The 'Red Orchestra' was an umbrella term adopted by the Nazi secret police when describing those who were plotting against the Third Reich. The term 'Red Orchestra' was used because each person in the plot was given a musical term - so that some were known as pianists, leaders were known as conductors.
Category Peoples, Nations, Events
How does the Criminal Justice System work? The Criminal Justice System is split into 3 national sections: The Ministry of Justice, which oversees the magistrates' courts, the Crown Court, the Appeals Courts, the Legal Services Commission and the National Offender Management Service (including prisons and probation); the Home Office, which oversees the police and the Attorney General's Office, which oversees the Crown Prosecution Service, the Serious Fraud Office and the Revenue and Customs Prosecutions Office.
As a structural theory, Functionalism sees social structure or the organisation of society as more important than the individual. Functionalism is a top down theory. Individuals are born into society and become the product of all the social influences around them as they are socialised by various institutions such as the family, education, media and religion.
The social action theory was founded by Max Weber. There are two main types of sociological theories; the first is the structural or macro theory while the other is social action, interpretive or micro perspectives. At the two ends of the argument as to which is a better theory are Durkheim, the founding father of functionalism, and Weber, the mastermind behind social action theory.
The US Marines fought mainly in the Pacific zone of World War Two. The US Marines found fame at battles such as Guadalcanal, Okinawa, Iwo Jima etc. A Marine, nicknamed a 'Leatherhead', carried a variety of personal weaponry, which was modernised as the war progressed. By the time Guadalcanal had been fought for, those Marines landings on the Pacific beaches were equipped with the following weapons: M-1941 Johnson rifle - this was a semi-automatic infantry rifle that was similar to the Garand but with a different magazine design.
Right realism advocates 'small' government and considers the phenomenon of crime from the perspective of political conservatism. Right realism assumes it takes a more realistic view of the causes of crime and deviance. Right realists believe crime and deviance are a real social problem that requires practical solutions.
Alexander Kolchak Alexander Kolchak was one of the White leaders during the civil war that followed the November 1917 Revolution. Kolchak was an admiral in Russia's navy and had been a follower of Alexander Kerensky and his Provisional Government that governed before the Bolshevik takeover. Kolchak was born in 1874 in the city of St.
The basic assumption shared by all feminists is that women suffer certain injustices on account of their sex. Feminists stress the importance of gender divisions in society and it portrays these divisions as working to the overall advantage of men. Although feminists are united with their common desire for sexual justice and their concern for women's welfare, there is a range spectrum of feminist views.
Permanent Revolution The theory of Permanent Revolution was written by Trotsky in jail. Permanent Revolution came about when Leon Trotsky questioned the beliefs of Karl Marx, believing that he had viewed the west of Europe as being the only area capable of sustaining a revolution at the expense of Russia.
Russia Political Terms Bolshevik : a member of the Bolshevik Party lead by Lenin. It later became the Communist Party. It believed that a small group of intellectuals should lead the fight for the working class as they had the education to know what to do and the poor did not. Cheka : the name given to Lenin's secret police.
Life in USSR under Stalin Stalin's control over Russia meant that freedom was the one thing that people lost. The people of Russia had to read what the state allowed, see what the state allowed and listen to what the state allowed. The state's control of the media was total. Those who attempted to listen, read etc.
The P51 Mustang was one of the most effective planes of World War Two. The P51 Mustang gave the bombers of US 8th Air Force the fighter cover it so desperately needed over occupied Europe and, therefore, greatly assisted the bombing campaign against Nazi Germany in World War Two. The P51 was originally ordered in April 1940 by the British Air Purchasing Commission.
The Economy in Fascist Italy The economy of Fascist Italy was weak. The economy of Italy had made little recovery after World War One and Mussolini knew that this was a major area to address if Italy was to become a major European power. Mussolini knew that Italy after 1918 was a poor nation compared to France and Britain.
Primo de Rivera Primo de Rivera was a Spanish general and dictator. De Rivera was born in 1870 at Jerez de la Frontera, Cadiz. His father was a Governor-General of the Philippines - a Spanish possession at the time. Primo de Rivera graduated from Toledo General Military Academy and saw service in the Spanish army and fought in Morocco, Cuba and the Philippines and by 1910 had achieved the rank of major-general.
The George Cross was first introduced on September 24 th 1940 by George VI. The George Cross is the civilian equivalent of the Victoria Cross. Only military personnel can win the Victoria Cross. However, they can also be awarded the George Cross for courageous acts carried out away from the enemy, such as defusing an unexploded bomb.
The Duplex Drive (DD) tank was designed to be used at the D-Day landings. The Duplex Drive tank was meant to give the Allies mechanised armour on the beaches of Normandy - a weapon that would surprise the Germans defending the beaches there, who would have expected only troops in a beach landing as opposed to tanks.
The Causes of the Spanish Civil War What were the causes of the Spanish Civil War? Between 1936 and 1939 over 500,000 people were killed in the Spanish Civil War so this cannot be considered a 'little' war that was overshadowed by the problems that were occurring in Europe during these years. In 1920, Spain was a constitutional monarchy.
The Korean War The Korean War lasted from 1950-1953. What happened in Korea pushed the boundaries of the Cold War towards 'Warm War'. Though America and Russia did not officially clash, client states did in that Communist China fought and was armed and encouraged by Russia. The peninsula was divided after World War Two into a Russian-backed north (The People's Democratic Republic) and the American-backed south (the Republic of Korea).
The T34 tank was developed by the Russians both before and during World War Two. The T34 revolutionised the way tanks were designed and made. Close up in battle, the T34 proved to be more than a match for the powerful Tiger tank. The T34 combined developments from both America and, ironically, Germany.
The Lexington, with its sister ship the Saratoga, was originally built to be a battle-cruiser. However, after the Washington Naval Conference, they were both converted into aircraft carriers. When this conversion was over both the Lexington and Saratoga were the largest aircraft carriers in the world and they remained so until the outbreak of World War Two.
The V1 was one of Hitler's secret weapons that he had told his generals that Nazi Germany possessed which would turn the way World War Two was going in 1944. The V1 was first launched against Britain in June 1944, just one week after D-Day. The V1 is difficult to classify as a weapon as it was not a true rocket in that it did not leave the atmosphere, but it was also clearly not a plane.