned to the Land of Israel.
The Mamluk (Mameluke) Period +1244 to +1517
+1244 to +1291
The Egyptian Mamluks (Converted Egyptian Muslims) conquered the Land of Israel. They destroyed most towns on the flat coastal plains in order to rid the land of the Crusader presence and make sure it never returned. Jaffa, Gaza, Lydda and Ramle were not destroyed. The last major crusader stronghold, Acre, was conquered by the Mamluks in +1291.
Ibn Khaldun, one of the most creditable Arab historians, wrote: "Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel extended over 1400 years. It was the Jews who implanted the culture and customs of the permanent settlement."
A wave of Jews who were expelled from Spain returned to the Land of Israel.
The Ottoman Period +1517 to +1918
The Ottoman Turks conquered the Land of Israel. The country became part of the Ottoman Empire.
The Dutch scholar and cartographer, Adriaan Reland (Hadriani Relandi) , wrote reports about visits to the Land of Israel. (There are those who claim that he did not personally visit the Land of Israel but collected reports from other visitors.) He was fluent in Hebrew and Arabic. He documented visits to many locations. He writes: The names of settlements were mostly Hebrew, some Greek, and some Latin-Roman. No settlement had an original Muslim-Arab name with a historical root in its location. Most of the land was empty, desolate, and the inhabitants few in number and mostly concentrated in Jerusalem, Acco, Tzfat, Jaffa, Tiberius and Gaza. Most of the inhabitants were Jews and the rest Christians. There were few Muslims, mostly nomad Bedouins. The Arabs were predominantly Christians with a tiny minority of Muslims. In Jerusalem there were approximately 5000 people, mostly Jews and some Christians. In Nazareth there were approximately 700 people - all Christians. In Gaza there were approximately 550 people - half of them Jews and half Christians. Um-El-Phachem was a village of 10 families - all Christians. The only exception was Nablus with 120 Muslims from the Natsha family and approximately 70 Shomronites.
The students of Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov returned from Europe to the Land of Israel.
The students of the Gr"a (Rabbi Eliahu) returned from Europe to the Land of Israel.
+1810 to +1830
A wave of Jews from the Arab countries in northern Africa and from Persia returned to the Land of Israel.
The Chabad chassidic Jews bought land and buildings in Hebron to start a Chabad-chassidic community and a Rabbinical seminary.
Sir Moses Haim Montefiore purchased land outside the borders of Jerusalem's old city to construct a new Jewish neighborhood - "Miskenot Shaananim".
A wave of Jews from Yemen returned to the Land of Israel.
+1882 to +1903
The "first" wave of Zionist Jews from Europe returned to the Land of Israel.
+1882 to +1934
The (Jewish) Baron Edmond James de Rothschild purchased sufficient agricultural land in the Land of Israel to found and support 30 new Jewish towns and villages.
+1904 to +1914
The "second" wave of Zionist Jews from Europe returned to the Land of Israel.
The British Period +1918 to +1948
Discussion: Following the conquest of the Land of Israel by the British, Arabs from neighboring countries started a massive 30-year invasion of the Land of Israel, to look for jobs and to fulfill their religious obligation to capture as much foreign land as possible . These Arabs had no historical connection to the Land of Israel. Their sole motivation was to find jobs and to capture as much foreign non-Muslim land as possible.
The following accounts describe the local conditions before the British conquered the Land of Israel and the massive Arab invasion that followed:
- From the beginning of the Islamic period (+638) to the beginning of the British period (+1918) many Arab and foreign visitors wrote the same descriptions of the Arab/ Muslim population in the Land of Israel . "The caliph and governors of Syria and the Holy Land ruled entirely over Christian and Jewish subjects." "the mosque is empty of worshipers. The Jews constitute the majority of Jerusalem’s population." "Most of the land was empty, desolate, and the inhabitants few in number" "The Arabs were predominantly Christians with a tiny minority of Muslims." " In Gaza there were approximately 550 people - half of them Jews and half Christians. Um-El-Phachem was a village of 10 families - all Christians." "Outside the city of Jerusalem, we saw no living object" "Much of the country through which we have been rambling for a week appears never to have been inhabited, or even cultivated" "A desolate country whose soil is rich enough but is given over wholly to weeds. A silent, mournful expanse. A desolation is here that not even imagination can grace with the pomp of life and action." "for miles and miles there was no appearance of life or habitation." ""In the portion of the plain between Mount Carmel and Jaffa one sees but rarely a village or other sights of human life".
- In 1913, a British report, by the Palestinian Royal Commission, quotes an account of the conditions on the coastal plain along the Mediterranean Sea: "The road leading from Gaza to the north was only a summer track, suitable for transport by camels or carts. No orange groves, orchards or vineyards were to be seen until one reached the [Jewish] Yabna village. Houses were mud. Schools did not exist. The western part toward the sea was almost a desert. The villages in this area were few and thinly populated. Many villages were deserted by their inhabitants."
- In 1930/31, Lewis French, the British Director of Development wrote about the Arabs in Palestine: "We found it inhabited by fellahin (Arab farmers) who lived in mud hovels and suffered severely from the prevalent malaria. Large areas were uncultivated. The fellahin, if not themselves cattle thieves, were always ready to harbor these and other criminals. The individual plots changed hands annually. There was little public security, and the fellahin's lot was an alternation of pillage and blackmail by their neighbors, the bedouin (Arab nomads)."
- The British Hope-Simpson Commission recommended, in 1930, "Prevention of illicit immigration" to stop the illegal Arab immigration from neighboring Arab countries .
- The British Governor of the Sinai (1922-36) reported in the Palestine Royal Commission Report: "This illegal immigration was not only going on from the Sinai, but also from Transjordan and Syria."
- The governor of the Syrian district of Hauran, Tewfik Bey El Hurani, admitted in 1934 that in a single period of only a few months over 30,000 Syrians from Houran had moved to Palestine.
- British Prime Minister Winston Churchill noted the Arab influx. Churchill, a veteran of the early years of the British mandate in the Land of Israel, noted in 1939 that “far from being persecuted, the Arabs have crowded into the country and multiplied till their population has increased more than even all world Jewry could lift up the Jewish population.”
|Muslim-Arab population and growth in Jerusalem before and after 1918  . |
The break point between the two straight lines shows the exact point in time
when the massive Arab invasion of the Land of Israel started.
Discussion: Never in history did Arabs/Muslims use the Latin/ English name "Palaestina" or "Palestine". Arabs cannot pronounce this Latin/ English name. After 1918, when the British called the land "Palestine", Arabs/Muslims started calling the land "Falesteen" - a mis-pronunciation of "Palestine". The land does not have an Arabic name in any of the Arabs' native languages.
The local Arabs never called themselves "Palestinians", not even during the British mandate. Both Arab and British leaders referred to them only as "Arabs". For example: The Hope-Simpson report  published by the British in 1930, contains the phrase "the number of Palestinian unemployed, whether Arab, Jew or other. ". "Palestinian" was used only as an adjective in reference to the location and also included Jews. The Arab inhabitants were always referred to as "Arabs". A computerized search of The Hope-Simpson report shows that the word "Palestinians" does not appear anywhere in this report. "Palestinian Arabs", "Palestinian Jews", and "Palestinian Christians" were common terms. But, the term "Palestinians", as a noun, before 1948, was not yet invented.
The name "Palestine" and the adjective "Palestinian" were used without any ethnic connotations. For example: a) "The Jerusalem Post", a Jewish newspaper, was called "The Palestine Post" from its founding in 1932 until 1950. b) In 1923, Pinhas Rutenberg (Jewish) founded the Palestine Electric Company, later to become the Israel Electric Corporation. c) There was a Jewish "Palestine Symphony Orchestra". d) In World War II, the British assembled a Jewish Brigade, to fight the Axis powers, that was known as the Palestine Regiment. e) As late as 1974, Immanuel Kant referred to European Jews as "the Palestinians living among us" .
+1919 to +1923
The "third" wave of Zionist Jews from Europe returned to the Land of Israel.
Rabbinical students and their Rabbis from eastern Europe returned to the Land of Israel and founded "Yeshivat Hebron" - A Rabbinical seminary in Hebron.
+1924 to + 1929
The "fourth" wave of Zionist Jews from eastern Europe and from Asia returned to the Land of Israel.
+1929 to +1939
The "fifth" wave of Zionist Jews, escaping antisemitism in Europe, returned to the Land of Israel.
+1939 to +1948
Waves of Jews escaping from Europe during world war II returned to the Land of Israel.
The British requested that the United Nations approve an end to British Mandate rule in Trans-Jordan. Following the British request, the Trans-Jordanian Parliament proclaimed King Abdullah as the first ruler of the Hashemite Kingdom of Trans-Jordan. The kingdom of Trans-Jordan did NOT include the areas of Judea and Samaria, also known as "the West Bank".
The United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution 181. The resolution recommended the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine and the partition of the territory into two states, one Jewish and one Arab. Surrounding Arab countries initiated a joint war against Israel, on the day following the UN resolution.
The State of Israel
The Jewish state of Israel declared its independence. The Arabs lost the war. Israel liberated part of Jerusalem and the area known as "the borders of 1948" or "within the green line". Jordan occupied the area of the West Bank (between the green line and the Jordan river), which it continued to control until 1967. Many of the Arabs who invaded the Land of Israel during the past 30 years, returned to neighboring Arab countries. These Arabs are NOT refugees - they are invaders who returned to where they came from.
Discussion: Following the end of the British mandate and the declaration of the state of Israel in 1948, the local Arabs invented for themselves a new name in English which they cannot pronounce - "Palestinians". They try to call themselves by the English name but they mis-pronounce it "Falesteenians". It is important to emphasize that the concept of a "Palestinian" as a noun to describe the local Arab residents was invented by the Arabs AFTER the declaration of the state of Israel. This group of Arabs, who started calling themselves "the Palestinian nation" after 1948, does not have an original name in their native Arabic language. None of these Arabs know what is their name in Arabic.
If there is anyone who believes that a "Palestinian" nation ever existed before the end of the British mandate and the founding of the state of Israel, would they please be kind enough to answer when was it founded and by whom? What was its name in Arabic? (not in Latin/ English) What was its form of government? What were its borders? Name one top "Palestinian" leader before Arafat? Which country ever recognized its existence and when? In which library or museum can we find any of its literature, coins, or historical artifacts? The answer to all these questions is "nil".
+1949 to +1961
About 820,000 Jewish refugees have relocated out of the Arab/Muslim countries. About 560,000 of them returned to the Land of Israel and 260,000 moved to other countries.They left behind all their property - land, houses, and personal belongings which were confiscated by the Muslim governments and by their Muslim neighbors.
About 35,000 Jews from Poland returned to the Land of Israel.
Yassir Arafat founded the Al-Fatah terror organization, the precursor to the PLO, in Kuwait.
The "Six Day" war. Jordan decided to attack Israel on day 3 of the war. Jordan lost the war and Israel liberated the remainder of Jerusalem, the area of Temple Mount, and the area known as Judea and Samaria or "the West Bank". Israel also liberated part of the Golan Heights.
+1969 to +1973
More than 150,000 Jews from the Soviet Union returned to the Land of Israel.
Israel and Jordan signed a peace treaty. The treaty normalized relations between the two countries and resolved territorial disputes between them. They agreed that in the "West Bank" area, the border between the two countries will be the Jordan river. There never was and there is no other country in the area between Israel and Jordan.
Jews continue to return to the Land of Israel from all over the world. The exile of the Jews from the Land of Israel by their enemies, following the destruction of the second Holy Temple in Jerusalem in year +70 has spread the Jews all over the world. Now it is time for the Jews to return to their ancient homeland - The Holy Land - The Land of Israel. Now, it is only a matter of time until the third Holy Temple in Jerusalem is rebuilt on the site of the first and the second Holy Temples - the site which was purchased for that purposed by King David.
The age of crusades
Official papal crusades began in the 11th century. Islam had spread far and wide to formerly Christian lands in the Near East and North Africa in the seventh century, and to the Iberian Peninsula in the eighth. By the late 11th century, Europe was enjoying a period of economic strength, and the papacy had asserted its power following a series of important reforms. Buoyed by a resurgence in pilgrimage across Europe, the Catholic Church wanted to expand. The blessing of Pope Urban II in 1095 launched the First Crusade, a bid to retake the Holy Land, the following summer. (The Knights Templar got their start—and lots of money—during the Crusades.)
The Christian alliance took Jerusalem from the Fatimid Muslims in 1099 and established the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Over the next two centuries, seven crusades followed in an attempt to retain control in the Holy Land. Muslim retaliation would prove too strong, however, and the last European crusader stronghold would fall to the Mamluks in 1291. The most well known Crusades were these large expeditions to the Holy Land, but there were other military missions in Europe that roused the faithful. In the early 1200s, Pope Innocent III proclaimed two “local” European crusades: One was the struggle against Almohad Muslim rulers in Spain the other was the campaign to destroy Catharism, a Christian heresy popular in southern France. Both these local and distant holy wars stirred up religious fervor among commoners in Europe, in turn sparking a series of “popular” crusades.
Both the Parker and Peterborough versions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 793 record the Old English name for Lindisfarne, Lindisfarena. 
In the 9th century Historia Brittonum the island appears under its Old Welsh name Medcaut.  The philologist Andrew Breeze, following up on a suggestion by Richard Coates, proposes that the name ultimately derives from Latin Medicata [Insula] (English: "Healing [Island]"), owing perhaps to the island's reputation for medicinal herbs.  
The soubriquet "Holy Island" was in use by the 11th century when it appears in Latin as 'Insula Sacra'. The reference was to Saints Aidan and Cuthbert. 
In the present day, 'Holy Island' is the name of the civil parish  and native inhabitants are known as 'Islanders'. The Ordnance Survey uses 'Holy Island' for both the island and the village, with 'Lindisfarne' listed either as an alternative name for the island  or as a name of 'non-Roman antiquity'.  "Locally the island is rarely referred to by its Anglo-Saxon name of 'Lindisfarne'" (according to the local community website).  More widely, the two names are used somewhat interchangeably.  'Lindisfarne' is invariably used when referring to the pre-conquest monastic settlement, the Priory ruins  and the Castle.  The combined phrase 'The Holy Island of Lindisfarne' has begun to be used more frequently in recent times, particularly when promoting the island as a tourist or pilgrim destination.  
The name 'Lindisfarne' has an uncertain origin. The -farne part of the name may be Old English –fearena meaning "traveller".  The first part, Lindis-, may refer to people from the Kingdom of Lindsey in modern Lincolnshire, referring to either regular visitors or settlers.     Another possibility is that 'Lindisfarne' is Brittonic in origin, containing the element Lind- meaning "stream or pool" (Welsh llyn),  with the nominal morpheme -as(t) and an unknown element identical to that in the Farne Islands.  Further suggested is that the name may be a wholly Old Irish formation, from corresponding lind-is-, plus –fearann meaning "land, domain, territory".  Such an Irish formation, however, could have been based on a pre-existing Brittonic name. 
There is also a supposition that the nearby Farne Islands are fern-like in shape and the name may have come from there. 
The island of Lindisfarne is located along the northeast coast of England, close to the border with Scotland. It measures 3.0 miles (4.8 km) from east to west and 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from north to south, and comprises approximately 1,000 acres (400 hectares) at high tide. The nearest point to the mainland is about 0.8 miles (1.3 kilometres). It is accessible at low tide by a modern causeway and an ancient pilgrims' path that run over sand and mudflats and which are covered with water at high tide. Lindisfarne is surrounded by the 8,750-acre (3,540-hectare) Lindisfarne National Nature Reserve, which protects the island's sand dunes and the adjacent intertidal habitats. As of 27 March 2011 [update] , the island had a population of 180. 
A February 2020 report provided an update on the island. At the time, three pubs and a hotel were operating the store had closed but the post office remained in operation. No professional or medical services were available and residents were driving to Berwick-upon-Tweed for groceries and other supplies. Points of interest for visitors included Lindisfarne Castle operated by the National Trust,  the priory, the historic church, the nature reserve and the beaches. At certain times of year, numerous migratory birds can be seen. 
Causeway safety Edit
Warning signs urge visitors walking to the island to keep to the marked path, to check tide times and weather carefully, and to seek local advice if in doubt. For drivers, tide tables are prominently displayed at both ends of the causeway and also where the Holy Island road leaves the A1 Great North Road at Beal. The causeway is generally open from about three hours after high tide until two hours before the next high tide, but the period of closure may be extended during stormy weather. Tide tables giving the safe crossing periods are published by Northumberland County Council. 
Despite these warnings, about one vehicle each month is stranded on the causeway, requiring rescue by HM Coastguard and/or Seahouses RNLI lifeboat. A sea rescue costs approximately £1,900 (quoted in 2009, equivalent to £2,570 in 2019 [a] ), while an air rescue costs more than £4,000 (also quoted in 2009, equivalent to £5,400 in 2019 [a] ).  Local people have opposed a causeway barrier primarily on convenience grounds.  
The north-east of England was largely not settled by Roman civilians apart from the Tyne valley and Hadrian's Wall. The area had been little affected during the centuries of nominal Roman occupation. The countryside had been subject to raids from both Scots and Picts and was "not one to attract early Germanic settlement".  King Ida (reigned from 547) started the sea-borne settlement of the coast, establishing an urbis regia (meaning "royal settlement") at Bamburgh across the bay from Lindisfarne. The conquest was not straightforward, however. The Historia Brittonum recounts how, in the 6th century, Urien, prince of Rheged, with a coalition of North British kingdoms, besieged Angles led by Theodric of Bernicia on the island for three days and nights, until internal power struggles led to the Britons' defeat.  
Lindisfarne Priory Edit
The monastery of Lindisfarne was founded around 634 by Irish monk Saint Aidan, who had been sent from Iona off the west coast of Scotland to Northumbria at the request of King Oswald. The priory was founded before the end of 634 and Aidan remained there until his death in 651.  The priory remained the only seat of a bishopric in Northumbria for nearly thirty years.  Finian (bishop 651–661) built a timber church "suitable for a bishop's seat".  St Bede, however, was critical of the fact that the church was not built of stone but only of hewn oak thatched with reeds. A later bishop, Eadbert, removed the thatch and covered both walls and roof in lead.  An abbot, who could be the bishop, was elected by the brethren and led the community. Bede comments on this:
And let no one be surprised that, though we have said above that in this island of Lindisfarne, small as it is, there is found the seat of a bishop, now we say also that it is the home of an abbot and monks for it actually is so. For one and the same dwelling-place of the servants of God holds both and indeed all are monks. Aidan, who was the first bishop of this place, was a monk and always lived according to monastic rule together with all his followers. Hence all the bishops of that place up to the present time exercise their episcopal functions in such a way that the abbot, who they themselves have chosen by the advice of the brethren, rules the monastery and all the priests, deacons, singers and readers and other ecclesiastical grades, together with the bishop himself, keep the monastic rule in all things. 
Lindisfarne became the base for Christian evangelism in the North of England, and also sent a successful mission to Mercia. Monks from the Irish community of Iona settled on the island. Northumbria's patron saint, Saint Cuthbert, was a monk and later abbot of the monastery, and his miracles and life are recorded by the Venerable Bede. Cuthbert later became Bishop of Lindisfarne. An anonymous life of Cuthbert written at Lindisfarne is the oldest extant piece of English historical writing. From its reference to "Aldfrith, who now reigns peacefully", it is considered to date to between 685 and 704.  Cuthbert was buried here, his remains later translated to Durham Cathedral (along with the relics of Saint Eadfrith of Lindisfarne). Eadberht of Lindisfarne, the next bishop (and later saint), was buried in the place from which Cuthbert's body was exhumed earlier the same year, when the priory was abandoned in the late 9th century.
Cuthbert's body was carried with the monks, eventually settling in Chester-le-Street before a final move to Durham. The saint's shrine was the major pilgrimage centre for much of the region until its despoliation by Henry VIII's commissioners in 1539 or 1540. The grave was preserved, however, and when opened in 1827 yielded a number of artefacts dating back to Lindisfarne. The innermost of three coffins was of incised wood, the only decorated wood to survive from the period. It shows Jesus surrounded by the Four Evangelists. Within the coffin was a pectoral cross measuring 6.4 centimetres (2.5 in) across, made of gold and mounted with garnets and intricate designs a comb, made of elephant ivory, was also found, an item that would have been exceedingly rare and expensive in Northern England, as well as an embossed, silver-covered travelling altar, all of which were contemporary with the original burial on the island. The most impressive find within the coffins was a gospel (known as the St Cuthbert Gospel or Stonyhurst Gospel from its association with Stonyhurst College): the manuscript, a relatively early and likely original one, was bound with embossed leather.  When the body was placed in the shrine in 1104, other items were removed: a paten, scissors and a chalice of gold and onyx.
Following Finian's death, Colman became Bishop of Lindisfarne. Up to this point the Northumbrian (and latterly Mercian) churches had looked to Lindisfarne as the mother church. There were significant liturgical and theological differences with the fledgling Roman party based at Canterbury. According to Stenton: "There is no trace of any intercourse between these bishops [the Mercians] and the see of Canterbury".  The Synod of Whitby in 663 changed this, as allegiance switched southwards to Canterbury and then to Rome. Colman departed his see for Iona, and Lindisfarne no longer held its previous importance.
In 735, the northern ecclesiastical province of England was established, with the archbishopric at York. There were only three bishops under York: Hexham, Lindisfarne and Whithorn, whereas Canterbury had the 12 envisaged by St Augustine.  The Diocese of York roughly encompassed the counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire. Hexham covered County Durham and the southern part of Northumberland up to the River Coquet, and eastwards into the Pennines. Whithorn covered most of Dumfries and Galloway region west of Dumfries itself. The remainder, Cumbria, northern Northumbria, Lothian and much of the Kingdom of Strathclyde formed the diocese of Lindisfarne. 
In 737, Saint Ceolwulf of Northumbria abdicated as King of Northumbria and entered the priory at Lindisfarne. He died in 764 and was buried alongside Cuthbert. In 830, his body was moved to Norham-upon-Tweed, and later his head was translated to Durham Cathedral. 
Lindisfarne Gospels Edit
At some point in the early 8th century, the now-famous illuminated manuscript known as the Lindisfarne Gospels, an illustrated Latin copy of the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, was made, probably at Lindisfarne, with the artist possibly being Eadfrith, who later became Bishop of Lindisfarne. It is also speculated that a team of illuminators and calligraphers (monks of Lindisfarne Priory) worked on the text however, their identities are unknown. Sometime in the second half of the 10th century, a monk named Aldred added an Anglo-Saxon (Old English) gloss to the Latin text, producing the earliest surviving Old English copies of the Gospels. Aldred attributed the original to Eadfrith (bishop 698–721). The Gospels were written with a good hand, but it is the illustrations, done in an insular style containing a fusion of Celtic, Germanic and Roman elements, that are considered to be of the most value. According to Aldred, Eadfrith's successor Æthelwald was responsible for pressing and binding it, before it was then covered with a fine metal case made by a hermit known as Billfrith.  The Lindisfarne Gospels now reside in the British Library in London, a location which has caused some controversy amongst some Northumbrians.  In 1971, professor Suzanne Kaufman of Rockford, Illinois presented a facsimile copy of the Gospels to the clergy of the island.
In 793, a Viking raid on Lindisfarne  [b] caused much consternation throughout the Christian west, and is now often taken as the beginning of the Viking Age. There had been some other Viking raids, but according to English Heritage this one was particularly significant, because "it attacked the sacred heart of the Northumbrian kingdom, desecrating 'the very place where the Christian religion began in our nation'". 
The D and E versions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle record:
Her wæron reðe forebecna cumene ofer Norðhymbra land, ⁊ þæt folc earmlic bregdon, þæt wæron ormete þodenas ⁊ ligrescas, ⁊ fyrenne dracan wæron gesewene on þam lifte fleogende. Þam tacnum sona fyligde mycel hunger, ⁊ litel æfter þam, þæs ilcan geares on .vi. Idus Ianuarii, earmlice hæþenra manna hergunc adilegode Godes cyrican in Lindisfarnaee þurh hreaflac ⁊ mansliht. 
In this year fierce, foreboding omens came over the land of the Northumbrians, and the wretched people shook there were excessive whirlwinds, lightning, and fiery dragons were seen flying in the sky. These signs were followed by great famine, and a little after those, that same year on 6th ides of January, the ravaging of wretched heathen men destroyed God's church at Lindisfarne.
The generally accepted date for the Viking raid on Lindisfarne is in fact 8 June Michael Swanton writes: "vi id Ianr, presumably [is] an error for vi id Iun (8 June) which is the date given by the Annals of Lindisfarne (p. 505), when better sailing weather would favour coastal raids."  [c]
Alcuin, a Northumbrian scholar in Charlemagne's court at the time, wrote:
Never before has such terror appeared in Britain as we have now suffered from a pagan race . The heathens poured out the blood of saints around the altar, and trampled on the bodies of saints in the temple of God, like dung in the streets. 
During the attack many of the monks were killed, or captured and enslaved.  As the English population became more settled, they seemed to have turned their back on the sea. Many monasteries were established on islands, peninsulas, river mouths and cliffs, as isolated communities were less susceptible to interference and the politics of the heartland. 
These preliminary raids, despite their brutal nature, were not followed up. The main body of the raiders passed north around Scotland.  The 9th century invasions came not from Norway, but from the Danes from around the entrance to the Baltic.  The first Danish raids into England were in the Isle of Sheppey, Kent during 835 and from there their influence spread north.  During this period religious art continued to flourish on Lindisfarne, and the Liber Vitae of Durham began in the priory. 
By 866, the Danes were in York, and in 873 the army was moving into Northumberland.  With the collapse of the Northumbrian kingdom, the monks of Lindisfarne fled the island in 875 taking with them St Cuthbert's bones (which are now buried at the cathedral in Durham),  who during his life had been prior and bishop of Lindisfarne his body was buried on the island in the year 698. 
Prior to the 9th century, Lindisfarne Priory had, in common with other such establishments, held large tracts of land which were managed directly or leased to farmers with a life interest only. Following the Danish occupation, land was increasingly owned by individuals, and could be bought, sold and inherited. Following the Battle of Corbridge in 914 Ragnald seized the land giving some to his followers Scula and Onlafbal. 
Middle Ages Edit
William of St Calais, the first Norman Bishop of Durham, endowed his new Benedictine monastery at Durham with land and property in Northumberland, including Holy Island and much of the surrounding mainland. Durham Priory re-established a monastic house on the island in 1093, as a cell of Durham, administered from Norham.  The standing remains date from this time (whereas the site of the original priory is now occupied by the parish church).
Monastic records from the 14th to the 16th century provide evidence of an already well-established fishing economy on the island.  Both line fishing and net fishing were practised, inshore in shallow waters and in the deep water offshore, using a variety of vessels: contemporary accounts differentiate between small 'cobles' and larger 'boats', as well as singling out certain specialised vessels (such as a 'herynger', sold for £2 in 1404).  As well as supplying food for the monastic community, the island's fisheries (together with those of nearby Farne) provided the mother house at Durham with fish, on a regular (sometimes weekly) basis. Fish caught included cod, haddock, herring, salmon, porpoise and mullet, among others. Shellfish of various types were also fished for, with lobster nets and oyster dredges being mentioned in the accounts. Fish surplus to the needs of the monastery was traded, but subject to a tithe. There is also evidence that the monks operated a lime kiln on the island. 
In 1462, during the Wars of the Roses, Margaret of Anjou made an abortive attempt to seize the Northumbrian castles. Following a storm at sea 400 troops had to seek shelter on Holy Island, where they surrendered to the Yorkists. 
The Benedictine monastery continued until its suppression in 1536 under Henry VIII, after which the buildings surrounding the church were used as a naval storehouse.  In 1613 ownership of the island (and other land in the area formerly pertaining to Durham Priory) was transferred to the Crown.
An early scholarly description of the priory was compiled by Dr Henry George Charles Clarke (presumed son of Admiral Sir Erasmus Gower)  in 1838 during his term as president of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club.  Dr Clarke surmised that this Norman priory was unique in that the centre aisle had a vault of stone. Of the six arches, Dr Clarke stated "as if the architect had not previously calculated the space to be occupied by his arcade. The effect here has been to produce a horse-shoe instead of a semicircular arch, from its being of the same height, but lesser span, than the others. This arch is very rare, even in Norman buildings". The Lindisfarne Priory (ruin) is a grade I listed building, List Entry Number 1042304.  Other parts of the priory are a Scheduled ancient monument, List Entry Number 1011650. The latter are described as "the site of the pre-Conquest monastery of Lindisfarne and the Benedictine cell of Durham Cathedral that succeeded it in the 11th century". 
Recent work by archeologists was continuing in 2019, for the fourth year. Artifacts recovered included a rare board game piece,  copper-alloy rings and Anglo-Saxon coins from both Northumbria and Wessex. The discovery of a cemetery led to finding commemorative markers "unique to the 8th and 9th centuries". The group also found evidence of an early medieval building, "which seems to have been constructed on top of an even earlier industrial oven" which was used to make copper or glass. 
St. Mary the Virgin Edit
When the abbey was rebuilt by the Normans, the site was moved. The site of the original priory church was redeveloped in stone as the parish church. As such it is now the oldest building on the island still with a roof on. Remains of the Saxon church exist as the chancel wall and arch. A Norman apse (subsequently replaced in the 13th century) led eastwards from the chancel. The nave was extended in the 12th century with a northern arcade, and in the following century with a southern arcade.
After the Reformation the church slipped into disrepair until the restoration of 1860. The church is built of coloured sandstone which has had the Victorian plaster removed from it. The north aisle is known as the "fishermen's aisle" and houses the altar of St. Peter. The south aisle used to hold the altar of St. Margaret of Scotland, but now houses the organ. 
The church is a Grade I listed building number 1042304, listed as part of the whole priory.  The church forms most of the earliest part of the site and is a scheduled ancient monument number 1011650. 
For several years in the late 20th century (c. 1980
1990), religious author and cleric David Adam ministered to thousands of pilgrims and other visitors as rector of Holy Island.
Lindisfarne Castle Edit
Lindisfarne Castle was built in 1550, around the time that Lindisfarne Priory went out of use, and stones from the priory were used as building material. It is very small by the usual standards, and was more of a fort. The castle sits on the highest point of the island, a whinstone hill called Beblowe.
After Henry VIII suppressed the priory, his troops used the remains as a naval store. In 1542 Henry VIII ordered the Earl of Rutland to fortify the site against possible Scottish invasion. Sir John Harington and the Master Mason of Berwick started to plan to build two earth bulwarks, although the Rutland advised the use of stone from the abbey.  In September 1544 a Scottish fleet led by John Barton in the Mary Willoughby theatened the English coast. It was thought the Scottish ships might try to burn Lindisfarne, so orders were given to repair the old decayed bulwark or blockhouse at Holy Island. 
By December 1547, Ralph Cleisbye, Captain of the fort, had guns including a wheel-mounted demi-culverin, two brass sakers, a falcon, and another fixed demi-culverin.  However, Beblowe Crag itself was not fortified until 1549 and Sir Richard Lee saw only a decayed platform and turf rampart there in 1565. Elizabeth I then had work carried out on the fort, strengthening it and providing gun platforms for the new developments in artillery technology. When James VI and I came to power in England, he combined the Scottish and English thrones, and the need for the castle declined. At that time the castle was still garrisoned from Berwick and protected the small Lindisfarne Harbour.
During the Jacobite Rising of 1715, Lancelot Errington, one of a number of locals who supported the Jacobite cause, visited the castle. Some sources say that he asked the Master Gunner, who also served as the unit's barber, for a shave.  Once Errington was inside, it became clear that most of the garrison were away later that day he returned with his nephew Mark Errington, claiming that he had lost the key to his watch.  They were allowed in, overpowered the three soldiers present, and claimed the castle as a landing site for the Jacobite group led by Thomas Forster, Member of Parliament for the county of Northumberland.  Reinforcements did not arrive to support the Erringtons, so when a detachment of 100 men arrived from Berwick to retake the castle they were only able to hold out for one day. Fleeing, they were captured at the tollbooth at Berwick and imprisoned, but were later able to tunnel out of their gaol and escape. 
Trinity House operates two light beacons (which it lists as lighthouses) to guide vessels entering Holy Island Harbour. Until 1 November 1995 both were operated by Newcastle-upon-Tyne Trinity House (a separate corporation, which formerly had responsibility for navigation marks along the coast from Berwick-upon-Tweed to Whitby). On that day, responsibility for marking the approach to the harbour was assumed by the London-based Corporation. 
Heugh Hill Light is a metal framework tower with a black triangular day mark, situated on Heugh Hill (a ridge on the south edge of Lindisfarne). Prior to its installation, a wooden beacon with a triangle topmark had stood on the centre of Heugh Hill for many decades.  Nearby is a former coastguard station, recently refurbished and opened to the public as a viewing platform. An adjacent ruin is known as the Lantern Chapel its origin is unknown, but the name may indicate an earlier navigation light on this site.
Guile Point East and Guile Point West are a pair of stone obelisks standing on a small tidal island on the other side of the channel. The obelisks are leading marks which, when aligned, indicate the safe channel over the bar. When Heugh Hill bears 310° (in line with the church belfry) the bar is cleared and there is a clear run into the harbour.  The beacons were established in 1826 by Newcastle-upon-Tyne Trinity House (in whose ownership they remain). Since the early 1990s, a sector light has been fixed about one-third of the way up Guile Point East. 
Not a lighthouse but simply a daymark for maritime navigation, a white brick pyramid, 35 feet high and built in 1810, stands at Emmanuel Head, the north-eastern point of Lindisfarne. It is said to be Britain's earliest purpose-built daymark. 
(Early) Knights Hospitaller: 10 Things You Should Know
Often counted among the better known medieval Christian military orders, the Knights Hospitallers or the Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (‘ Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani’ in Latin) were the older than both Templars and the Teutonic Knights. And unlike the latter two orders, the Hospitallers maintained their bulwark against the ascendant Islamic realms (like Mamluks and Ottomans) long after the decline of the Christian military presence in the Levant. So without further ado, let us take a gander at ten things one should know about the Knights Hospitaller or the Order of Saint John.
Note* – In this article, we will mainly focus on the military and organizational structure of the Hospitallers till the late 13th century. After the fall of Acre (circa 1291 AD), the Knights Hospitaller shifted to the island Rhodes and thereafter were better known as the Knights of Rhodes.
1) Preceding the Crusades –
Unlike their ‘rivals’ like the famed Templars and Teutonic Order, the Hospitallers as an order (Order of St John of the Hospital of Jerusalem) existed before the commencement of the First Crusade in 1099 AD. Its original patrons pertained to a few Italian merchants hailing from the Amalfi coast – who formed the charitable organization (possibly by circa mid 11th century) as means to provide aid to the traveling Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land, incredibly after obtaining the required permits from the Egyptian Fatimid sultan.
By the penultimate decade of the 11th century, the institution rather thrived under the leadership of the Benedectine monks from the Church of Santa Maria Latina, which led to the establishment of two separate hospices in Jerusalem – one for men and the other for women.
After the First Crusade, the network of hospitals was expanded upon under favorable conditions put forth by the Crusader overlords of Jerusalem and the surrounding areas. Essentially, the religious orders, especially the Hospitallers, were given free rein to take over other hospitals and logistical centers in the region, with the growing influence of the French who superseded the Italians. Consequently, the Hospitallers became more autonomous in nature and their endeavors gradually delved into other affairs that went beyond caring for the sick.
To that end, it was only in the latter half of the 12th century that the Hospitallers began to gradually expand into military spheres, possibly inspired by the Templars who were originally formed to protect the Christian pilgrims from local bandits. The Papacy rather encouraged this ‘new found’ martial side to the religious orders, given the latter’s decades of experience in organizational capacity and logistical management in the Holy Land.
Thus a religious veneer was applied to the ‘warrior-monks’ and their (often remarkably courageous and sometimes excessively brutal) feats were perceived and advertised as ‘acts of love’. As for the Knights Hospitaller, their extended military arm helped them to bolster their autonomous political and economic domains not only in the Outremer and the Levant but also across Europe.
2) The Multifarious Nationalities of the Knights Hospitaller –Source: About-History
The typical profile of a would-be ‘warrior monk’ of the Knights Hospitaller in the Outremer pertained to a young (and mostly fit) man who generally came from a free background. That is not to say that all of these men were of noble birth, especially in the 12th century. The majority of the members hailed from continental France and also England, while the Hospitallers also widely recruited from the regions of Bohemia and Hungary.
Pertaining to the latter, the ordinary brethren tended to be composed of the native Hungarians, Croats, Bosnians, and even German settlers, while the leadership positions were often taken by the French and Italians. Interestingly enough, in the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal), which sort of formed the second front against Islamic realms, the Knights Hospitaller formed their own self-governing units usually commanded by members of native ethnicity.
As we can comprehend from the list of these regions, the realms of Germany proper (‘Holy Roman Empire’) are conspicuously missing. That is because the free populace of these areas rather preferred the native Teutonic Order since the Hospitallers were perceived as being too ‘French’ and also close to the Papacy (at a time when German emperors were at loggerheads with the Vatican).
In any case, it should be noted that by the latter half of the 13th century, membership to the Knights Hospitallers was restricted, with recruitment drives mostly focused on young men who came from noble and knightly ranks. This perhaps had to do with the practical reason involving large financial donations brought forth by the rich recruits upon their initiation into the religious order.
3) The Motivation To Join Ranks –
Now considering the monastic and relatively strict (and dangerous) lifestyle of the military order members like Knights Hospitaller, the question can be raised – why did free men join their ranks in the first place? The answer to that is, instead of viewing it through the lens of our modern-day sensibility, one should understand the societal and economic structure of feudal Europe in the 12th century.
To that end, as we discussed in our article about the Templars, the ordinary Hospitaller brethren (non-knightly members) had varying reasons to join the reclusive ranks. Usually hailing from somewhat poorer sections of the society, many joined to simply provide themselves with timely meals on a daily basis, while others looked on it as career opportunities where they could achieve a military rank (and the perks and rations that went along with it).
A few others, the most desperate (and illiterate ones) simply took the gamble to be ‘martyrs’ – pertaining to a glorious death on the battlefield against the ‘infidels’. According to their beliefs, aided by propaganda, this would release them from their uncertain lives (that in middle ages were usually cut short by diseases or starvation), and gain them ‘direct access’ to heaven.
And as for the higher ranking Hospitaller members, in the initial years, many of these knights possibly wanted to escape their personal tragedies over at home, like the death of their loved ones. Others joined the Order as penance for their presumed sins, while some of the knights also seriously believed in the ‘core’ cause of the Hospitallers and Templars – to protect Christian pilgrims in the Holy Land and wage war against the ‘non-believers’. One could also not discount the few wealthy crusading knights who tended to mix their sense of adventure and piety and enthusiastically embarked upon the Holy Land.
And in spite of all these hypothetical motivations, one should understand that medieval Christian military orders always tended the face shortage of manpower, especially the fighting men. This led to some stricter measures advocated by the Knights Hospitaller who didn’t permit any member to voluntarily leave their order once they were initiated (though there were rare episodes where rich members illegally bought their way out).
4) The Knights of Knights Hospitaller?
Illustration by Christa Hook
As we fleetingly mentioned in the last entry, not all members of the Knights Hospitallers were knights (thus somewhat mirroring the structure of Knights Templar and Teutonic Order). And while in the earlier years (circa 12th century AD), all Hospitallers were equitably called brothers, the 13th century and its more stringent feudal setup also reflected in the changing hierarchy of the orders.
Thus the core fighting force of the Hospitallers was mainly divided into the knights and the brother-sergeants-at-arms (also known as the caravaniers ). These caravaniers were highly effective soldiers yet perceived as having a lower status than the knights. The non-military counterparts to the middle-ranked caravaniers were the brother-sergeants-at-service who formed the administrative and clerical backbone of the Knights Hospitaller. And finally, the largest (yet with the lowest status) group within the Hospitallers pertained to the simple sergeants who carried out the menial tasks.
There were also complementary groups associated with the Hospitallers, including the donats – rich noblemen who financed their own military expeditions to the Holy Land and were inducted into the order ranks as sort of honorary members and the confraters – well-off nobles tasked with defending Hospitaller convents and residences but not counted among the brethren of the order.
5) The Alleged ‘Ancient’ Legacy –The Triumph of Judas Maccabeus by Peter Paul Rubens, c.1635.
Now while as organizations the Crusader military orders like Knights Hospitaller and Knights Templar were clearly founded during the medieval times, the propaganda machine (or at least its medieval equivalent) presented them as rather ‘ancient’ institutions that always had their millennium-old roots in the vicinity of the perceived Holy Land. In the case of the Templars, their very (official) name Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon’ (or Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici in Latin) referred to the ancient and mystical Temple of Solomon.
As for the Hospitallers, there were some legends that suggested how the order was existent during the time of the Apostles and the reign of the first Roman Emperor Augustus. Other fables and related anecdotes put the brotherhood even further back in time, with some claiming how Judah Maccabee ( Yehudah ha-Makabi in Hebrew), the Jewish priest who lead the successful Maccabean revolt against the Seleucids (circa 167–160 BC), was a popular patron of the hospital in Jerusalem. Other exalted figures in Christianity, like John the Baptist and Jesus Christ, were mentioned as visitors to the establishment in the following centuries.
6) The Religious Enthusiasm And Discipline –
Of course beyond abstract ancient connections, the Christian military orders also focused on the sacred relics that directly inspired the martial psyche of many a medieval Crusader. One pertinent example in the case of the Knights Hospitallers would relate to a medieval gilded bronze reliquary exquisite crafted in the shape of a bishop’s miter that was found to contain bits of relics, including that of the True Cross and saints (originally discovered in 1893). Physical artifacts were complemented by poetry and hymns that sang the virtues of declaring war on the summa culpabilis – the ‘blameworthy’ of people.
Religious motivations aside, the success of the military orders like Templars and Hospitallers on battlefields directly pertained to their ingrained discipline. Simply put, while bouts of fanaticism were showcased (by both sides – Christians and Muslims during the Crusades), it was ultimately the sense of better military dedication and doughtiness that carried the day. Pertaining to the latter qualities, the Knights Hospitaller were renowned in Christian circles (and infamous in Muslim circles) for their uncompromising ideals, with directives like no Hospitaller castle could surrender, regardless of the number of defending forces, without the prior knowledge of the Chapter Master.
Relating to one such scenario, when the Knights Hospitaller castellan (a rank that entailed the commander of the order’s most important strategic castles) of the Krak des Chevaliers died in circa 1170 AD, Ali Ibn al-Athir, the contemporary Arab (or Kurdish) historian wrote in a succinct manner (as referenced in Knights Hospitaller 1100-1306 By David Nicolle) – ‘[he had been] a man through his bravery, occupied an eminent position and who was like a bone stuck in the throats of Muslims’.
7) The ‘Simple’ Armor –
Illustration by Christa Hook
One of the cornerstones of the Knights Hospitaller belief system centered on simplicity, and this was mirrored by their guarnement or set of arms and armor. In essence, as opposed to the knightly ranks of Europe and even the Outremer, the Hospitallers (like their Templar contemporaries) tended to eschew decorative elements on their armor.
But that is not to say that their armor was of inferior quality on the contrary, the Hospitallers knights tended to import and thus pay a considerable sum for their heavier armor and protective gear from Europe (as opposed to the local Crusader States). To that end, many of the Order brethren and agents, dressed in their unassuming garb, were specifically sent to Europe (by chapters) to not only source better quality armor but also horses and other complementary military equipment.
In terms of actual gear, the armor system for the Hospitallers knights translated to a heavy mail hauberk that was covered by their characteristic black robe and usually accompanied by a quilted aketon or gambeson underneath the mail. The protective extensions usually entailed a mail coif ( fort et turcoise ) for the head, cuisses for the thighs, and manicle de fer (or mail mittens) for the hands.
However, it should be noted that even high-ranking knights and caravaniers sometimes ditched their heavy mail hauberk during the summers, especially during brief forays and raids. Instead, they opted for the aforementioned gambesons or panceria (light mail armor). Some of the lower-ranked Hospitaller brothers, especially on the Iberian front, probably also preferred coirasses or leather armor.
8) The Various Arms –
Source: Kim (Flickr)
In the second half of the 13th century, it is estimated that the Knights Hospitaller had to spend 2,000 silver deniers to fully equip a knight, while a mounted caravanier (brother sergeant) was equipped with the cost of 1,500 deniers (at the turn of the 14th century). This included the cost of both armor and arms, with good quality swords alone costing around 50 deniers, while well-crafted helmets accounted for over 30 deniers.
Nevertheless, swords were perceived as very important weapons by medieval European knights – partly because of their forms that insinuated Christian symbolism. Simply put, the typical sword resembled the cruciform with the crossguard cutting a right angle across the grip which extends into the blade. Such imagery must have played its psychological role in bolstering the morale of many spiritual Hospitaller knights and brothers.
However, on the practical level, the most effective weapon for the Hospitaller knight probably pertained to the cavalry lance (usually 10 ft in length), with its sturdy shaft usually made from hardy spruce. The supporting infantry brethren made use of a variety of other weapons, including axes, maces (grudgingly adopted from their Muslim foes), and guisarmes (long hafted variants of axes).
9) The Charge of the Knights Hospitaller –
The ‘tour de force’ of the Knights Hospitallers, like their Templar contemporaries, arguably related to the capacity for fighting and organizational skills during the early medieval Crusades. But oddly enough, there were no specific instructions dedicated to martial training and pursuits, at least when it came to the Rule of the Templars (a codified statute approved by the Pope himself). This was probably because the warrior-brothers who joined the Knights Hospitaller and Knights Templar ranks were already expected to have some experience in fighting and tactics – be it in horse-riding or wielding swords, couched lances and spears from horseback (or dismounted positions).
Interestingly, some regulations also allude to the use of rather ‘exotic’ non-knightly weapons such as crossbows – that were fired from both horseback and on foot. Furthermore, the Hospitallers, like Templars, also employed mercenaries like the famed Turcopoles (derived from the Greek: τουρκόπουλοι, meaning ‘sons of Turks’), who were mainly lightly armed cavalry and horse-archers usually comprising the local forces of Levant, like the Christianized Seljuqs and the Syrian Eastern Orthodox Christians.
Now beyond training and mercenaries, it was the devastating charge of the knights that brought them renown throughout the Holy Land. From that scope, it can be assumed that the Knights Hospitaller, like Templars, were experts in the tight-packed eschielle (squadron) and charging into their enemies in wedged formations. And while this maneuver seems simple in theory, it must have required high levels of discipline and organizational skill to actually make it work on a battlefield against a formidable foe. In fact, such degrees of discipline contrast with their secular Western European counterparts, who were more prone to individualistic glory on the battlefield as opposed to dedicated ‘teamwork’.
Interestingly enough, even from the Muslim side, the heavy cavalry of the ‘Franks’ (entailing the knights of both the Crusader States and Christian military orders) were seen as a potent threat on the battlefield – so much so that Muslim warriors (especially archers) were trained to target the horse underneath the knight. Abu Shama, a 13th-century Islamic scholar (and author of Kitāb al-rawḍatayn fī akhbār al-dawlatayn: al-Nūrīyah wa-al-Ṣalāhīyah – focused on the history during the reign of Nūr al-Dīn Zangī and Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn), noted after the Battle of Hattin (sourced from Knights Hospitaller 1100-1306 By David Nicolle) –
A Frankish knight, as long as his horse was in good condition, could not be knocked down. Covered with mail from head to toe, which made him look like a block of iron, the most violent blows make no impression on him. But once his horse was killed, the knight was thrown and taken prisoner. Consequently, though we counted them [Crusader prisoners] by the thousand, there were no horses amongst the spoils whereas the knights were unhurt.
10) The Practicality of Tactics and Strategy –
It can also be hypothesized that the Hospitallers (once again, like the Templars) were more organized simply because of their reactionary measure to counter the superior mobility and tactics of the Muslim armies. Moreover, it should also be noted that many of the knights who joined the Order were already experienced veterans when it came to military careers. And even on the tactical level, the Crusaders armies relied more on coordination between their different contingents and troops-types, like the ‘partnership’ system between the heavy cavalry, infantry, and crossbowmen, who planned and progressed together to keep the mounted foes at bay.
This was in contrast to western Europe where the nobility and knights paved the tactical outcomes for the supporting armies in many battles. To that end, the heavy cavalry forces of the Crusaders tended to be smaller, and these ‘curtailed’ groups practiced the habit of repeated charging and harassing, as opposed to a grandiosely conceived single massed charge. Also, in spite of their seemingly rigorous (and at times fanatical) military actions against their foes, the military commanders of the Knights Hospitaller were not delusional about their (precarious) position in the Levant, especially in the late 13th century.
In that regard, Acre – the bastion of the Crusader States, fell in 1291 AD to the ascendant Mamluks. Consequently, the Hospitaller think-tank practically shifted their attention to naval pursuits instead of wasting their severely depleted resources on a land-based military expedition to retake the Holy Land. This strategic decision paved the way for the Knights Hospitaller to shift their base to ‘offshore’ locations – initially Cyprus and then Rhodes (which further shifted to Malta in the 16th century), thus essentially ensuring their politically autonomous survival till the Napoleonic Era.
The outcome also made the Hospitallers, known in the 14th century as the Knights of Rhodes, a moderately successful naval power that staved off two full-fledged invasions from the Islamic realms (both Mamluks and Ottomans) and acted as the first line of Christian defense against the infamous Barbary pirates.
Book References: Knights Hospitaller 1100-1306 (By David Nicolle) / The Knights Hospitaller in the Levant, c.1070-1309 (By Jonathan Riley-Smith)
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Were there buttons in the Holy Land? - History
Welcome to Seetheholyland.net. We hope it will encourage you to go as a pilgrim to this place where three faiths believe God entered into a relationship with the human race.
For our purpose, the Holy Land encompasses the places in the Middle East that are mentioned in the Old and New Testaments. It includes Israel and Palestine, western Jordan, the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt and southern Syria.
Israel, the Occupied Territories and their neighbours (Howard Morland / Wikimedia)
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Seetheholyland.net is the retirement project of a journalist who has spent 50 years in secular and religious journalism, not in the Holy Land but on the opposite side of the world in New Zealand.
Pilgrims at the Grotto of the Nativity in Bethlehem (© Rob Hardie / Seetheholyland.net)
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The Major Crusades
Between the 11th and 13th centuries, seven major Crusades were launched by Christians in Europe against Muslims that were in control of the Holy Land. In addition to these major military campaigns to the East, the Latin Roman Catholic Church also sanctioned numerous minor Crusades against her enemies. These included the Albigensian Crusade (1208–1241), aimed at eradicating the Cathar heretics of southern France, and the Northern Crusades (1193–1290) against the pagans of Northern Europe. Yet, one of the most bizarre episodes in the history of the Crusades is perhaps the so-called ‘Children’s Crusade’, said to have taken place in 1212.
According to a 13th century source, the Chronica regia Coloniensis (‘Royal Chronicle of Cologne’), the Children’s Crusade began around Easter or Pentecost of 1212:
Many thousands of boys, ranging in age from six years to full maturity, left the plows or carts they were driving, the flocks which they were pasturing, and anything else which they were doing. This they did despite the wishes of their parents, relatives, and friends who sought to make them draw back. Suddenly one ran after another to take the cross. Thus, by groups of twenty, or fifty, or a hundred, they put up banners and began to journey to Jerusalem.
‘The Departure: An Episode of the Child's Crusade 13th Century’ by Joanna Mary Boyce ( Wikimedia Commons )
The children claimed that it was the will of the Divine that prompted them to undertake this Crusade. In spite of this, their expedition did not achieve its intention in the end, “Some were turned back at Metz, others at Piacenza, and others even at Rome. Still others got to Marseilles, but whether they crossed to the Holy Land or what their end was is uncertain.” The author ends the account on a grim note, “One thing is sure: that of the many thousands who rose up, only very few returned.”
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Templar, also called Knight Templar, member of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, a religious military order of knighthood established at the time of the Crusades that became a model and inspiration for other military orders. Originally founded to protect Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land, the order assumed greater military duties during the 12th century. Its prominence and growing wealth, however, provoked opposition from rival orders. Falsely accused of blasphemy and blamed for Crusader failures in the Holy Land, the order was destroyed by King Philip IV of France.
Following the success of the First Crusade (1095–99), a number of Crusader states were established in the Holy Land, but these kingdoms lacked the necessary military force to maintain more than a tenuous hold over their territories. Most Crusaders returned home after fulfilling their vows, and Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem suffered attacks from Muslim raiders. Pitying the plight of these Christians, eight or nine French knights led by Hugh de Payns vowed in late 1119 or early 1120 to devote themselves to the pilgrims’ protection and to form a religious community for that purpose. Baldwin II, king of Jerusalem, gave them quarters in a wing of the royal palace in the area of the former Temple of Solomon, and from this they derived their name.
Although the Templars were opposed by those who rejected the idea of a religious military order and later by those who criticized their wealth and influence, they were supported by many secular and religious leaders. Beginning in 1127, Hugh undertook a tour of Europe and was well received by many nobles, who made significant donations to the knights. The Templars obtained further sanction at the Council of Troyes in 1128, which may have requested that Bernard of Clairvaux compose the new rule. Bernard also wrote In Praise of the New Knighthood (c. 1136), which defended the order against its critics and contributed to its growth. In 1139 Pope Innocent II issued a bull that granted the order special privileges: the Templars were allowed to build their own oratories and were not required to pay the tithe they were also exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, being subject to the pope alone.
The rule of the order was modeled after the Benedictine Rule, especially as understood and implemented by the Cistercians. The Knights Templar swore an oath of poverty, chastity, and obedience and renounced the world, just as the Cistercians and other monks did. Like the monks, the Templars heard the divine office during each of the canonical hours of the day and were expected to honour the fasts and vigils of the monastic calendar. They were frequently found in prayer and expressed particular veneration to the Virgin Mary. They were not allowed to gamble, swear, or become drunk and were required to live in community, sleeping in a common dormitory and eating meals together. They were not, however, strictly cloistered, as were the monks, nor were they expected to perform devotional reading (most Templars were uneducated and unable to read Latin). The knights’ primary duty was to fight. The Templars gradually expanded their duties from protecting pilgrims to mounting a broader defense of the Crusader states in the Holy Land. They built castles, garrisoned important towns, and participated in battles, fielding significant contingents against Muslim armies until the fall of Acre, the last remaining Crusader stronghold in the Holy Land, in 1291. Their great effectiveness was attested by the sultan Saladin following the devastating defeat of Crusader forces at the Battle of Ḥaṭṭīn he bought the Templars who were taken prisoner and later had each of them executed.
By the mid-12th century the constitution of the order and its basic structure were established. It was headed by a grand master, who was elected for life and served in Jerusalem. Templar territories were divided into provinces, which were governed by provincial commanders, and each individual house, called a preceptory, was headed by a preceptor. General chapter meetings of all members of the order were held to address important matters affecting the Templars and to elect a new master when necessary. Similar meetings were held at the provincial level and on a weekly basis in each house.
The Templars were originally divided into two classes: knights and sergeants. The knight-brothers came from the military aristocracy and were trained in the arts of war. They assumed elite leadership positions in the order and served at royal and papal courts. Only the knights wore the Templars’ distinctive regalia, a white surcoat marked with a red cross. The sergeants, or serving-brothers, who were usually from lower social classes, made up the majority of members. They dressed in black habits and served as both warriors and servants. The Templars eventually added a third class, the chaplains, who were responsible for holding religious services, administering the sacraments, and addressing the spiritual needs of the other members. Although women were not allowed to join the order, there seems to have been at least one Templar nunnery.
The Templars eventually acquired great wealth. The kings and great nobles of Spain, France, and England gave lordships, castles, seigniories, and estates to the order, so that by the mid-12th century the Templars owned properties scattered throughout western Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Holy Land. The Templars’ military strength enabled them to safely collect, store, and transport bullion to and from Europe and the Holy Land, and their network of treasure storehouses and their efficient transport organization made them attractive as bankers to kings as well as to pilgrims to the Holy Land.
The Templars were not without enemies, however. They had long engaged in a bitter rivalry with the other great military order of Europe, the Hospitallers, and, by the late 13th century, proposals were being made to merge the two contentious orders into one. The fall of Acre to the Muslims in 1291 removed much of the Templars’ reason for being, and their great wealth, extensive landholdings in Europe, and power inspired resentment toward them. Although an ex-Templar had accused the order of blasphemy and immorality as early as 1304 (though more likely 1305), it was only later—after Philip IV ordered the arrest on October 13, 1307, of every Templar in France and sequestered all the Templars’ property in the country—that most of the people of Europe became aware of the extent of the alleged crimes of the order. Philip accused the Templars of heresy and immorality specific charges against them included idol worship (of a bearded male head said to have great powers), worship of a cat, homosexuality, and numerous other errors of belief and practice. At the order’s secret initiation rite, it was claimed, the new member denied Christ three times, spat on the crucifix, and was kissed on the base of the spine, on the navel, and on the mouth by the knight presiding over the ceremony. The charges, now recognized to be without foundation, were calculated to stoke contemporary fears of heretics, witches, and demons and were similar to allegations Philip had used against Pope Boniface VIII.
The reasons why Philip sought to destroy the Templars are unclear he may have genuinely feared their power and been motivated by his own piety to destroy a heretical group, or he may have simply seen an opportunity to seize their immense wealth, being chronically short of money himself. At any rate, Philip mercilessly pursued the order and had many of its members tortured to secure false confessions. Although Pope Clement V, himself a Frenchman, ordered the arrest of all the Templars in November 1307, a church council in 1311 voted overwhelmingly against suppression, and Templars in countries other than France were found innocent of the charges. Clement, however, under strong pressure from Philip, suppressed the order on March 22, 1312, and the Templars’ property throughout Europe was transferred to the Hospitallers or confiscated by secular rulers. Knights who confessed and were reconciled to the church were sent into retirement in the order’s former houses or in monasteries, but those who failed to confess or who relapsed were put on trial. Among those judged guilty was the order’s last grand master, Jacques de Molay. Brought before a commission established by the pope, de Molay and other leaders were judged relapsed heretics and sentenced to life in prison. The master protested and repudiated his confession and was burned at the stake, the last victim of a highly unjust and opportunistic persecution.
At the time of its destruction, the order was an important institution in both Europe and the Holy Land and already an object of myth and legend. The Templars were associated with the Grail legend and were identified as defenders of the Grail castle through the remainder of the Middle Ages. In the 18th century the Freemasons claimed to have received in a secret line of succession esoteric knowledge that the Templars had possessed. Later fraternal orders similarly invoked the Templar name to bolster claims of ancient or revealed wisdom. The Templars were also identified as gnostics and were accused of involvement in a number of conspiracies, including one that was allegedly behind the French Revolution. One often cited but likely apocryphal account relates that, after the execution of Louis XVI, a French Freemason dipped a cloth in the slain king’s blood and cried out, “Jacques de Molay, you are avenged!”
In the 20th century the image of Christ on the Shroud of Turin was identified as the head allegedly worshipped by the Templars. Resurrecting a vein of pseudohistory and Grail legends, authors in the 20th century, claiming to assert historical fact but writing what most scholars regard as fantasy, implicated the Templars in a vast conspiracy dedicated to preserving the bloodline of Jesus. Similar occult conspiracy theories were also used by writers of fiction in the 20th and 21st centuries.
This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.