In November 2003, elections were held for Northern Ireland's devolved assembly at Stormont. The Northern Ireland Assembly had been suspended by Northern Ireland Minister Paul Murphy following allegations that Sinn Fein had bugged offices at Stormont. The November elections used proportional representation (pr).
Category Course of History
Julius Martov Julius Martov played a lead role in the years leading up to the Russian Revolution. Martov was born in 1873. Like many of the early revolutionaries, Martov came from a middle class family. He became of close colleague of Lenin and, despite his more privileged background (when compared to the bulk of Russia's population) he was appalled at the lifestyle of the poor in Russia.
The First Duma The First Duma met for the first time on May 10th, 1906 in the Tauris Palace. The First Duma was dominated by the Kadets who wanted Russia to have a parliament based very much on the British model with legislative powers. Those who held the reins of power wanted it to be no more than a discussion chamber - one in which the government could easily identify its critics as speeches in the Duma were made in public.
Adolf Eichmann is labeled as the man who masterminded the actual organisation of the Holocaust. Adolf Eichmann was a SS officer who planned with meticulous detail the sending of Jews and other groups to death camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka and Sobibor. Such work was to earn Eichmann the title 'Chief Executioner of the Third Reich'.
The Russian Civil War The Russian Civil War was to tear Russia apart for three years - between 1918 and 1921. The civil war occurred because after November 1917, many groups had formed that opposed Lenin's Bolsheviks. These groups included monarchists, militarists, and, for a short time, foreign nations.
Social Reforms of 1917 The Bolshevik government passed a plethora of legislation in the immediate aftermath of the October/November Revolution. The Bolsheviks had no experience of government and there was little guarantee that the Bolsheviks would have maintained power for any length of time. Kerensky was attempting to bring down the Bolshevik government while the Military Cadets attempted an uprising on October 29 th and this was further compounded for Lenin and Trotsky when the civil service went on strike in protest at the revolution.
Russia and World War One World War One was to have a devastating impact on Russia. When World War One started in August 1914, Russia responded by patriotically rallying around Nicholas II. Military disasters at the Masurian Lakes and Tannenburg greatly weakened the Russian Army in the initial phases of the war.
The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest ghetto in Nazi-occupied Europe. The Warsaw Ghetto was established on the orders of Hans Frank who was the most senior Nazi in Poland after the success of the invasion that started on September 1 st 1939. On October 16 th 1940 Frank ordered that all the Jews in Warsaw and the surrounding areas had to live in specified areas within the city boundaries.
Gregory Rasputin Rasputin was born in 1872 and died in 1916 and he was to be one of the central figures in Russia's modern history up to the fall of the royal family in 1917. Rasputin achieved huge power in a very short space of time - but that power lead to Rasputin having many enemies within Russia.
Surviving Nazi leaders were put on trial at Nuremberg in 1946. In the trials that followed Nazi leaders had the opportunity to express their beliefs and what they said has been wel documented. “So much toilet paper.” - Goering's reference to pre-war diplomatic treaties. “A victor's justice” - Goering's view of the proceedings “So grotesque and preposterous are the principle characters in this galaxy of clowns and crooks that none but a thrice double ass could have taken them for rulers.
Changi was one of the more notorious Japanese prisoner of war camps. Changi was used to imprison Malayan civilians and Allied soldiers. The treatment of POW's at Changi was harsh but fitted in with the belief held by the Japanese Imperial Army that those who had surrendered to it were guilty of dishonouring their country and family and, as such, deserved to be treated in no other way.
The Bialystok Ghetto in Poland was created after the surrender of Poland in October 1939. Jews in Bialystok and the surrounding areas were forced to live in the ghetto. By the time the Red Army freed Bialystok in 1945, the ghetto had been destroyed and the vast majority of those who had been forced to live there had been sent to death camps.
Public perception may well be that juvenile crime is on the rise and that the UK is overrun with feral gangs of out-of-control juveniles who are responsible for a great deal of anti-social crime. However, all the Home Office statistics indicate that since 1998 there has been an overall drop in juvenile crime.
The Macpherson Report recommended a series of measures that would subject the police to greater public control, enshrine rights for victims of crime and extend the number of offences classified as racist. Freedom of information and race relations legislation will also apply to the police. The 70 recommendations of the Macpherson Report included: Government inspectors will have “full and unfettered powers” to inspect police services.
The U.K drugs trade is worth £8 billion a year. Drugs are imported to the U.K from 300 major importers where it then goes to 3,000 gangs. Then 7,000 dealers sell it on the streets. The dealers on average earn £100,000 a year. This contributes to the total of £8 billion which the U.K spends on drugs each year, equivalent to more than 40 per cent of Britain's alcohol sales and one third of its tobacco sales.
British prisoners of war were held in all theatres of war from 1940 to 1945. The British POW's held in German camps run by the military had a tolerable time as Nazi Germany was a signatory to the Geneva Convention and the Red Cross had reasonable access to German camps. Those held in Japanese POW camps in the Far East faced huge problems not experienced by their comrades in Germany and were kept in appalling conditions - and many died in these camps.
Max Wünsche was a senior figure in the Waffen SS during World War Two fighting in the Netherlands (1940), France (1940), the USSR (1941-43) and at D-Day (1944). Considered to be a hard line Nazi, Wünsche was held as a POW at Camp 165 in Scotland after its capture in 1944. Wünsche was born on April 20 th 1915.
The Human Rights Act of 1998 gives legal effect in the UK to the fundamental rights and freedoms contained in the European Convention on Human Rights. These rights not only impact matters of life and death, they also affect the rights you have in your everyday life: what you can say and do, your beliefs, your right to a fair trial and other similar basic entitlements.
David Stirling founded the Special Air Service in 1941. The work done by the Special Air Service (SAS) during World War Two was to revolutionise the way wars could be fought and many other special forces were to copy their tactics. David Stirling had got a taste for unconventional warfare when he volunteered for 8 Commando, which was more commonly known as 'Layforce' after its commander, Captain Robert Laycock.
Official statistics on crimes are collected by the police, the courts and by the British Crime Survey (BCS). The BCS is responsible for the public presentation of recorded crime in the UK. However, the major problem the BCS has is the fact that they can only collate and present recorded crime figures and many believe that the figures they publically present are way short of actual crime statistics.
Phenomenology is a philosophical view that emphasizes the subjective and introspective nature of our experience. A phenomenological approach involves conflict perspective, Interpretivism and micro-sociology that sees deviancy as being relative and situational with no universal standard by which everyone can be measured.