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Peace of Bergerac, 14 September 1577

Peace of Bergerac, 14 September 1577

Peace of Bergerac, 14 September 1577

The peace of Bergerac (14 September 1577) ended the Sixth War of Religion, and was a slightly modified version of the unpopular Edict of Beaulieu, which had helped trigger the war in the first place.

The Edict of Beaulieu had ended the Fifth War of Religion, and had granted the Huguenots the right to worship anywhere outside Paris. It had been very unpopular in Catholic circles, and helped trigger the formation of the first Catholic League, which agitated against the terms of the edict. The Estate General also called for the elimination of Protestantism on France, allowing Henry III to renounce the Edict. However he was unable to raise the funds needed to pay for a large army, and after capturing La Charité (2 May 1577) and Issoire (12 June 1577), Henry ran out of money had had to recall the army. With his main opponents still at large in the west, and receiving help from England, Henry had little choice other than to begin peace negotiations, and these soon produced the Peace of Bergerac, which was agreed on 14 September 1577.

In most ways the peace of Bergerac repeated the terms of the Edict of Beaulieu (5 May 1576), although with more restrictions on Protestant worship. The earlier treaty had granted free of worship outside Paris. The new treaty limited Protestant worship to the suburbs of one town in each judicial district across France.

Senior Huguenot noblemen were given the right to worship for anyone they wanted in their main dwelling, and anywhere else on their lands if they were present. More junior nobleman had the right of worship in their residences and for their families only. The Huguenots were allowed to continue worshiping in any city or borough where they had been publicly worshiping on the date the edict was signed. Finally worship would be allowed in the suburbs of one town or village in each judicial across France, part from Paris.

The peace of Beaulieu had set up eight chamber mi-partie, one in each Parlement, with an equal split of Huguenot and Catholic judges. The new agreement was for four mixed courts, with none in Paris, Rouen, Dijon or Rennes, and two thirds Catholic and one third Protestant judges. Protestants were allowed access to universities and schools. They were given eight security towns. Henry of Navarre, the Prince of Condé and twenty other Huguenot noblemen had to each swear to restore those cities to the crown after six years.

The peace was published by Henry on 17 September 1577 as the Edict of Poitiers.


Sixth war of Religion (March 1577-September 1577)

As soon as the Edict of Beaulieu was signed, it was difficult to implement as it prompted opposition. The King’s legitimacy was questioned because he had yielded too much to the Protestants. The Princes’ greediness, the huge amounts given as compensation, especially to Duke François d’Alençon and Jean Casimir, drained the Treasury and increased the tax burden, outraged the common people. The people’s precariousness and poverty were siezed upon by the clergy. The infuriated Catholics created defensive leagues.

The General Estates summoned in Blois in November 1576 were held in a very unfavourable climate towards the Huguenots, as most of the representatives were Catholics. Returning to a single religion was requested. Despite the opposition of some who considered that the King should not take sides for one religion, the State being above religions, most registers of grievances demanded Protestant worship to be banned, pastors to be expelled, Catholic worshipping to be attended. The Edict of Beaulieu was abolished.

For the Guise party, the monarchy had failed to fight heresy, and a League of lords and cities had to be created to reestablish peace. The initiative was taken by Jacques d’Humières, Governor of Picardie, who had lost the province after the Peace of Beaulieu to the benefit of Henri de Condé – it was the first league called « de Péronne”. The aim was to restore the previous monarchy and the privileges of the Church of France. Going back to the past was demanded, and the idea of reforming the clergy rejected. The Catholics were enjoined to rally to the League. Members pledged fidelity to one another. Henri III was threatened and took the lead of the League, and declared to the council that he would accept only one religion in his kingdom.


On This Day

19 Wednesday Sep 2012

35 – Flavius Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I.
1356 – Battle of Poitiers: an English army under the command of Edward, the Black Prince defeats a French army and captures the French king, Jean II.
1973 – King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden has his investiture.

86 – Antoninus Pius, Roman Emperor (d. 161)
866 – Leo VI, Byzantine Emperor (d. 912)
1377 – Albert IV, Duke of Austria (d. 1404)
1551 – King Henri III of France (d. 1589)

1356 – Killed at the Battle of Poitiers:
Peter I, Duke of Bourbon (b. 1311)
Walter VI of Brienne, Constable of France (b. 1304)


1179 Hildegard of Bingen, a German abbess, mystic, author and preacher who received visions of God from the age of five, died (b. 1098).

1394 King Charles VI of France (1368 –1422) ordered all Jews expelled from France.

1575 Heinrich Bullinger (b. 18 July 1504), Swiss reformer, died.

1577 The Peace of Bergerac was signed between Henry III of France (1551 – 1589) and the Huguenots.

1604 Lukas Osiander the Elder, theologian and hymnist, died (b. 16 December 1534, Nürnberg). [German Wikipedia article]

1611 Johannes Olearius, preacher and hymnist, was born at Halle (d. 24 April 1684).

1656 The colonial commissioners recommended severe laws against the Quakers, which were then enacted by Massachusetts.

1683 John Campanius, Lutheran missionary to American Indians, died (b. 15 August 1601, Stockholm).

1686 “ Who Knows When Death May Overtake Me ” was written by Ämilie Julienne (1637–1706), Countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.

1717 The first Presbyterian synod in America met in Philadelphia.

1762 Benjamin Abbot, principal of Phillips Exeter Academy, was born in Andover, Massachusetts (d. Exeter, New Hampshire, 25 October, 1849).

1776 247 Spanish colonists consecrated their California mission of San Francisco.

1789 Josiah Conder, hymnist, was born in Aldersgate, London, England (d. 27 December 1855, Hampstead, Middlesex, England).

1828 Andrew Gordon, Presbyterian missionary to India (West Pakistan), was born in Putnam, New York (d. 13 August 1887).

1843 Wilhelm Sihler (1801–1885) sailed from Germany in order to succeed F. C. D. Wyneken as pastor of Saint Paul Lutheran Church (Fort Wayne, Indiana).

1948 Lehi (also know as the Stern gang) assassinated Count Folke Bernadotte, who was appointed by the UN to mediate between the Arabs and Jews in Palestine.

1953 Frank Carl Streufert, secretary of LCMS missions from 1932 to 1953, died (b. 30 April 1874, Chicago).

1988 Bernard A. Confer, former executive director of Lutheran World Relief (LWR), died in Teaneck, New Jersey.


Edict of Beaulieu


The Edict of Beaulieu (also known at the time as the Peace of Monsieur) was promulgated from Beaulieu-lès-Loches Ώ] on 6 May 1576 ΐ] by Henry III of France, who was pressured by Alençon's support of the Protestant army besieging Paris that spring.

The Edict, which was negotiated by the king's brother, Monsieur— François, duc d'Alençon, who was now made duc d'Anjou— Α] gave Huguenots the right of public worship for their religion, thenceforth officially called the religion prétendue réformée ("supposed reformed religion"), throughout France, except at Paris and at Court. Huguenots were permitted to own and build churches, to hold consistories and synods, and occupy eight fortified towns called places de sûreté. In eight of the parlements, chambers were created called mis-parties because the same number of Catholics and Protestants sat in these tribunals. Additionally, there was to be a disclaimer of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, and the families which had suffered from it were to be returned to positions of prominence and fairly compensated. These large concessions to the Huguenots and the approbation given to their political organization led to the formation of the Catholic League, which was organized by Catholics anxious to defend their religion. Β]

The King held a lit de justice in the Parlement of Paris on 14 May to subvent pending opposition in the strongly Catholic parlement Γ] and to ensure that the Edict was duly inscribed. Δ] In December 1576, however, the States-General of Blois declared itself against the Edict of Beaulieu. Thereupon the Protestants took up arms under the leadership of Henry of Navarre, who, escaping from the Court, had returned to the Calvinism which he had abjured at the time of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew. The advantage was on the Catholic side, thanks to some successes achieved by the duc d'Anjou. In September 1577, the Treaty of Bergerac, confirmed by the Edict of Poitiers, left the Huguenots the free exercise of their religion only in the suburbs of one town in each bailiwick (bailliage), and in those places where it had been practiced before the outbreak of hostilities and which they occupied at the current date.


Explorer Francis Drake sets sail from England

English seaman Francis Drake sets out from Plymouth, England, with five ships and 164 men on a mission to raid Spanish holdings on the Pacific coast of the New World and explore the Pacific Ocean. Three years later, Drake’s return to Plymouth marked the first circumnavigation of the earth by a British explorer.

After crossing the Atlantic, Drake abandoned two of his ships in South America and then sailed into the Straits of Magellan with the remaining three. A series of devastating storms besieged his expedition in the treacherous straits, wrecking one ship and forcing another to return to England. Only The Golden Hind reached the Pacific Ocean, but Drake continued undaunted up the western coast of South America, raiding Spanish settlements and capturing a rich Spanish treasure ship.

Drake then continued up the western coast of North America, searching for a possible northeast passage back to the Atlantic. Reaching as far north as present-day Washington before turning back, Drake paused near San Francisco Bay in June 1579 to repair his ship and prepare for a journey across the Pacific. Calling the land “Nova Albion,” Drake claimed the territory for Queen Elizabeth I.

In July, the expedition set off across the Pacific, visiting several islands before rounding Africa’s Cape of Good Hope and returning to the Atlantic Ocean. On September 26, 1580, The Golden Hind returned to Plymouth, England, bearing treasure, spice, and valuable information about the world’s great oceans. Drake was the first captain to sail his own ship all the way around the world–the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan had sailed three-fourths of the way around the globe earlier in the century but had been killed in the Philippines, leaving the Basque navigator Juan Sebastián de Elcano to complete the journey.


Notes:

[1] Roland H. Bainton, The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century, Enl. ed. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1959), 142.

[2] The League was an alliance of Lutheran princes. They were the legal representation for all Protestants and were a reason why Lutheranism was recognized earlier on than Calvinists – they had an army.

[3] It was, however, negotiated by Ferdinand, Charles’ brother. Evident in the text of the peace “We, Ferdinand….” See http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=4386

[7] Roland H. Bainton, The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century, Enl. ed. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1959), 155.

[8] N. R. Needham, 2,000 Years of Christ’s Power, Part Three: Renaissance and Reformation (averdale North Darlington: EP BOOKS, 2003), 331.


Meuse-Argonne offensive opens

At 5:30 on the morning of September 26, 1918, after a six-hour-long bombardment over the previous night, more than 700 Allied tanks, followed closely by infantry troops, advance against German positions in the Argonne Forest and along the Meuse River.

Building on the success of earlier Allied offensives at Amiens and Albert during the summer of 1918, the Meuse-Argonne offensive, carried out by 37 French and American divisions, was even more ambitious. Aiming to cut off the entire German 2nd Army, Allied Supreme Commander Ferdinand Foch ordered General John J. Pershing to take overall command of the offensive. Pershing’s American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was to play the main attacking role, in what would be the largest American-run offensive of World War I.

After some 400,000 U.S. troops were transferred with difficulty to the region in the wake of the U.S.-run attack at St. Mihiel, launched just 10 days earlier, the Meuse-Argonne offensive began. The preliminary bombardment, using some 800 mustard gas and phosgene shells, killed 278 German soldiers and incapacitated more than 10,000. The infantry advance began the next morning, supported by a battery of tanks and some 500 aircraft from the U.S. Air Service.

By the morning of the following day, the Allies had captured more than 23,000 German prisoners by nightfall, they had taken 10,000 more and advanced up to six miles in some areas. The Germans continued to fight, however, putting up a stiff resistance that ultimately forced the Allies to settle for far fewer gains than they had hoped.


The Arms of Sir Robert Bell

The Arms of Sir Robert Bell impaling Harington (the Harington Arms are depicted with the cadency mark 'a label')—John Harington, first Baron Harington of Exton (1539/40–1613) who married Anne (c.1554–1620), the daughter and heir of Robert Keilwey, Lent Reader, Treasurer and member of the Inner Temple.[3]

Sir John's father, Sir James Harington of Exton Hall, Rutland, married Lucy, daughter of William Sidney of Penshurst, Kent. Sir William Sidney's son, Henry Sidney lord deputy of Ireland, was a neighbor of John Peyton and Dorothy daughter of Sir John Tyndale. The Peytons' second son, John Peyton "served in Ireland under their friend and neighbor Sir Henry Sidney of Penshurst, and in 1568, he was again in Ireland with Sidney, then lord deputy and had become a member of Sidney's household."[15]

After Bell's untimely death in 1577, John Peyton married Bell's widow Dorothy, wherefrom her estate Peyton gained position and status in the county of Norfolk and later became lieutenant of the Tower of London.


Our Village Historian

This historical timeline of the Village of New Paris was graciously compiled and given to the New Paris Area Chamber of Commerce by our “Village Historian” Joan Melody Steinberger.

Joan has for decades now dedicated untold amounts of time to ensure that the history of New Paris will live on in both the written word and photographs.

Joan has written and published many articles on New Paris and has given historical facts to local television and print media outlets. Without Joan’s drive to document every facet of New Paris and the history that goes along with it, our roots, which go back more than 200 years would be lost to the winds of time.

The New Paris Area Chamber of Commerce would like to thank Joan for her contribution to our village and to this website.


Watch the video: Wikipedia Treaty of Bergerac (January 2022).