Historians view Franz Mesmer as the father of alternate medicine. Mesmer give his name to mesmerism, seen as an alternate approach to conventional medical practice. Franz Mesmer was born in 1734 in a village near Lake Constance. He was educated in Vienna where he qualified in medicine. While in Vienna, Mesmer wrote a thesis entitled 'De Planetarum Influxu'.
The media frequently reports on criminal activity as it has a right to do. However, some believe that the media sensationalises crime so as to create moral panic and that this is used as a way of controlling how the public behaves. Right realists are linked to moral panic while left realists condemn is use because they do believe it is used to modify behaviour.
Since the early 1980s a number of sociologists have developed a perspective on crime and deviance usually referred to as left realism. Among the most prominent supporters of this perspective are Jock Young, John Lea, Roger Matthews and Richard Kinsey. Left realism originated in Britain, but has begun to influence criminologists in other countries, including Australia and Canada.
The Bruneval raid, carried out in 1942 was a combined raid against a German radio site based at Bruneval. Paratroopers of the 1st Airborne Division, who were supported by the Royal Navy, carried out the attack. Towards the end of 1941, an isolated house on the cliffs of Bruneval, near Le Harve, attracted the attention of British Intelligence and RAF reconnaissance planes photographed it.
US Rangers played a major part in special forces operations once America had come into World War Two in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour. It quickly became clear to those American army officers based in Great Britain that they did not have a unit like the British commandos. Major-General Lucien Truscott, US Army Liaison with the British General Staff, submitted proposals to General George Marshall in May 1942 which encouraged the formation of such a unit.
A number of key concepts underpin Functionalism. The primary concepts within Functionalism are collective conscience, value consensus, social order, education, family, crime and deviance and the media. The concept of function : Functionalist sociologists like Parsons and Durkheim have been concerned with the search for functions that institutions may have in society.
Adolf Hitler's 'Commando Order' was very blunt in what it stated. The 'Commando Order' state that any special forces soldier captured alive by the Germans was to be shot. The terms of the Geneva Convention were not going to be extended to commandos. Why did Hitler order such a draconian measure? Two ideas have been forwarded and a combination of the two is likely to be accurate.
Permanent Revolution Permanent Revolution was Leon Trotsky's belief for the future of world communism. Permanent Revolution, as a belief, was also to bring Trotsky into direct conflict with Joseph Stalin after the death of Lenin in January 1924. Permanent Revolution, in the eyes of Trotsky, was a world where somewhere a communist revolution was taking place and the old order was being overthrown, bringing in government by the people.
The Hawker Hurricane was developed by Sidney Camm. As a fighter plane, the Hawker Hurricane was to revolutionise all future fighter plane design. It was to play a vital role in the Battle of Britain and eventually in many other theatres of World War Two. The Hurricane first made its mark in February 1938.
Rasputin Rasputin was born in 1872 and died in 1916 and he was to be one of the central figures in Russia's modern history up to the fall of the royal family in 1917. Rasputin achieved huge power in a very short space of time - but that power lead to Rasputin having many enemies within Russia. • Rasputin had a major hold over the royal family of Russia because of his 'power' to heal the young heir to the throne - Alexis.
Anton Denikin Anton Denikin was a Russian general who fought for the Whites during Russia's civil war against the reds - Lenin's Bolsheviks. Denikin had been born into a peasant family - so his rise to army general was remarkable by any standards, let alone the rigid social hierarchy that existed within Russia at the time.
The Show Trials in the USSR The show trials that took place in Stalin's USSR had a very specific purpose for Stalin. The show trials were not held in secret but were, as their title suggests, in the open with foreign journalists invited and were there to prove to those in the USSR who were interested that 'enemies of the state' still existed despite the 'Red Terror' and that state leaders such as Stalin were at risk.
The Murder of Matteotti Giacomo Matteotti verbal attacks on Mussolini lead to his murder. Matteotti was one of the brave people in Italy who dared to speak out against Mussolini. Matteotti was a socialist (he was head of the Italian Socialist Party) and therefore shared none of the views of the post-March on Rome Mussolini.
Mussolini's Dictatorship Mussolini's road to a dictatorship took much longer than Hitler's in 1933. Hitler was appointed chancellor on January 30th 1933. By April 1st 1933, his power was such that, after the Enabling Act, Hitler could only be seen as the dictator of Nazi Germany regardless of Hindenburg's presidency.
Italy and Germany 1936 to 1940 After the rebuff Italy experienced after her invasion of Abyssinia, the only choice of allies left for Mussolini was Germany and Franco's Spain. In July 1936, a civil war broke out in Spain between the Republicans and the Nationalists lead by the army General Franco. The Republicans got support from various groups throughout Europe.
The Heinkel He 111 was one of the primary bombers used by the Germans during the Blitz. The Heinkel 111 first flew in 1936 as an airliner for Lufthansa. However, while the civilian variety was capable of carrying ten passengers throughout Western Europe, a military version was also being developed. By 1937, the military version of the Heinkel 111 could carry 1700 kg of bombs, though later versions could carry over 2000 kg of bombs.
The Tiger tank was one of the most feared weapons of World War Two. The Tiger tank was very heavily armoured and carried powerful weapons on board. In the war in North Africa in an early encounter with the Allies in Tunisia, eight rounds fired from a 75mm artillery gun simply bounced off of the side of the tank - from a distance of just 50 metres.
Hungarian Secret Police The AVO ( A llam v edelmi O sztaly) was Hungary's State Security Agency a much hated and much feared secret police. The work of the AVO was one of the main causes of the 1956 Hungarian Uprising. During this uprising, men known to be in the AVO were publicly lynched in Budapest in front of large crowds and money stuffed into their mouths.
The International Brigade The International Brigade is an umbrella term given to numerous groups that arrived in Spain to help the Republican cause - the overthrow of the Nationalist attempt to take over the country. Members of the International Brigade came from numerous countries - Great Britain, France, the USSR, and the former Yugoslavia for instance.
The Tirpitz was a sister-ship to the Bismarck and was seen as one of the most modern battleships in World War Two. Ironically, the Tirpitz had an inglorious career as she never saw any action against either a convoy or a naval battle group. The Tirpitz spent her war time effort moving from one Norwegian fjord to another and was to end her days in one such fjord in the north of the country.
The Condor Legion The Condor Legion was sent to Spain by Adolf Hitler to support General Franco's Nationalist movement. The Condor Legion is most famed for its attack on Guernica and few doubt that Hitler's primary purpose in sending the Condor Legion to Spain was to assess how well his new aircraft performed in battle and whether they had got their tactics correct.