The United Nations' role in the Congo crisis between 1960 and 1964 saw its largest deployment of men and some of its most controversial actions. Until 1960, the Congo had been a colony of Belgian but in 1960, Belgian announced that it was giving the Congo its independence. Belgian gave the Congo just five months to get itself ready for independence despite the fact that it was clearly unprepared for such a task.
Category Peoples, Nations, Events
Vladimir Lenin Lenin's real name was Vladimir Illych Ulyanov. He changed it to Lenin while on the run from the secret police to avoid arrest. Lenin's importance to Russia's history cannot be overstated; in November 1917, Lenin established the first communist government when he overthrew the Provisional Government.
When Bergen-Belsen was handed over to British troops in April 1945, little could have prepared them for what they saw at the concentration camp. Belsen had originally been built as a prison for those arrested in Nazi Germany itself. However, as the war in Europe drew to a close in 1945, prisoners from Eastern Europe had been moved to the camp.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk brought about the end of the war between Russia and Germany in 1918. The German were reminded of the harshness of Brest-Litovsk when they complained about the severity of the Treaty of Versailles signed in June 1919. Lenin had ordered that the Bolshevik representatives should get a quick treaty from the Germans to bring about an end to the war so that the Bolsheviks could concentrate on the work they needed to do in Russia itself.
The 1905 Russian Revolution The 1905 Russian Revolution was sparked off by a peaceful protest held on January 22nd. This protest may well have been the turning point in the relationship the tsar, Nicholas II, enjoyed with his people. Led by a Russian Orthodox priest, Father Gapon, 150,000 people took to the cold and snow covered streets of St Petersburg to protest about their lifestyle.
The Sonderkommando were Jews who were forced to work in the death camps found at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Sobibor, Treblinka, Majdanek and Belzec. The Sonderkommando were made to do tasks that can only repulse - yet they had no choice. By simply being in the Sonderkommado, they were doomed to death. The jobs of the Sonderkommado were simple - to clear out the gas chambers once those inside had been murdered.
Gregory Zinoviev Gregory Zinoviev was a leading member of the Bolshevik Party. Zinoviev was a loyal follower of Vladimir Lenin but after Lenin's death and the rise of Joseph Stalin to power, his days were numbered by a man who could not tolerate anyone appearing to be the merest of rivals to him and Zinoviev was seen by Stalin as a rival.
Herbert Lange was the first commandant of Sobibor death camp. Lange, like Christian Wirth, had been involved in the euthanasia programmes introduced by the Nazis. Like Wirth, he escaped a post-war trial for his crimes as he was killed in battle. Herbert Lange was born in September 1909 in Pomerania. He studied law at university but failed to graduate.
Russian Revolution - November 1917 Following the March Revolution, in November 1917 Russia got the world's first communist government. Lead by Lenin, communists took over the vital city of St Petrograd and removed the Provisional Government from power. Lenin had already proved himself to the workers of the city with his slogans “Peace, bread and land” and “All power to the soviets”.
Chaim Rumkowski led the Lodz Ghetto as head of the ghetto's Jewish Council. Rumkowski remains a controversial figure in the history of the Holocaust. His detractors say that he used his position to advance his own power at the expense of others and that he betrayed his fellow Jews. The supporters of Rumkowski argue that he had no choice other than to work with the Nazis who controlled Lodz as they decided what went into the ghetto in terms of food and others supplies.
According to a self-report study, women were less likely than men to have offended and commited a crime in the last year (11% compared with 26%). Women 'grow out of crime' - they are most likely to desist from offending in their late teens. The peak age of reported offending for girls was 14. (The peak age of recorded offending for girls was 15, compared to 19 for men).
Is there a gender bias in the criminal justice system? Are women and men treated differently by the police and the courts? There are two thoughts on this issue: The chivalry thesis - chivalry means treating others, especially women with courtesy, sympathy and respect. The chivalry theory states that women are treated more leniently than men by the criminal justice system.
The so-called Doctors' Trial started on December 9 th 1946. Nine of the twenty three doctors on trial had been members of the SS or the Waffen- SS. The Doctors' Trial ended on August 20 th 1947. The doctors were tried before the American Military Tribunal Number 1 in Nuremberg and the indictment specified four charges: 1.
Why do people commit crimes and what is a 'typical criminal'? There is little doubt that some commit a crime such as shoplifting out of desperation, especially when food is concerned. Yet the same crime also attracts the attention of organised gangs who steal to order and cost stores hundreds of millions each year.
The Red Cross played a very important role in World War Two with the help they gave to prisoners of war. The Red Cross worked within the confines that war puts on it - that the belligerent powers will allow the Red Cross to do its work. If warring nations do not allow this to happen, then the Red Cross can do little.
Japanese prisoners of war, though a rarity for part of the Pacific War, were taken as the war neared its end and immediately after the war had finished. Many thousands of prisoners of war were taken after Japan surrendered in September 1945 after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japanese POW's were made to repair damage done by their armies wherever they were camped.
Colditz achieved fame after World War Two as the prisoner of war camp that no-one could escape from. Colditz was an isolated castle built on top of a cliff and overlooking the River Mude in central Germany. To all intents it was seemingly impossible to escape from - so the Germans believed. However, this did not mean that men did not try to do so and by putting together the best escapees from POW camps, the Germans effectively made a problem for themselves.
While crime is committed by individuals and groups of people, nation states also engage in criminal activity. Clearly a nation as an entity cannot commit a crime but a government within that nation can, frequently without the knowledge and support of the people of that nation. While such governments are in power and engaging in criminal offences, there are only two ways to remove them and bring them to justice.
David Stirling was the founder of the Special Air Service (SAS) one of the most famous special forces of World War Two. David Stirling was born in Scotland on November 15th, 1915 and he died on November 4th 1990. Both Stirling and the SAS have gone into folklore with regards to what they achieved between 1941 and 1945.
Instead of looking at why some social groups commit more crime, the labelling theory asks why some people committing some actions come to be defined as deviant, while others do not. Labelling theory is also interested in the effects of labelling on individuals. Labelling theorists note that most people commit crimes at some time in their lives but not everyone becomes defined as a deviant or a criminal.
The Small Scale Raiding Force (SSRF) was created in 1942 by the Chief of Combined Operations, Lord Louis Mountbatten. He, unlike some senior military commanders, believed in the use of specialist soldiers trained in sabotage. The SSRF was to be an amphibious force, which numbered no more than fifty men and it was placed directly under Mountbatten's command.