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Second battle of Azukizaka, 1564In this battle in Japan the famous samurai general Tokugawa Ieyasu fought the local Ikko-ikki. As he often did he led from the front and took a decisive part in the personal combat, during which he was hit by several bullets which were slowed by his armour and logged in his under garments.
Battle Of Mingtiao
KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS The Shang army then fought Jie's forces in the Battle of Mingtiao, in a heavy thunder storm, and defeated the Xia army.  Tang was from the kingdom of Shang. in the kingdom of Shang who, around 1600 BCE, led a revolt against Jie and defeated his forces at the Battle of Mingtiao.  Around 1600 BC, rebel forces led by Tang decisively defeated the army of King Jie at the Battle of Mingtiao. 
Key events and figures: In Battle of Mingtiao Shang leader Tang defeated Jie tyrannical emperor.  Battle of Mingtiao In the 31st year of Jie's reign, Tang of Shang dispatched troops from Er (陑) to simultaneously attack Xia and Kunwu.  Sima Qian relates that the dynasty itself was founded 13 generations later, when Xies descendant Tang overthrew the impious and cruel final Xia ruler in the Battle of Mingtiao.  The end of the Xia is said to have come about as an outcome of the Battle of Mingtiao in 1600 BC. According to ancient facts, the dynasty ended around 1600 BC resulting from the Battle of Mingtiao.  According to historical texts, the dynasty ended in 1600 BC after the Battle of Mingtiao.  According to mythology, the dynasty ended around 1600 BC as a consequence of the Battle of Mingtiao.  In Qian's accounts, the dynasty was only founded about 13 generations later after Tang, who was the descendant of Xie, successfully defeated Xia's last and great ruler in the Mingtiao Battle.  At the Battle of Mingtiao, fought in the midst of a huge rainstorm of thunder and lighting, Tang defeated Jie.  It was at the Battle of Mingtiao, the Shang Dynasty fought againsy the forces of Jie, as the battle was fought during a thunderstorm and was defeated.  Excerpt: Battle of Mingtiao item Belligerents item Xia clan: Shang tribe item Commanders item Jie of Xia: Tang of Shang The Battle of Mingtiao was a battle between the Xia Dynasty and the Shang Dynasty.  Tang would attack Jies forces at the battle of mingtiao in 1600 BCE and decisively crush them, exiling Jie and ending the Xia dynasty.  The Xia dynasty was overthrown after the Battle of Mingtiao, around 1600 BCE, by Cheng Tang, who established the Shang dynasty (c. 1600-1046 BCE).  According to legend, the Shang Dynasty was founded afer the overthrow of the Xia by Cheng Tang during the battle of Mingtiao.  Xia is overthrown by Tang of Shang in the Battle of Mingtiao • c. 1600 BC : Unetice culture ends in.  BC • King Jie of Xia • Battle of Mingtiao • Shang Dynasty • Date • Ruler • Events •.  In the 31st year of his reign King Jie was deposed after his army was defeated at the Battle of Mingtiao.  Afterwards, they defeated Jie of Xia in the decisive Battle of Mingtiao.  Little is known about the Xias apart from their eventual downfall in 1600 BC, as a consequence of the Battle of Mingtiao.  This victory is known as the Battle of Mingtiao, fought during a thunderstorm.  The battle of Mingtiao was considered to be a more a mostly mythological battle between the Xia Dynasty and the Shang kingdom.  The battle of Mingtiao was a battle between the Xia dynasty and the Shang dynsaty and was in 1600BC. The Shang dynasty were victorious and claimed power of the throne of China.  The Battle of Mingtiao is a disputed battle that ended the Xia Dynasty and marked the beginning of the Shang Dynasty.  Its end happened due to the battle of Mingtiao which was decisively won by the shang dynasty.  According to mythology, the dynasty ended circa 1600 BCE as a consequence of the Battle of Mingtiao.  Battle of Mingtiao Main article : Battle of Mingtiao In the 31st year of Jie ' s reign.  Battle of Mingtiao (ca. 1600 B.C.) - When discussing the topic of the first recorded battle in history, the Battle of Mingtiao is rarely brought up.  I'd like to talk briefly about four battles -- which may or may not have occurred -- and 1 which likely did: the Battle of Mingtiao, the Battle of Banquan, and the Battle of Zhuolu.  Later we discuss the Battle of Mingtiao and the Battle of Muye.  The battle of Mingtiao marked the end of one of the first dynasties of China.  Xiajie army in battle of mingtiao cannot withstand a single blow, total defeat.  According to mythology, the last ruler of Xia Dynasty was Lu Gui (履癸), his reign ended in 1675 B.C. in Battle of Mingtiao.  Who dies of illness after running away from the crucial battle of Mingtiao. 
According to ancient facts, the dynasty ended around 1600 BC resulting from the Battle of Mingtiao. 
POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL He became a worse tyrant than Jie of the Xia Dynasty had been and was finally overthrown by King Wu, of the province of Zhou, at the Battle of Muye in 1046 BCE. Battle between the Xia Dynasty and the Shang Kingdom for control of the North China Plain.  He became a worse tyrant than Jie of the Xia Dynasty had been and was finally overthrown by King Wu, of the province of Zhou, at the Battle of Muye in 1046 BCE. This semi-mythological battle resulted in a Shang victory which created the circumstances for the Shang Dynasty to rule China.  He became a worse tyrant than Jie of the Xia Dynasty had been and was finally overthrown by King Wu, of the province of Zhou, at the Battle of Muye in 1046 BCE. The Battle of Muye was fought in c.1046 BCE in China.The battle led to the end of the Shang dynasty, and the beginning of the Zhou dynasty. 
Around the year 1046 BCE, King Wu, of the province of Zhou, rebelled against King Zhou of Shang and defeated his forces at the Battle of Muye, establishing the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1046- 226 BCE). 1046-771 BCE marks the Western Zhou Period while 771-226 BCE marks the Eastern Zhou.  It was founded by Tang of Shang who overthrew the last ruler of the preceding Xia dynasty and came to an end after its last emperor Di Xin was defeated at the Battle of Muye by King Wu, founder of the succeeding Zhou dynasty.  Zhou dynasty ruled China during the iron age period of china and was the longest ruling dynasty of Chinese history, it ruled from 1066-256 BCE. The Zhou king Wu defeated the Shang king Di Xin in the battle of Muye and established their rule on china.  King Wu of Zhou tribe joined hands with neighboring dukes and destroyed Shang’s forces at the Battle of Muye in c. 1046 BC, leading to the end of Shang and the beginning of Zhou dynasty.  The end of the Shang came when King Wu, head of the Zhou, and the Duke of Zhou, is brother, defeated the Shang in what is known as the Battle of Muye.  Battle of Mue, Shang Emperor Zhou defeated by King Wu of Zhou.  Able to survive for 696 years after King Wu, who ruled west of the Shang, defeated them along side his brother in the Battle of Muye.  In what is known as the Battle of Muye, many Shang soldiers refused to fight the Zhou, some even joining the other side.  The Shang finally fell to the Zhou at the battle of Muye around 1046 B.C.E. Even though the last leader of the Shang failed, their way of government succeeded. 
After the battle was won, Jie of Xia sought shelter in Kuenwu, after conquering Kuenwu, Tang of Shang forced Jie into exile in Nanchao (present day Chao, Anhui ).  As the population increases, battles over territory begin. when a few tribes started rebeling agianst xia, Tang of shang was mad. he started to attack xia. upon hearing of Tangs rebellion je sent troops from sma her territories of Gu, Wei,Kuenwa. 
Battle between the Xia Dynasty and the Shang Kingdom for control of the North China Plain.  The great Battle of Mount Zemaraim was reported in the Bible to have been fought in Mount Zemaraim, when the army of the Kingdom of Israel led by the king Jeroboam I encountered the army of the Kingdom of Judah led by the king Abijah I. The Battle of Beicang (Peitsang), during the Boxer Rebellion, was fought August 5, 1900, between the Eight Nation Alliance and the Chinese army.The Chinese army was forced out of its prepared entrenchments and retreated to Yangcun.  The great Battle of Mount Zemaraim was reported in the Bible to have been fought in Mount Zemaraim, when the army of the Kingdom of Israel led by the king Jeroboam I encountered the army of the Kingdom of Judah led by the king Abijah I. Following the crushing Russian victory at the last battle of Shipka Pass, Russian commander Gen. Joseph Vladimirovich Gourko began to move southeast towards Constantinople. 
The Battle of Jingxing, also known as the Battle of Tao River, was fought in 205 BC between the army of Han, commanded by Han Xin and a Zhao army.The Zhao were led by Princes Zhao Xie of Zhao and Chen Yu, also known as the Lord of Cheng An, who was serving as Zhao Xie's prime minister.  The Battle of McDowell, also known as Sitlington's Hill, was fought May 8, 1862, in Highland County, Virginia, as part of Confederate Army Maj. The Battle of Gaixia was fought in 202 BC during the Chu-Han Contention between the forces of Liu Bang and Xiang Yu.  The Battle of McDowell, also known as Sitlington's Hill, was fought May 8, 1862, in Highland County, Virginia, as part of Confederate Army Maj. The Battle of Beicang (Peitsang), during the Boxer Rebellion, was fought August 5, 1900, between the Eight Nation Alliance and the Chinese army.The Chinese army was forced out of its prepared entrenchments and retreated to Yangcun. 
The Battle of Zhuolu (simplified Chinese: 涿鹿之战 traditional Chinese: 涿鹿之戰) was the second battle in the history of China as recorded in the Records of the Grand Historian, fought between the Yellow Emperor (Huang Di) and Chiyou.  Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, shortly afterwards fought Chiyou at the Battle of Zhuolu. 
The Battle of Muye was fought in c.1046 BCE in China.The battle led to the end of the Shang dynasty, and the beginning of the Zhou dynasty.  The battle fought between the Xia Dynasty and the Shang Dynasty resulting in the Shang's victory to rule.  Traditional histories trace the development of the Xia to the legendary Three Sovereigns, according to ancient Chinese texts, before the Xia dynasty was established, battles were frequent between the Xia tribe and Chi Yous tribe.  The Battle of Banquan is credited for the formation of the Huaxia tribe, the basis of the Han Chinese civilization.  In prehistoric China, the tribes of Yellow Emperor rose to power on the plains of Guanzhong and merged with Yan Emperor's tribes following the battle of Banquan.  According to records, the Yellow Emperor's success led to the battle of Zhuolu between the Yanhuang tribes (led by the Yellow Emperor) and the Jiuli tribes (led by Chiyou.)  The Huaxia tribe then reacted by facing Chiyou in the Battle of Zhuolu, and emerged victorious. 
Pupils place themselves in the shoes of the Shang fighters at the Battle of Muye and they will take part in a debate about whether or not they should defect to the opposing army.  The army lost after his slaves betrayed him during the final battle between the Shang and the Zhou.  The leader of the tributary state named Wu would fight at the battle at Muye and win against Zhou.  The battle of Muye was what caused the Shang dynasty to come to an end.  Do you think you have a different answer for clue "Battle won by the Shang dynasty in China" ? Send it to us and your answer will be updated in the site if it is found to be accurate.  This semi-mythological battle resulted in a Shang victory which created the circumstances for the Shang Dynasty to rule China.  This semi-mythological battle resulted in a Shang victory which created the circumstances for the elevation of the Duke of Shang to the throne of China. 
At the Battle of Gaixia in 202 BCE, Liu-Bang's great general, Han-Xin, trapped and defeated the forces of Chu under Xiang-Yu and Liu-Bang was proclaimed emperor (known to posterity as Emperor Gaozu of Han).  In battle, he defeated another great leader, the Yan (Flame) Emperor, sometimes and for our purposes, the same person as Shennong, one of the three Sovereigns. 
King Zhao was defeated in battle with king of Chu on the south and was killed too.  It was a battle between the Puru Vedic Aryan tribal kingdoms of the Bharatas, allied with other tribes of the north west India, guided by the royal sage Vishvamitra, and the Trtsu-Bharata (Puru) king Sudas, who defeats other Vedic tribes.  Confederates infiltrate and defeat Union forces. 1862 Battle of Fredericksburg 13 December - Lee routs Burnside 1862 Battle of Kinston 14 December - Union forces under John G. Union forces destroy railroad 1864 Battle of Heligoland 9 May Danish sea victory over Austria.  Xiang-Yu, who had proven himself the most formidable opponent of the Qin, awarded Liu-Bang the title of `King of the Han' in recognition of Liu-Bang's decisive defeat of the Qin forces in the final battle. 
When the battle was over, Jie had fled and lived the rest of his life in exile, and a new dynasty was born.  After the battle was won, Jie of Xia sought shelter in Kuenwu.  They either surrendered or fled, as a result, the Shangs won the battle and set up the Shang dynasty.  Sima Qian, the greatest Chinese historian of antiquity, complied an extensive account of the Shang Dynasty in his Records of the Grand Historian and the Battle of Mintao is the story of its origin.  Traditional Chinese historiography places the battle in the 26th century BC, although the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project has suggested the traditional dates to be at least some two centuries too early for the remotest recorded periods.  The Battle of Chengpu (simplified Chinese: 城濮之战 traditional Chinese: 城濮之戰) took place in 632 BC between the State of Jin and the State of Chu and its allies during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history.  The Battle of Banquan (simplified Chinese: 阪泉之战 traditional Chinese: 阪泉之戰 pinyin: Bǎn Quán Zhī Zhàn) is the first battle in Chinese history as recorded by Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian.It was fought by Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, and Yandi, the Flame Emperor.  Both battles were fought not long apart, and on nearby plains, and both involved the Yellow Emperor.  After three major engagements, the Shennong forces lost the battle and made an alliance with the Yellow Emperor.  Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) 1921 Second Battle of Inonu 26-31 March - Turkish forces victorious.  A war sometimes consists of many battles, Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, and force commitment.  Wars in Ancient China : There are major battles that took place during these pre-dynastic years in ancient China, and the Battle of Zhuolu and the Battle of Banquan are two.  Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning, German strategist Carl von Clausewitz stated that the employment of battles. 
England destroy the headquarters of the Narragansett during Metacoms or King Philips War. 1676 Battle of Agosta Draw between the French and Dutch navy.  The Battle of the Ten Kings is a battle alluded to in the Rigveda is the ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.  Toledo, Ohio band Gevudan performing the song "Battle of the Ten Kings" live at Centre Stage on 2-13-09. 
The battle was fought in Zhuolu, near the present-day border of Hebei and Liaoning.  The actual location of Banquan, where this battle was fought, is in dispute.  That "large" bronze age battle is a thousand years away from anyone writing about the location where it was fought.  They have fought in so many battles that it would take months to name them all.  Until the advent of artillery and aircraft, battles were fought with the two sides within sight, if not reach, of each other. 
The following is a list of Chinese wars and battles, organized by date.  The Yellow Emperor and the Yan Emperor were often credited for allowing the Han Chinese civilization to thrive due to the battle, and many Chinese people call themselves "descendants of Yan and Huang" (炎黃子孫) to this day.  After the battle, the Yellow Emperor established the Huaxia capital in Zhuolu. 
Should the battle have actually occurred, there was likely a deep fog and the deployment of technology (Yellow Emperor used a fancy contraption that always pointed south -- an early compass), resulting in a loss by Chiyou.  A battle may end in a Pyrrhic victory, which favors the defeated party.  At this time, philosophers began to travel around from court to court offering advice on everything from how to run the state, how to achieve victory in battle and how to achieve immortality.  Following the crushing Russian victory at the last battle of Shipka Pass, Russian commander Gen. Joseph Vladimirovich Gourko began to move southeast towards Constantinople.  "Kindermord bei Ypern" 1914 Battle of Penang 28 October - German victory.  Ottoman Empire captures the city of Baku 1918 Battle of Havrincourt 12 September - British victory.  Ottoman-held port of Moudros on the Island of Lemnos 1912 Battle of Sarantaporo 9 October - Greeks defeat Ottomans near Koritza 1912 Battle of Kumanovo 23 October - Serbians defeat Ottomans in N. Macedonia 1912 Battle of Kirk Kelesse 24 October - Bulgarians defeat Ottomans in E. Yoshihiro. 1564 Battle of Azukizaka Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the Ikkō-ikki.  Some of the Allied infantry who had just dealt a defeat to the French at the Battle of Waterloo fully expected to have to fight again the next day.  Guadalcanal, USS Hornet sunk, but Japanese withdraw victorious 1942 Operation Torch 8 November - Allied landings in North Africa 1942 Naval Battle of Guadalcanal 12 November - U.S. defeats Japan. 
A brefe documentary on the first recorded battle in history of 23 bc of the Battle of Megddio.  Having said all of that, Ill suggest that there has been somewhere between a billion and a trillion battles in the course of human history. 
A series of battles including the battle of Maling in 341 BCE checked Weis ambitions while Qins expansion went largely unimpeded, boosting its economy, early strengthening of the state of Wei resulted from adoption of legalist reforms proposed by Li Kui.  Battle - A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants.  Battles can be planned, encountered, or forced by one force on the other when the latter is unable to withdraw from combat, a battle always has as its purpose the reaching of a mission goal by use of military force.  In this video I explain the incidents surrounding the Battle of Lake Regillus between the forces of Appius Postumius and Titus Aebutius of the Romans and the Latins under the command of Octavius Mamilius.  The Battle of the Ulai River (called in modern times the Kerkha or Karkheh River), also known as the Battle of Til-Tuba, in c.  The battle took place during the middle or main Rigvedic period,near the Ravi River in Punjab.  Another possibility is that all three are correct, as both Confucius and Sima Qian appear to agree what took place was a series of three battles: three between Huangdi and Yandi, which was followed by another between Chiyou, against Huangdi and allied princes and lords.  That is all the battles that took place and the dynasties involved.  A battle in this sense may be of long duration and take place over a large area. 
Battles are decided by various factors, the number and quality of combatants and equipment, the skill of the commanders of each army, and the terrain advantages are among the most prominent factors.  In the U.S. Civil War Battle, the Second Battle of Fort Wagner, the battle made famous by the movie Glory, it looks to me like it was incredibly poorly planned.  The Battle of Philippopolis or Battle of Plovdiv was one of the final battles of the 1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War.  The means of prolonging a battle was typically by employment of siege warfare, improvements in transportation and the sudden evolving of trench warfare, with its siege-like nature during World War I in the 20th century, lengthened the duration of battles to days and weeks.  According to the Records of the Grand Historian, Qin Shi Huang worshiped Chi You as the God of War, and Liu Bangworshiped at Chi You's shrine before his decisive battle against Xiang Yu.  Because of his ferocity in battle, Chi You was also worshiped as a war deity in ancient China.  The problem with early battles and wars is that much of their events are shrouded in legend and mythology.  To achieve the object of war was the essence of strategy, where the duration of the battle is longer than a week, it is often for reasons of staff operational planning called an operation. 
The PDF file contains the full lesson plan and three activity sheets including the story of the Battle of Muye.  The situation leading up to the battle is described in 7.18.6: The Turvasas and Yaksus (Yadu), together with the Matsya tribe (punned upon by the rishi by comparing them to hungry fish (matsya) flocking together) appear and ally themselves with the Bhrigus and the Druhyus.  The armies of Youxiong, under the totems of the Bear (熊), the Brown Bear (羆), the Fox (貔), the Brave (貅), the Chū (貙), and the Tiger (虎) and the armies of Shennong met in Banquan in the first large-scale battle in Chinese history.  The Battle of Banquan may actually only refer to the third of a series of three battles. 
The term Battle of Hysiae refers to two battles at the ancient location of Hysiae, located to the southwest of Argos and east of Tegea.  Not much is known about this battle since it, along with other events of the era, are clouded by mythology.  Note: If a battle s name isn t known it s just referred to as Action of (date). 
Ancient China and Egypt have a two thousand year headstart when it comes to documented or mentioned battles.  The throne of China was the main cause of battles in Ancient China. 
These battles occurred around circa 1600 BCE, 2500 BCE, and 2500 BCE, respectively. 
The Shang army fought Jie's forces at Mingtiao (鳴條) in a heavy thunder storm and defeated Xia army.  Due to rebellions under the Xia dynasty Tang an nobleman of Shang openly started a revolt against the Xias and when both of them met face to face on the battlefield of Mingtiao most of the Xia soldiers either surrendered or fled due to the overwhelming power of the Shangs which led to the defeat of the Xias and establishment of new Shang dynasty in China.  Tang gave a speech, known historically as ' Tang's pledge ', before the two armies met in Mingtiao (present-day North Anyi, Xiyun ) around 1600 BC. Tang's generals and soldiers all abhorred Jie, so they fought bravely.  Hij zou Jie hebben verslagen in de Slag van Mingtiao ( 鳴 條 之 戰, mingtiao zhizhan ). 
Chr. • Schlacht von Mingtiao • Mingtiao • Shang - Dynastie besiegt Xia - Dynastie • 1046. 
If you need help from time to time with CodyCross we’re your people! Do you need help with clue Battle won by the Shang dynasty in China or another one? We have an enormous database that will help you find answers for a variety of clues as well as the answer to clue "Battle won by the Shang dynasty in China".  Battle won by the Shang dynasty in China crossword answer for the Android & IOS game "CodyCross" by Fanatee Games.  Did you solve Battle won by the Shang dynasty in China Answers? Go back at CodyCross Inventions Group 66 Puzzle 1 Answers.  We have post below all Battle won by the Shang dynasty in China Answers.  On this page you will find the answer to CodyCross - Inventions - Battle won by the Shang dynasty in China. 
The battle was fought by Huangdi, the yellow Emperor and Yandi, the flame Emperor.  Battle A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. 
The Shang army fought Jies forces at Mingtiao in a thunder storm. 
The Battle of Beicang (Peitsang), during the Boxer Rebellion, was fought August 5, 1900, between the Eight Nation Alliance and the Chinese army.The Chinese army was forced out of its prepared entrenchments and retreated to Yangcun.  The Battle of McDowell, also known as Sitlington's Hill, was fought May 8, 1862, in Highland County, Virginia, as part of Confederate Army Maj. 
Fu Jian suffered a disastrous shock defeat at the battle of Fei River. 
RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(5 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)
Historical events of japan since 1545
1543 Arrival of Europeans in Japan
■1543/8/25 Portugese sailors shipwreck on Tane****ima, becoming the first Europeans encountered by the Japanese.
1545 Night battle of Kawagoe
1548 Battle of Uedahara
1549 Arquebuses used at Kajiki
In the Siege of Kajiki, Shimazu Takahisa is the first samurai warlord to use European guns in action.
■1549/7/3 Francis Xavier founds the first Catholic Mission in Japan, on Kyûshû.
■Shimazu Takahisa decides to no longer support Christianity. He expels Francis Xavier from his domain Xavier relocates to Hirado.
■Francis Xavier becomes the first Westerner to visit Kyoto later in the year, departs Japan for Goa.
■1552/1/28 Shogun Ashikaga Yoshifuji makes peace with Miyoshi Chokei, returns to Kyoto.
1553 First battle of Kawanakajima
1554 Siege of Muraki
1555 Battle of Miyajima / Second battle of Kawanakajima
1557 Thire battle of Kawanakajima / First siege of Moji
■The first Western-style hospital in Japan is established in Bungo province by Jesuit Luis Almeida.
■1559/8 Jesuit priest Gaspar Vilela journeys to Kyoto.
■Uesugi Kenshin journeys to Kyoto, paying tribute to Shogun Ashikaga Yo****eru, receiving an audience with the Imperial Court, and visiting Mt. Hiei among other sites.
1560 Battle of Okehazama
1561 Fourth battle of kawanakajima / Odawara besieged by Uesugi
1564 Secode battle of Konadai / Battle of Azukizaka against Ikko-ikki
■1566/2/17 Ashikaga Yoshiaki gives up a Buddhist priesthood and begins seeking out a patron to name him the rightful Shôgun
1567 Capture of Inabayama ( Gifu )
■1568/2/8 Ashikaga Yoshihide becomes the 14th Shôgun.(Kyoto)
Oda Nobunaga enters Kyoto and installs Ashikaga Yoshiaki as Shôgun.
1569 Siege of Odaware / Battle of Minasetoge
■1569/4 Luis Frois meets with Oda Nobunaga in Kyoto.
1570 Battle of Anegawa / Battle of Imayama / Death of Hojo Ujiyasu
1571 Destruction of Mount Hiei by Nobunaga
■1571/6/14 Môri Motonari dies and is succeded by his grandson, Môri Terumoto
■1571/5 Shimazu Takahisa dies.
■1571/10/3 Hôjô Ujiyasu dies.
1572 Battle of Mikata ga Hara
1573 Death of Takeda Shingen
1574 Siege of Na-ga-sh-ima
1575 Battle of Naga-shino
1576 Building of Azuchi castle / Battle of Ishiyama Honganji
1578 Death of Uesugi Kenshin / Battle of Mimigawa
1579 Siege of Miki
1580 surrender of Ishiyama Honganji
1581 Siege of Tottori
■1581/9/11 Siege of Iga
1582 Death of Takeda Katsuyori / Murder of Oda Nobunage / Battle of Yamazaki
1583 Battle of Shzugatake
1584 Battles of Kmaki and Nagakute
■1584 First Spanish trading ships arrive at Hirado.
1585 Invasion of Shikoku
■1585 Maeda Hidetsugu and his wife are killed in the Etchû earthquake.
1586 Building of Osaka castle / Battle of Hetsugigawa
1587 Invasion of Kyushu
■1588/7/8 Hideyoshi orders a great 'Sword Hunt' across Japan also issues a Piracy Control Edict.
1590 Siege of Odaware
■The first four Japanese to travel to Europe return to Japan, having left in 1582 to meet with Pope Gregory XIII. They bring with them a printing press, and movable type blocks for both hiragana and kanji.
■The Koishikawa channel is constructed, the first major waterworks project in Edo.
1591 Siege of Kunoe / Unification of Japan Completed / Separation Edict
1592 First invasion of Korea
■1592/4/13 Japanese forces land on Korean soil and capture Pusan.
■1592/4/15 Konishi Yukinaga captures Tongnae, a fortress north of Pusan.
■1592/4/17 Katô Kiyomasa and Nabeshima Naoshige land on Pusan.
■1592/4/27 Konishi Yukinaga captures Ch'ungju and marches on Seoul.
■1592/5 Konishi Yukinaga and Katô Kiyomasa occupy Seoul.
■1592/5/7 Korean 'turtle ships' under Admiral Yi Sun Shin sink 26 Japanese vessels near Okpo by May 8 Yi sinks a further 18 ships.
■1592/6/15 Konishi's division occupies P'yongyang.
■1592/7/7 Yi Sun Shin routs a Japanese fleet near Hansando, sinking 47 ships and capturing 12.
■1592/7/19 Katô Kiyomasa wins the Battle of Haejongch'ang in his north-eastern advance.
■1592/8/30 50 days cease-fire agreement between Ming and Konishi Yukinaga.
■1592/10 Japanese troops under Hosokawa Tadaoki fail to take Chinju, a fortress northwest of Pusan.
◦China intervenes and attempts to recapture P'yongyang.
1593 Japanese withdraw from Korea
■1593/1/7 Japanese forces abandon P'yongyang to the Chinese samurai under Kobayakawa Takakage defeat a Chinese army in a rear-guard action at Byokchekwan.
■1593/5/1 Toyotomi Hideyoshi strips Ôtomo Yoshimune of his lands for cowardice in Korea
■1593/5/15 Ishida Mitsunari and Konishi Yukinaga arrive at Nagoya with Chinese envoy.
■1593/6/21 The Japanese capture Chinju.
■1593/8 Fighting in Korea largely ends after negotiations begin.
1597 Second invasion of Korea
■1597/2/21 Toyotomi Hideyoshi orders a resumption of the war in Korea. Ukita Hideie is placed in overall command.
■1597/5/4 Construction of Fushimi castle completed.
■1597/7 Moveable type printing begins, based on models of mechanisms captured in Korea.
■1597/8 Japanese troops capture Namwon.
■1597/8/28 Ashikaga Yoshiaki dies.
■1597/9 The 'miracle at Myongyang': 16 ships under Yi Sun Shin defeat a Japanese fleet of 133 vessels.
1598 Death of Toyotomi Hideyoshi / Korean War ends
■1598/8/5 Hideyoshi establishes a council of regents (Tokugawa Ieyasu, Maeda Toshiie, Môri Terumoto, Ukita Hideie, and Uesugi Kagekatsu) to rule while Hideyori comes of age.
■1598/8/18 Toyotomi Hideyoshi dies.
■1598/8/25 Ieyasu and Toshiie orders the withdrawal of troops from Korea.
■1598/11/10 Ming-Chôson Navy blocks Japanese troops.
■1598/11/18 Yi Sun Shin killed in battle with Shimazu Yoshihiro in the war at Noryang.
■1598/12 Withdrawal from Korea completed.
1600 Battle of Sekigahara
1603 Tokugawa Ieyasu becomes Shogun
1614 Winter Campaign of Osaka
1615 Summer Campaign of Osaka
1616 Death of tokugawa Ieyasu
“I, Kagetora, Will Set Out For War and Meet Him Halfway”
“Concerning the disturbances among the various families of Shinano and the Takeda of Kai in the year before last, it is the honorable opinion of Imagawa Yoshimoto of Sumpu that things must have calmed down. However, since this time, Takeda Harunobu’s [Takeda Shingen’s previous name] example of government has been corrupt and bad. However, through the will of the gods and from the kind offices of Yoshimoto, I, Kagetora [Kenshin’s previous name] have very patiently avoided any interference. Now, Harunobu has recently set out for war and it is a fact that he has torn to pieces the retainers of the Ochiai family of Shinano and Katsurayama castle has fallen. Accordingly, he has moved into the so-called Shimazu and Ogura territories for the time being…. My army will be turned in this direction and I, Kagetora, will set out for war and meet him half way. In spite of snowstorms or any sort of difficulty we will set out for war by day or night. I have waited fervently. If our family’s allies in Shinano can be destroyed then even the passes of Echigo will not be safe. Now that things have come to such a pass, assemble your pre-eminent army and be diligent in loyalty, there is honorable work to be done at this time.
With respects, Kenshin, 1557, 2nd month, 16th day.”
In the far northern reaches of Shinano Province, located deep in the heart of the mountain range known as the Japan Alps, lay the wide, flat, triangle-shaped plain of Kawanakajima. Known as “the island between the rivers,” because it was bordered on the north by the Saigawa River and on the southwest by the Chikumagawa River which join at the northeast corner of the plain, Kawanakajima became the “no man’s land” in the duel between Shingen and Kenshin. During the course of their struggle this plain would witness no less than seven encounters between these rivals, of which only five were considered “battles.” The first three of these battles were only preliminary skirmishes compared to the fourth, which is considered the Battle of Kawanakajima, and remains one of the largest and bloodiest conflicts in Japanese history.
Legend of Okehazama Battlefield
The site of the battle is contested, with two “official” sites listed. One, the main site, in Midori Ward of modern-day Nagoya City is accepted as the most likely position for the felling of Yoshimoto. During the Edo period, this site was regularly visited by traveling samurai wanting to see the battlefield for themselves. In the 1930’s, an ancient stone monument claiming to mark the position of Yoshimoto’s slaying was discovered very close to where the memorial park now lies, and moved to its current location on the west side of the park.
Memorial to the fallen Imagawa Yoshimoto
Another site, about a kilometer away and designated as the battle site in 1937 by the Ministry of Education based on the writings of a military expert at the time, can be found in Minamiyakata, Sakae-cho in nearby Toyoake City. This site, just off National Route 1, the old Tokaido, contains a grave to Imagawa Yoshimoto, a memorial stone, and the Shichi-kokuhyo, or Seven Granite Pillars representing the Imagawa’s seven generals. This secondary site also claimed to be the Okehazama battle site and Yoshimoto’s command post site, can be found just below the Koutoku-in Temple. It is possible that this site was one of the many sites used by the Imagawa armies as campsites for the men.
The grave of Imagawa Yoshimoto at Toyoake
Battle of Okehazama memorial at Toyoake City
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Oda Nobuhide is most famous for being the father of Oda Nobunaga. He was born in 1510 in Shobata Castle in Owari Province. He was the eldest son of Oda Danjō no chu Nobusada. He was known for being a spirited leader, brave, but sometimes reckless, and intemperate. He was a cultured man, for Nobuhide was an avid collector of karamono (imported Chinese artworks), mainly Chinese ceramics and paintings by Mu Qi. While he was a powerful figure in Owari, Nobuhide was never a daimyo, but rather an elder of the Kiyosu branch the Oda clan, which gave him power in Owari.
There is no information on his childhood, with most sources jumping to his many battles. Nobuhide fought in many regional skirmishes, mainly against the Matsudaira clan in Mikawa, the Imagawa clan in Suruga and Tōtōmi, and the Saitō clan in Mino. In 1542, Nobuhide defeated the Imagawa at the first battle of Azukizaka in Mikawa. He was defeated by Saitō Dōsan at the Battle of Kanoguchi in 1547, a battle where he lost two close relatives. The rivalry between these two clans ended with the marriage of Nobuhide’s son, Nobunaga, and Dōsan’s daughter, Nōhime. He suffered another defeat by the hands of the Imagawa once again, at the second battle of Azukizaka in the spring of 1548.
Nobuhide was one of the few samurai who embraced the new Western technology: arquebus. Both he and his son, Nobunaga, trained with Hashimoto Ippa, a famous gunnery instructor who resided with the Kunitomo gunsmiths, which was a ironworking centre near Lake Biwa. In 1549, Nobuhide placed in order from Kunitomo for 500 arquebuses, which was the biggest order at the time. In that same year, Nobuhide was able to take Anjo Castle from the hands of the Matsudaira clan.
It is unclear what happens to Nobuhide from 1549, but he does fall in in 1551. He died on April 8, 1551 at Suemori Castle. His funeral was carried out at Bansyōji, and it was disrupted by Nobunaga throwing incense at the alter. Oda Nobuhide is buried at Obai-in Temple in Kyōto.
Dunbar, Sir George. A History of India. London: Nicholson and Watson, 1943.
Kejariwal, O.P. The Asiatic Society of Bengal and the Discovery of India's Past. New Delhi: Oxford University press, 1988.
Mahnmud, S.F. A Concise History of Indo-Pakistan. Oxford: Oxford University press, 1988.
Savarbar, V.D. Six Glorious Epochs of Indian History. Bombay: Bal Savarbar, 1971.
Streusand, Douglas E. The Formation of the Mughal Empire. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Basics of Scottish History Quiz: Mary, Queen of Scots
Prior to the Anglo-Scottish Union of the Crowns, Scotland had been ruled by a long line of independent monarch stretching back into the Dark Ages. Of all these rulers, by far the best-known is Mary, Queen of Scots. Properly styled Mary I, she reigned over Scotland from 1542 to 1567, undoubtedly one of the most tumultuous periods in the nation's history. Her story - replete with drama, intrigue, and tragedy - has been captivating people around the world ever since.
But how much do you know about Scotland's most famous monarch? Our quiz will test you on the basics of Mary's life, focusing on her person rule in the 1560s. Will you be an all-conquering expert on all things Marian? Or will you prove totally clueless? There's only one way to find out.
Created by: Dr Allan Kennedy of Centre for Scottish Culture, Dundee
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Battle of Sekigahara
The Battle of Sekigahara was a decisive battle that established the Tokugawa shogunate. The battle took place on October 21, 1600 and over the next three years Tokugawa Ieyasu consolidated his position. Many consider the end of the Battle of Sekigahara as the unofficial start of the Tokugawa bakufu. The Tokugawa shogunate was the last shogunate to control Japan lasting until the Meiji Restoration in 1868.
The battle was between Tokugawa Ieyasu and Ishida Mitsunari, who were both vying to become the next shogunate after the death of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Ishida had brought numerous allies to his side by claiming to support the interests of Hideyoshi&rsquos infant son, Hideyori. He had an army of 80,000 warriors (though some put the number as high as 120,000) including some of the most famous in Japan. Ieyasu was the most powerful individual land-owner in Japan and had a long military career behind him. His army stood at 74,000 which was less than that of Ishida but Ishida&rsquos skills were more in the realm of politics than military.
The two sides, after some political maneuvering and attempts to catch the other off guard, came to a head at Sekigahara. Ishida hoped to defend the pass at Sekigahara in order to stop Ieyasu from heading further west. However, this was exactly what Ieyasu wanted because he excelled at open-field battle. Early in the morning on October 21, Tokugawa forces headed for the Ishida defensive line. The battle quickly became one of attrition with Ieyasu making small gains.
The tide of the battle changed when the forces of Kobayakawa family who were Ishida allies joined the battle on the side of Ieyasu. They had been convinced by Ieyasu&rsquos spies to change sides. Ishida&rsquos army realized that the battle was lost and many of them fled to the northern hills. Ishida fled as well but was captured and killed three days later. With his competition out of the way, Tokugawa Ieyasu was able to consolidate power and make himself Shogun.
Second battle of Azukizaka, 1564 - History
A Timeline of Modern English History
1485 Beginning of Tudor Dynasty, Henry VII assumes the throne
Central Royal authority was strengthened and private feudal armies suppressed
1487 Rebellion of Lambert Simnel
1509 End of Henry VII's reign – Begin reign of Henry VIII
1513 Battle of Foldden English victory over Scotland
1514 Beginning wars with France and Scotland
1517 End wars with France and Scotland
1520 (June 7) establishment of a short-lived alliance between Henry VIII and Francis I of France
1522 England invades France - invasion unsuccessful
1523 England abandons attempted French invasion
1527 Divorce crisis of Henry VIII begins
1530 Henry VII begins the process of breaking with the papacy
time of internal instability associated with founding the new church
1534 Church of England established, unrest within England largely subsided
1542 Renewed warfare with France and Scotland
French landings on the English coast between1545 and 1546
convince Henry VIII to begin a massive naval construction program.
Beginning of the modern Royal Navy.
Beginning of the construction of system of coastal fortifications.
1547 Death of Henry VIII – Begin reign of Edward IV
Since Edward IV was not of age to rule, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, ruled as regent.
1549 Religious/Social Unrest
Duke of Somerset puts down a Catholic revolt in Devonshire .
Royal forces under John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, put down a peasant revolt in Norfolk .
Setbacks in wars with France and Scotland
French successful in battle outside Houlogne. Scottish recapture Haddington.
September – Somerset forced out as regent due to war setbacks, social unrest,
and noble dissatisfaction with his liberal ideas.
Warwick, Duke of Northumberland, becomes regent .
1550 Peace with France
France returns Boulogne to England for a cash payment.
1553 Death of Edward IV
(June 6-19) Insurrection of Northumberland Upon the death of Edward VI, Northumberland attempted to place his daughter in law, Lady Jane Grey , on the throne instead of the rightful successor, Edward's sister, Mary. Northumberland was captured, and Jane was deposed and executed after a reign of nine days .
1553 Beginning of the Reign of Mary I
Re-establishment of Catholicism in England .
Her marriage to Philip of Spain added to religious unrest,
many English Catholics joined the Protestants in distrust of Spain and Spanish Catholicism.
1554 Insurrection in Kent Led by Sir Thomas Wyatt, Sir Thomas Carew, and the Duke of Suffolk, this was an attempt to prevent Mary's marriage to Philip. Wyatt was defeated and overpowered while trying to take London . The rebellion collapsed and the leaders were executed.
1555 Persecution of Protestants begins
1557 War begins with France Mary's marriage led to English involvement in Spain 's endemic wars with France
1558 End of Mary I's reign / Start of Reign of Elizabeth I (sister of Edward VI and Mary I) Elizabeth returns England to Protestantism, She followed a general policy of avoiding involvement in major continental wars.
1559 England ends war with France
Intervention in Scotland English forces assist Scots against Frenchforces in Scotland . French surrender at Leith in February, 1560.
1562 England sends troops to France to aid the Huguenots.
1568 Beginning of a period of mounting hostilities between Spain and England
1570 Papal Bull declares Elizabeth excommunicated and deposed
1573 Temporary Rapprochement with Spain . Ascendancy of the Guise family in France leads to a temporary reduction of tensions.
1577 Alliance with the Netherlands Republic in their war against Spain , although Elizabeth did not declare war against Spain .
1580 Sir Francis Drake completes his circumnavigation of the World Drake raids Spanish and Portuguese colonies and shipping along the way.
1585 English military assistance to the Netherlands Henry Sidney, Earl of Lester, brings an army of 6,000 men to Holland .
Drake's expeditions to the Caribbean An English expedition under Sir Francis Drake sacked Santo Domingo , Cartagena , St. Augustine and carried out numerous other raids in the West Indies . Expedition ends in 1586.
1587 English army in Netherlands returns to England The army performed poorly, and the Earl of Lester died in the field in the previous year.
(April-June) Drake's Expedition to Cadiz Aware of Spanish plans for the coming armada, Drake sails into the port of Cadiz with a fleet of 23ships and destroys 33 Spanish vessels of all sizes.
1588 Santa Cruz dies Admiral Marquis de Santa Cruz , who was in charge of preparing the Armada, dies on January 30, and was replaced by Alone Perez de Guzman, Duke of Medina Sidonia, who had no naval experience.
May 20 - The armada leaves Lisbon (comprised of 20 great galleons,44 armed merchant ships, 23 transports, 35 smaller vessels, 4 galleasses,and 4 galleys.)
July 19 - Armada sited off the coast of Lizard Head by Englishscout vessels.
July 20 - Lord Howard of Effingham, commander of the Englishforces, sets sail with from Plymouth (34 ships under his command, joinedby 34 under Drake's command, a London squadron of 30 ships, and an additional30 ships under Lord Henry Seymour.)
July 21 - Spanish lose one ship in engagements off Plymouth .
July 23 - No losses on either side as a result of this all daybattle
July 25 - Battle of Dorset . The English are able to replenishtheir ammunition while the Spanish are not. Spanish head for Calis to replenishstocks and pick up troops.
July 26-27 - Armada anchored off Calis, but unable to obtainsupplies due to the blockade of Bruges by the Dutch fleet under the commandof Justinian of Nassau.
July 28 - English send fire ships into the Spanish fleet, whichresponds by cutting anchor and traveling up the coast while suffering heavylosses from English long range fire.
July 29-30 - Unfavorable winds keep Spanish fleet from landinganywhere in the Low Countries . Sedina Sidonia decides to return to Spainby sailing up through the North Sea .
August 2 - English fleet breaks off its pursuit of the Armadaand returns to its home ports.
August-September - The armada suffers heavy losses as it makesits way back to Spain , due to storms, starvation, and thirst. 63 of theoriginal 130 ships returned to Spain .
1589 4,000 English troops land in Normandy to aid Henry of Navarre
1591 Small English force lands at St. Malo and Rouen .
1594 Tyrone Rebellion in Ireland Endemic rebellion in Irelanderupted into full scale war under the leadership of Hugh O'Neil, Earl ofTyrone.
1596 English troops landed during a raid on Cadiz .
1598 English defeated by Irish at the Battle of Yellow Ford onthe Blackwater river.
1601 Spanish Intervention Spain sends 4,000 troops to Irelandand capture Kinsale.
1603 Death of Elizabeth I ,End of Tudor dynasty,
beginningof Stuart dynasty with reign of James I .
English victory Irish-Spanish troops defeated at the Battle of Kinsale.O'Neil surrenders and is pardoned by James I.
1604 October 24 - Unification of Britain The union of the crownsof England and Scotland eliminated internal frontiers and reduced the needfor a standing army, which increased parliamentary authority at the expenseof royal authority.
1605 The Gunpowder Plot the last major Catholic conspiracy
1624 Involvement in 30 Years War James sends a small force of1,200 men to the continent to assist Frederick of Prussia and ChristianIV of Denmark. This army collapses in 1625 due to a lack of training andsupplies.
1625 End of reign of JamesI, beginning of Charles I's reign
1626 Beginning of the Anglo-French war.
1627 The Duke of Buckingham's expedition to the Isle of Re, nearLa Rochelle, to support Huguenot forces ended in defeat.
1628 Buckingham assassinated while preparing another expeditionagainst the French.
May - The Petition of Right listing of parliamentarygrievances against the king.
1630 November 5 - Peace with France and Spain
1639 First Bishops' War Scotland revolts over the impositionof Anglican liturgy into Scottish Presbyterian services.
June 18 Pacification of Dunse temporary compromisesettlement
1640 Second Bishops' War hostilities renewed in Scotland
April-May the "Short Parliament" the Commonsrefuses to grant Charles financial support for the war.
August 28 Scots defeat Charles' forces atNewburn, Northumberland, and Durham
November - Treaty of Ripon temporary end tohostilities.
November 3 - the "Long Parliament" TriennialAct agreed to by Charles I.
1641 October - Outbreak of the Irish War Irish rebellion breaksout
due to the distastefor the policies of the Earl of Stratford , the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland .
December 1 - Grand Remonstrance Act passedby Parliament listing the grievances against Charles I.
Abolition of the councilor courts, abolitionof prerogative taxation, Triennial Bill.
1642 January 3 Charles attempts to arrest 5 leaders in the Commons,attempt fails.
March - Charles rejects Parliament's attemptto gain control of army.
June - Parliament raises a 24,000 man army
August - Charles begins to raise his armyat Nottingham
1643 Kings armies have the advantage
Scots invade on the side of Parliament
1644 Parliaments armies take the advantage
June - Battle of Marston Moor Parliament wins,decisive battle in war.
1645 "Clubmen" rising of armed neutrals threaten both sides
Royalist armies disintegrate
Parliament forces reorganize into the NewModel Army
1646 King surrenders to Scots
Bishops and Book of Common Prayer abolished
Presbyterian Church established
1647 Army revolt Radical movements criticize parliamentary tyranny
1648 Second Civil War Scots now side with the king and are defeated
1649 Trial and executionof Charles I England becomes a republic
Government by single chamber Rump Parliament
Oliver Cromwell begins the conquest of Irelandcomplete in 1650
1650 Cromwell begins the conquest of Scotland complete in 1652
1651 Thomas Hobbes publishes Leviathan
1652 First Dutch war begins
1653 Cromwell dissolves Rump Parliament Cromwell becomes LordProtector of Britain, written constitution.
1654 End of the first Dutch war
1655 Beginning of War with Spain
Royalist insurrection Penruddock's rising,a complete failure
1658 Cromwell dies and is succeeded by his son Richard
1659 Richard overthrown by army Rump is restored, but displeasesthe army
1660 Restoration of the Stuarts - Charles II takes the throne
1662 Church of England restored
1663 Failure of first Royal attempt to grant religious toleration
1665 Second Anglo-Dutch War begins
Great Plague final major outbreak
1666 The Great Fire of London
1667 Second Anglo-Dutch War ends
Milton 's Paradise Lost published allegoryfor the failed revolution
1672 Third Anglo-Dutch War begins
Failure of second royal attempt to grant religioustoleration
1674 Third Anglo-Dutch War Ends
1679 The Exclusion Crisis beginning of the Whig and Tory parties
1685 February 6 - James II takes the throne
1687 Newton 's Principia Mathematica published
1688 William of Orange invadesJames II flees the country
1689 February 13 - William of Orange andMary Stuart named joint sovereigns of England by Parliament.
Irish War begins
1690 Battle of the Boyne William III defeats Irish and Frencharmies
1691 Irish War ends English victory
1694 Bank of England founded
Death of Queen Mary
1697 Civil List Act Parliament votes funds for the maintenanceof the royal household.
1699 February Disbanding Act Parliament reduces the size of theBritish standing army to 7,000 to limit William III's involvement in continentalwarfare.
1700 Importation of Indian muslin and printed calicoes is forbidden
1701 June 12 Act of Settlement Parliament states thatthe English crown
will go to the Electors of Hanover, throughSophia, granddaughter of James I,
after Anne,daughter of James II had reigned.
September 16 James II dies in France
Beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession
1702 Death of William III,Anne Stuart takes the throne
1704 British capture Gibraltar from Spain
1705 Newcomen's fire-engine
1707 May 1 Union of England and Scotland Establishes theUnited Kingdom of Great Britain .
1708 James Edward, the Pretender, lands in Scotland his welcomeis lukewarm
and he returnsto France in the same year.
Abraham Darby takes lease of Coalbrookdale
1710 Fall of the Whig Ministry Tories cometo power - Harley ministry
1713 End of the War of the Spanish Succession Treaty of Utrecht
1714 August 1 - Death of Anne Stuart, beginning of the HanoverDynasty with George I, Elector of Hanover.
1715 September - Beginning of the Jacobite Rebellion in Scotlandinitial successes, James Edward arrives from France in December.
1716 Septennial Act no parliament can sit for longer than sevenyears without an election
February - Jacobite rising defeated JamesEdward returns to France .
1719 Spanish Expedition to Scotland Spanish fleet sailing toScotland to put Stuarts back on the throne is scattered by a storm anddoes not meet its objective.
1720 South Sea Bubble Many investors are ruined after speculationin the stock of the South Sea Company
Wearing of pure cotton cloth prohibited
1721 Walpole ministry
1727 George I dies, George II becomes king
beginning of war with Spain
1729 End of war with Spain
1730 Lord Townshend retires from the ministry to devote himselfto agricultural improvement
1733 Excise crisis Walpole must abandon plans to reform customsand excise duties.
Kay's fly shuttle invented
Jethro Tull's Horse-hoeing Husbandrypublished
1737 Death of Queen Caroline
1738 Lewis Paul's roller-spinning machine invented
1739 Beginning of "War of Jenkin's Ear" Anglo-Spanish naval war
1740 Beginning of the War of the Austrian Succession
1742 Fall of Wallpole
1744 Pelham ministry
1745 Beginning of "The Forty-five" James Edward once again comesto England to reclaim his throne.
1746 End of "The Forty-five" Scottish uprising suppressed, JamesEdward returns to France . Scotsmen now forbidden to wear their nationaldress.
1748 End of "War of Jenkin's Ear" with Spain
End of the War of the Austrian SuccessionPeace of Aix-la-Chapelle
1749 Iron manufactures suppressed in the American colonies
1751 War between British and French in India
1752 Adoption of Gregorian Calendar
1754 War between English and French colonists in America begins
1756 Beginning of the Seven Years War Britain allied with Frederickthe Great of Prussia against France , Austria , and Russia .
1758 Threshing machine invented
Bridgewater Canal constructed
1760 Death of George II, accession of GeorgeIII
Carron Iron Works opened
1761 Wilkinson sets up furnaces in Bersham
1763 End of the Seven Years War Peace of Paris
1764 Hargreaves' spinning jenny invented
1765 American Stamp Act meant to pay for the defense of the Americancolonies
1766 Chatham ministry begins
1768 Grafton ministry begins
Cook's first voyage in the Pacific begun
1769 James Watt's steam engine patented
Arkwright's "water frame" patented
1770 Lord North's ministry begins
1773 Boston Tea Party a protest against the East India Company'smonopoly on tea exports to American colonies
1774 Coercive Acts Passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party
Arkwright's carding machine patented
Wearing pure cotton cloth permitted by law
Priestley discovers oxygen
1775 Thomas Spence's The Real Rights of Man published
War of American Independence begun
1776 Declaration of American Independence
Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of theRoman Empire published
Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations published
1777 First Bath and West of England Agricultural Show held
1779 Crompton's mule invented
1781 British surrender at Yorktown end of American RevolutionaryWar
1782 Second Rockingham ministry
1784 Henry Cort's puddling process patented
Bell's cylindrical process of calico printing
Andrew Meikle's threshing machine
Watt's double-acting steam-engine
1783 Shelburne ministry
1785 Steam-engines first applied to spinning machinery
Arkwright's patents declared invalid
New Lanark Mills founded by David Dale
Cartwright's first patent for a power loom
1786 Eden 's commercial treaty with France
1789 French Revolution
1791 Thomas Paine's The Rights of Man published
Spinning jenny applied to wool
1792 Coal and gas used for lighting
1793 Outbreak of war with France
Eli Whitney's cotton gin
Commercial depression begins
1794 Habeas Corups suspended
1795 "Speenhamland" system of relief made wages equal to thecosts of subsistence
Beginning of the United Irishmen Revolt
1796 Vaccination against smallpox introduced
1797 United Irishmen Revolt ends brutally repressed by Britishforces
Cash payments by the Bank of England suspended
The British Naval Mutinies
1798 Malthus's Essay on Population first published
Income tax (10% on incomes over £200)
1799 Napoleon appointed First Consul in France
Beginning of commercial boom
Trade Unions suppressed under the CombinationLaw
Serfdom of Scottish coal miners abolished
Limited free trade established between Britainand Ireland
1801 Union with Ireland
End of commercial boom
First British Census estimated population8,892,536
Surrey Iron Railway
1802 Peace with France
Peel introduces first factory legislation
West India Dock completed
1803 War with France begins again
Horrock's improved power loom patented
General Enclosure Act simplifies the processof enclosure of common land
1805 Battle of Trafalgar Nelson defeats the French and Spanishfleets
1806 Death of Pitt, Lord Grenville becomesPM
1807 Abolition of the slave trade
1808 Peninsular War begins
East India Docks opened
1809 Economic boom begins
1811 Depression sets in
Luddite riots in Nottinghamshire
1812 Beginning of war with United States of America
Napoleon's Russian campaign
1813 Monopoly of East India Company abolished
Henry Bell's steamboat Comet plies on theClyde
1814 Stephenson's railway engine used to haul coal
Repeal of Statute of Apprentices
1815 Battle of Waterloo
Congress of Vienna
Corn Law passed
Beginning of a commercial boom
1817 Recession sets in
1819 Peterloo Massacre
The Savannah crossed the Atlantic partly understeam power
1820 Death of George III,accession of George IV
1821 Famine in Ireland begins
Cash payments resumed by the Bank of England
1822 Greek war of independence begins
1823 End of Irish famine
1824 Trade boom begins
Repeal of laws against the export of machineryand artisans
1825 Trade Unions legalized
Stockton and Darlington railway opens
Commercial depression begins
1827 Liverpool retires, Canning becomesPM
1829 Catholic Emancipation
Greece wins independence
Metropolitan Police established
1830 Death of George IV, accessionof William IV
Liverpool and Manchester railway opens
1831 Swing riots rural workers protesting against mechanizationof agriculture
1832 Great Reform Bill introduces the "10pound" voter franchise
1833 Factory Act limiting child labor
1834 Slavery abolished it the British Empire
Grand National Consolidated Trade Union Founded
1835 Commercial boom - Major increase in railway building begins
1837 Death of William IV, accessionof Victoria I
1838 People's Charter drafted
The Great Western Railway opened London toBath and Bristol
1839 Chartist riots
Capture of Hong Kong
Beginning of Afgan war
1840 Railway regulation act
1841 Tories assume power, Peel becomesPM
1842 Income tax revived
End of Afgan war
1843 End of Opium War with China
1844 Boom in railway building begins Result of the Cheep TrainsAct
Irish potato famine begins
First telegraph in England
1846 Corn Laws abolished
Peel resigns, Lord JohnRussell becomes PM
1848 European revolutions
Last great Chartist demonstration
1949 Repeal of Navigation Laws
1851 Great Exhibition Crystal Palace showcases the industrialmight of Britain
Submarine cable laid across the English Channel
1852 Russell Resigns, Earl of Derby becomes PM
1854 Crimean War begins
1855 Newspapers duties repealed
Aberdeen resigns, Palmerston becomes PM
1856 Crimean War ends
1857 Start of second Opium War opens China to European trade
Production of aniline dyes started
1858 End of Second Opium War
Indian Mutiny and India Act
Palmerston resigns, Lord Derby becomes PM
1859 Publication of Darwin 's Origin of the Species
Great London builders strike
1860 Anglo-French "Cobden" treaty
1861 Death of Albert, Prince Consort
US Civil war causes cotton famine in Lancashire
1862 Limited Liability Act provides stimulus to business interests
1863 War with Japan to open Japanese ports to trade
1865 October - Death of Palmerston, Russell becomes PM
1866 Derby forms a minority Conservative government
Submarine cable laid across the Atlantic
1867 Dominion of Canada Act
Second Reform Act household franchise in boroughs
1868 February - Disraeli becomes PM (Conservative)
Gladstone forms Liberal Government
1869 Suez Canal opened
Irish Church disestablished
Debt imprisonment ended
1870 Irish Land Act
Elementary Education Act
1871 Purchase of commissions in the army abolished
1874 Disraeli forms Conservative government
1875 British government buys controlling shares in Suez Canal
Agricultural depression deepens due to new grain supplies from Russia and
the United States entering the European market for the first time.
1876 Victoria proclaimed Empress of India
Compulsory Education enacted
1877 Confederation of British and Boer states in South Africa
1878 Congress of Berlin
Edison 's bipolar dynamo invented
1879 Economic depression deepens
Incandescent lamp invented
1880 First Anglo-Boer war
Synthetic indigo manufactured
Employers Liability Act passed
1882 Britain occupies Egypt
Triple Alliance between Germany , Austria ,and Italy
1885 Burma annexed
Third Reform Act household franchise in counties
Salisbury 's first Conservative government
1886 Gladstone becomes PM (Liberal Party)
First Home Rule Bill for Ireland splits theLiberal Party
Gold found in Transvaal
Royal Niger Company chartered
1886 Conservatives return to powerunder Salisbury
1887 British East Africa Company chartered
1889 London dock strike
Board of Agriculture instituted
British South Africa Company chartered
1892 Liberals return to power under Gladstone
1893 Second Home Rule Bill rejected by the House of Lords
Independent Labor Party founded
1894 Gladstone resigns, Lord Rosebery becomes PM
1896 Sudan conquest begins
1897 Workmen's Compensation Act
1898 Sudan under British control Fashoda incident
German naval expansion begins
1899 May-June First Hague Peace Conference
Second Anglo-Boer war begins
1900 " Khaki" election won by Salisbury
Commonwealth of Australia Act
1901 Death of Victoria I- Edward VII becomes king
1902 Anglo-Japanese alliance
End of Boer War Peace of Vereeniging
1903 Tariff Reform Campaign started
Wright brothers make first airplane flight
1904 Anglo-French Entente
Committee on Imperial Defense (Esher Committee)
major reorganizationof British armed forces in light of the Boer War experiences
1905 Campbell-Bannerman's Liberal Government
Beginning of the Haldane Military Reforms
1906 Launching of the H.M.S Dreadnought First all big-gun battleship,with 10 12" guns.
Labor Party formed
1907 Anglo-Russian Entente
1908 Beginning of Asquith's Liberal Government
Old Age Pension plan introduced
Eight hour day in coal mines introduced
1910 Death of Edward VII - accession ofGeorge V
Churchill's Employment Exchanges introduced
1911 Moroccan Crisis
Serious railroad, mining, and coal strikeslasting until 1912
1912 Failure of Anglo-German naval talks
First minimum wage laws for miners
Beginning of the Balkan war
1913 End of the Balkan war Peace of London
1914 Third Home Rule Act for Ireland passed and suspended
March 20 - Curragh "Mutiny" Brigadier GeneralHubert Gough resigns
rather thancarry out orders that would have forced them to compell the population
of Ulster toaccept Home Rule under the separatists of southern Ireland .
June 28 - Assassination of Archduke Ferdinandat Sarajevo
August 4 - British Empire enters firstWorld War
1915 Dardanelles expedition ending in British withdrawal fromGallipoli in 1916
Unofficial strike on Clyde
South Wales miners strike
1916 Battle of the Somme
Battle of Jutland
Lloyd George succeeds Asquith as Prime Minister
1917 Battle of Passchendaele
Food Ministry reorganized
1918 November 11 - End of first World War
1919 Treaty of Versailles
London police strike
National railway strike
Cotton Operatives strike
1920 Civil war in Ireland
Deflation and price slump sets in
First meeting of League of Nations
1921 "Triple Alliance " Miners, dockers, and railwaymen strikeon "Black Friday," but strike is broken when dockers and railwaymen backdown.
1922 Fall of LLoyd George, Bonar Law leads Conservative government
1923 Bonar Law resigns, Stanley Baldwin becomes PM
1924 January - First Laborgovernment headed by MacDonald
1925 Britain goes back on the gold standard
1926 May 3-12 - General strike
1931 Financial Crisis Britain goes off the gold standard.
Hoover moratorium on inter-governmental debt
Gold standard collapses
1932 Ottoawa Conference institutes imperial preference on tradewithin the British Empire
1935 Conservatives win election, Baldwin becomes PM
June 18 Anglo-German Naval Agreement Germantonnage would not exceed 35% of English tonnage.
(This agreementestranged France from Britain ).
September - Ethiopian Crisis
1936 Death of George V - Edward VIII abdicates - George VI becomes king
1937 Neville Chamberlain becomes new Conservative PM
January 2 - Anglo-Italian Mediterranean Agreement
1938 September 29 - Munich Agreement
1939 March 31 - British Guarantee to Poland
September 3 - Britain declares war on Germany
1940 Churchill replaces Chamberlain as PM
British withdrawal from Dunkirk
Battle for Britain
1941 Luftwaffe blitz on many British cities
Soviet Union and the United States enter the war
1942 Loss of Singapore
Battle of Stalingrad
Beveridge Report on Social Security
1943 Successful North African Campaigns
Anglo-American armies invade Italy
1944 D-Day invasion of France
Butler's Education Act
1945 May 8 - End of second World War in Europe
August 15 - End of war in far East
Landslide Labor victory Clement Attlee becomes Prime Minister
Beginning of involvement in Greece
Beginning of troubles in Arabia Intermittent frontier conflicts in Aden and Arabian Protectorates.
1947 India , Pakistan , and Burma become independent
Pound convertibility crisis pound only able to remain freely convertible with the US dollar for one month.
Coal and other industries nationalized
Treaty of Dunkirk: A 50 year Anglo-French alliance, also including the Benelux countries.
1948 Beginning of the Berlin Blockade RAF units participate.
1949 NATO founded
April 18 - Independence of Eire: Ireland breaks off all ties with Great Britain
and becomes an independent state.
devaluation of the pound
1950 March 29 - Churchill urges the rearmament of Germany
Korean War begins