The word hygiene comes from Hygeia, the Greek goddess of health, who was the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine. Since the arrival of the Industrial Revolution (c.1750-1850) and the discovery of the germ theory of disease in the second half of the nineteenth century, hygiene and sanitation have been at the forefront of the struggle against illness and disease.
Category History Timelines
In 1956 the Suez Canal was nationalised by Gamal Abdel Nasser. The Suez Canal Crisis of 1956 effectively ended the political career of Sir Anthony Eden but it served to greatly advance the already very high standing Nasser had in the Arab world. However, what were the causes of the 1956 Suez Canal Crisis?
The Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet Union's response to West Germany joining NATO and came into being in May 1955. The Warsaw Pact, named after the meeting to create it was held in Warsaw, was based throughout the Soviet Bloc and troops in it were used in the ending of the 1968 Czech Revolt.
The V2 was to bring terror to London towards the end of World War Two. The V2 was the first of the true rockets - part of Hitler's revenge (Vergeltungswaffen) weapons - the secret weapons he had promised his generals would win the war. Whereas the V1 could be seen and attacked, the V2 was effectively invisible after it had been fired.
Fulgencio Batista was the Cuban right-wing dictator overthrown by communists led by Fidel Castro. Despite support for Batista from America during his rule, nothing was done by the superpower to stop his fall from power. Batista was born on January 16 th 1901 in Oriente province in Cuba. His parents worked on a sugar plantation.
Date Country Problem United Nations response Outcome 1946 Iran Iran complained to UN that USSR troops stationed there since the war, were interfering with internal Iranian matters. Due to complexities of Cold War, UN did nothing. Iranians and USSR sorted the issue out for themselves. May 1946, USSR withdrew its troops from Iran.
Both the USSR and USA declared an end to the Cold War after the 1989 Malta Summit. The then Soviet leader, Mikail Gorbachev, later stated that: “The Malta Summit in 1989 was so important, that if it had not taken place, the world out there would be unrecognisable to the one we live in today.” US President George Bush and Mikail Gorbachev met over two days on the Soviet cruise ship 'Maxim Gorky' at a time when communist governments in Eastern Europe were collapsing.
Anthony Blunt was born in Bournemouth, Hampshire, in 1907. Anthony Blunt found post-war fame as the Royal Family's advisor on art. However, Blunt held a secret, as he was the fourth man in a quartet (known as the 'Cambridge Four') who betrayed their country. Anthony Blunt was publicly exposed as a Soviet spy when Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher named him as the 'Fourth Man' at the start of her first term in office in 1979.
The McMahon-Hussein Agreement of October 1915 was accepted by Palestinians as a promise by the British that after World War One, land previously held by the Turks would be returned to the Arab nationals who lived in that land. The McMahon-Hussein Agreement was to greatly complicate Middle East history and seemed to directly clash with the Balfour Declaration of 1917.
The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 1916, was a secret agreement that was concluded by two British and French diplomats, Sir Mark Sykes and Georges Picot. The Sykes-Picot Agreement involved itself with the partition of the Ottoman Empire once World War One had ended. The Sykes-Picot Agreement effectively handed over control of Syria, Lebanon and Turkish Cilicia to the French and Palestine, Jordan and areas around the Persian Gulf and Baghdad to the British.
Anwar al-Sadat, creator of the 'Sadat Initiative', led Egypt after the death of Nasser. Sadat led Egypt from September 1970 to his assassination in 1981. He played a significant part in recent Middle East history by ordering Egypt to attack Israel in October 1973 in the Yom Kippur War and then seeking a resolution to the problems of the Middle East by peaceful and diplomatic means.
Content The Secretary-Generals of the United Nations are seen as the driving force behind the organisation. The Secretary-Generals have invariably come from nations that are not seen as being dominant in the world. Trygve Lie (1896 - 1968) Trygve Lie was the United Nations first Secretary-General. He was born in Oslo, Norway, and started his professional career as a lawyer.
Moshe Landau was the presiding judge at the trial of Adolf Eichmann in 1961. Landau was keen to ensure that the world was satisfied that Eichmann received a fair trial and was not effectively found guilty before the trial had even started. Moshe Landau was born on April 29 th 1912 in Danzig, Germany - now Gdansk in Poland.
The Boxer Rebellion targeted both the Manchu dynasty in China and the influence of European powers within China. Though the Boxer Rebellion failed but it did enough to stir up national pride within China itself. In 1895, China had been defeated by Japan. This was a humiliation for the Chinese as Japan had always been considered as a lesser nation to China.
In May 1948, Israel became an independent state after Israel was recognised by the United Nations as a country in its own right within the Middle East. If relations in pre-war Palestine had been fraught with difficulties, these difficulties paled into insignificance after Israel became a state in its own right.
Operation Paperclip was the name given to the secret movement of senior German scientists to America at the end of World War Two in Europe. Operation Paperclip was primarily involved with the movement of scientists involved in rocket technology for Nazi Germany. By the end of World War Two in Europe it had become increasingly plain to both Britain and America that the USSR would not continue with her wartime alliances and that what was to be known as the Cold War was about to start.
In October 1949, Mao had declared the People's Republic of China at the Gate of Heavenly Peace in Beijing. He now faced very large problems. China had been fighting a civil war since the 1920's and a full-scale war with the Japanese since 1937 to 1945. After nearly 20 years of fighting, China now many problems.
Polls done at the time in 1982 indicated that few people in Britain actually knew where the Falkland Islands were before the war broke out. The sheer distance between London and Port Stanley, the Falkland Island's capital, can probably account for the Falkland Islands anonymity. Even Defence Secretary John Nott later recounted that he had to use the globe in his office at the Defence Ministry to remind him where the Falkland Islands were and was very concerned at the sheer distance involved with regards to a military campaign to reclaim them.
The Five Year Plan was an attempt by China to boost her industry and set her on the path to become a world class power. When Mao came to power in 1949, China was many years behind the industrial nations of the world. Mao wanted this to change. On an international level, Mao's China had the same status as Stalin's Russia.
The Long March saved Mao Zedong and the Communist Party from the attacks by the Guomingdang. The Long March came about when the Chinese Communists had to flee a concerted Guomingdang attacked that had been ordered by Chiang Kai-shek. In the autumn of 1933, the Guomindang leader Chiang Kai-shek launched a huge attack against the Communists who were then based in the Jiangxi and Fujian provinces in south-east China.
Al Haig, American Secretary of State, led the so-called 'peace shuttle' negotiations that occurred before the Falklands War broke out in May 1982. Haig travelled thousands of miles in an effort to get peace - from London to Buenos Aires - but all in vain. The effort put into these negotiations by Al Haig was beyond criticism.